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Coordination in plants

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The topic "Coordination in Plants" contains Nastic and Tropic movements in plants and phytohormones for class X CBSE and other board students.

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Coordination in plants

  1. 1.  All living organisms respond to environmental stimuli.  Animals have nervous system and endocrine system for control and coordination.  Plants also respond to stimuli by secreting chemicals.  Plants exhibit some movements.
  2. 2. Movements of Plants Directional or Tropic movements Non-directional or Nastic movement Occur in the direction of the stimulus Non growth movement, independent of stimulus
  3. 3.  The movements do not depend on the direction from the stimulus acts.  Example - when someone touches the leaves of mimosa, the leaves begin to fold up and droop.
  4. 4. Leaves before touching Leaves after touching
  5. 5.  The drooping of Mimosa leaves is independent of the direction from which the leaves are touched.  Such movements usually happen due to change of water balance in the cells.  When leaves of mimosa are touched, the cells in the leaves lose water and become flaccid which results drooping of leaves.
  6. 6.  Plants respond to stimuli slowly by growing in a particular direction.  Example - Plants like the pumpkin, cucumber etc. plant climb up fences by means of tendrils.
  7. 7. Types of Trophic movements Phototropism (light) Geotropism (gravity) Hydrotropism (water ) Chemotropism (chemicals) Thigmotropism (touch)
  8. 8.  Phototropism is the growth of plants in response to light.  Positive phototