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Energy Management-7 Oct (Skykine)

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Energy Management-7 Oct (Skykine)

  1. 1. A Talk By Dalip Singh, President, AEE Delhi On 7 Oct 2016 at Skyline Institute, Greater Noida
  2. 2.  Like any management process, the fundamental activities of planning, organizing, executing, monitoring and controlling are involved in the process of energy management  It is a structured process for optimize energy performance  Integrated with enterprise/organization management so that all management processes from procurement to operations to maintenance have optimal energy performance efficiency  How the energy using capital is selected, procured, deployed and operated & maintained is revealed through an energy audit  Defining, measuring and reporting energy performance metrics or indicators (EnPI) is essence of EM. EnPI can be in terms of the energy consumed per unit of production/utilization or it can be in terms of the production/utilization per unit energy.
  3. 3. Energy Efficiency (EE) ◦ Energy efficiency signifies the conversion efficiency of an appliance or equipment or system to convert energy from one form to another. High efficiency means less energy for same function. ◦ Motors, transformers, lamps, pumps, fans etc. have their energy efficiencies Energy Conservation (EC)  Energy conservation signifies actions that result in the using less energy for same function.  Scheduling switching ON/OFF of loads or dimming lights are some example of EC  Using daylight during the day instead of switching electric light is another example of EC.
  4. 4.  Reduces energy consumption and cost  Reduces environmental impact (CO2) of energy  Improves comfort and safety at less cost  Makes out economy stronger  Increases our national energy security  Addresses power deficit scenario
  5. 5.  EE is not visible to end users and procurers  EE metrics are neither known nor measured  Limited awareness of the value added by EE  Energy bill is treated as routine & inescapable  Scarce investment capital  Unfavourable perception of risk  Limited staff and know-how on EE measures  Fragmented and under-developed markets
  6. 6. International standard ISO 50001-2011 defines an EnMS as a set of interrelated/interacting elements to establish energy policy, energy objectives and procedures to achieve those objectives Note:  Energy Policy  Energy Review  Energy Objectives  Procedure to achieve the objectives  Energy Performance Metrics are defined and monitored to demonstrate efficiency improvement
  7. 7. Following data are generally required  Area and details of Facility/Plant Building  Utility Billing Data  Utility Interval Data  Utility Tariff & Rules  Production Figures  Process Flow Chart  Operating Schedules  Monitoring and control systems  Rated Power(KW/HP) of major equipment  Measured Data with portable instruments for individual systems/equipment/process  Financial Data
  8. 8. THE Essential Requirement of Continual Improvement in EnMS and Energy performance is demonstrated by ensuring to incorporate:-  Proper Measurement and monitoring Systems  Proper Documentation Management System
  9. 9.  See next slides
  10. 10.  First step in energy management  Evaluating energy performance at  Sources: utility, DG/NG set, solar/RE  Streams: Water, Air, Gases, Electricity, Steam  Systems: Lighting, HVAC, Pumping, Motors etc.  End Uses: Lights, Appliances, Equipment etc.  Wastages: Process wastages, heat dissipation etc.  Spotting opportunities for improvement  Detailed engineering for implementation of efficiency/performance improvement measures
  11. 11.  Walk Through Visits  Data acquisition from records/documents  Data acquisition from installed instruments  Data acquisition by measurements with portable instruments/meters  Analysis of data acquired to calculate EnPIs Note: Variety of instruments are used for assessment of performance of various forms of energy & energy-systems
  12. 12.  European Standard EN16247 with following editions:-  EN16247-1: 2012 - Energy audits. General requirements  EN16247-2: 2014 - Energy audits. Buildings  EN16247-3: 2014 - Energy audits. Processes  EN16247-4: 2014 - Energy audits. Transport  EN16247-5: 2015 - Energy audits. Competence of auditors  International Standard ISO 50002 It covers all aspects as listed in EN 16247
  13. 13.   ISO 50003:2014 Energy management systems -Requirements for bodies providing audit and certification of energy management systems  It specifies requirements for competence, consistency and impartiality in the auditing of energy systems and EnMS certification as well as the duration of audits and multi-site sampling.   ISO 50004:2014 Energy management systems- Guidance for implementation, maintenance and improvement of an energy management system (EnMS)  It provides practical guidance and examples for establishing, implementing, maintaining and improving an EnMS in accordance with the systematic approach of ISO 50001.   ISO 50006:2014 Energy management systems -- Measuring energy performance using energy baselines (EnB) and energy performance indicators (EnPI) -- General principles and guidance  It provides guidance to organizations on how to establish, use and maintain the energy performance indicators (EnPIs) and energy baselines (EnBs) as part of the process of measuring energy performance.
  14. 14.  American Society for Testing & Materials (ASTM) is international professional body on standards  ASTM Standard E2797 standardises collection and reporting of energy consumption info for buildings  It facilitates benchmarking of energy consumption  The data includes both energy consumption & cost  The data provides building’s energy efficiency score that helps buyers of buildings in price assessment
  15. 15.  Evaluate performance of whole facility and different processes/systems/sectors/eqpt  Determine performance metric (EnPI) and compare with benchmark values  Keep abreast with latest technologies in the functional domains and note the latest trends  List out the improvement measures  Carry out economic analysis  ISO 50001 and Lean Production Techniques like Six Sigma, Kaizen, TQM etc. provide systematic procedure for energy performance evaluation and setting objectives for performance improvement
  16. 16.  You cannot manage what you don’t measure  Energy info in monthly bills is about past  Real time energy actionable energy info for the whole facility and sub systems is must.  The energy info contained in the energy meter is limited and inconvenient to access  Customised web based energy info systems for the whole facility and sub systems are essential for effective energy management and savings
  17. 17.  It is a high grade energy i.e. amenable to control  It serves mainly following three uses:- 1. Heating 2. Lighting 3. Motion  Other applications like air conditioning/cooling etc. are derived from above three apps only
  18. 18.  Electric power generation delicensed  License for transmission, distribution and trading  Central Electricity Authority  Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC)  State Electricity Regulatory Commissions (SERCs)  Appellate Tribunal for Electricity (APTEL)  Distribution Companies (DISCOs) to follow tariff approved by SERCs in billing the consumers  Consumer Grievance Forum
  19. 19.  Section 61(c) of EA 2003 requires the regulators to be guided by the factors like efficiency and economical use of resources in determination of tariff.  Section 62 (3) empowers regulators to differentiate tariffs based on the consumer's load factor, power factor, total consumption or time of supply.  Section 8.4.1 of Tariff Policy dated 6Jan 2006 stresses on adoption of dual tariff an time differentiated rates of energy to enable flattening of peak demands and implementing energy conservation measures.
  20. 20.  Fixed Charges for demand  Variable Charges for energy consumed  Incentives for better reactive power management
  21. 21.  Contacted Demand  Recorded Demand  Billable demand Note: Various SERCs have defined billable demand in different ways. Some SECRs consider contracted demand as the billable while some SERCs lay down a limit of 70-90% of contracted demand as the billable demand, if actual demand is below this level.
  22. 22.  Metering of energy drawn  Per KWh  Per KVAh  TOD/TOU charges
  23. 23.  Reactive Power is an essential evil in AC power supply systems  High PF is desirable for DISCOM & consumers  High PF is achieved by reactive power mgmt  Rebate for high PF in tariff is direct incentive  Energy billing in KVAh is indirect incentive
  24. 24.  Interval data recording at intervals of 15 or 30 min  The demand recorded in the interval having sharpest peak in the month considered to indicate monthly demand  Uniform demand implies higher load factor while fluctuating demand with sharp peaks results in low load factor (LF)
  25. 25.  LT Consumer Categories: LMV-1 to LMV-10  LMV-1: Domestic Consumers  LMV-2: Non Domestic Consumers  LMV-3: Public Lamps (Street Lights)  LMV-4: Public & Pvt Institutions  LMV-5: Pvt Tubewells/Pumps for Irrigation  LMV-6: Small & Medium Power for industry  LMV-7: Public Water Works  LMV-8: State Tubewells and canal Pumps  LMV-9: Temporary Supply  LMV-10: Departmental Employees and Pensioners
  26. 26.  HT Consumer Categories: HV-1 to HV-4  HV-1: Non industrial bulk loads  HV-2: Industrial bulk loads (large/heavy power)  HV-3: Railway Traction  HV-4: Lift Irrigation Note: HV-1 includes all commercial consumers such as Shopping plaza, hospitals, hotels, institutions though separate tariff are given for pvt and public institutions
  27. 27.  Demand charges@Rs270 before Sep 2015 and @Rs360/KVA of billable demand/month wef Sep 2016  Energy charges@R6.95 before Sep 206 and Rs7.60/KVAh upto 2500 KVAh/month and @Rs7.95/KVAh above 2500KVAh/month from Sep 2016  Excess demand charges@200% of normal demand charges for the excess KVA besides the normal charge for billable demand i.e. actual recorded demand  Duties like electricity duty, regulatory charges, FPPCA etc.  Note: Billable demand is 75% of contracted demand or actual recorded demand whichever is higher.
  28. 28. Description of Parameter Value Contracted Demand (KVA) 410 Recorded demand (KVA) 667.6KVA Billable demand (KVA) 667.6 Excess demand for penal charge 257.6 Energy consumption in KVAh 82820 Tariff Rate of normal demand charge per KVA 270 Normal demand charge for 667.6KVA as per tariff 180225 Rate of excess demand charge (200% of normal) 540 Penal demand charge for 257.6KVA 139104 Total demand charge as per tariff rates 319329 Total demand charge as per bill 370864 Discrepancy/Error in demand charge (+Rs) 51535 Rate of energy charge per KVAh 6.95 Total energy charge for 82820 KVAh as per tariff 575599 Total energy charge for 82820 KVAh as per bill 615235 Discrepancy/Error in energy charge (+Rs) 39636 Total Billing discrepancy/error (+Rs) 91171
  29. 29. Important Inferences  Bill Amount=Rs9.85Lakh  Energy=82820KVAh  Effective Rate=Rs11.88 (Very high)  Reason=Penal demand charges+Errors  Determine Energy Use Index (EUI)=KWh.SqM  Compare with benchmark values
  30. 30.  Rectification of billing errors  Demand Management to avoid penal charge  PFC from 0.94 to 0.99 to reduce energy charges  System and End Use Optimization of energy to reduce energy consumption and cost  Behind the Meter (BTM) Project for solar plant with storage batteries to bring down demand (KVA) and to reduce energy charges in NPCL Bill  Provision of web based energy info system (EIS) to monitor energy performance at all times
  31. 31. For Student Community  Employability and its Erosion For Global Community  Depleting natural resources  Climate change due to GHG emissions  Increasing pollution in air and water  Increasing contamination in grains, vegetables & fruits Opportunities  Employable skills and Tech trends  Energy management including use of RE  New Tech and Apps for energy management  New treatment technologies for pollution  Organic food practices  Electric vehicles  Smart cities and smart grid  Solar cities
  32. 32.  Contemporary subject addressing global issues relating to sustainability-Paris climate Pact  Self-paying  Growing field  Exciting developments  Notes  It is still less known  Employability is as poor as other Engg disciplines
  33. 33. Dalip Singh, CEO India EnMS Consulting Pvt Ltd 601, Tradex Tower-2, ACB, Alpha-I Greater Noida-201306(UP) India www.indiaenergy-manage.com indiaenmsconsulting@gmail.com dschahar@gmail.com 01204291324 09350846853

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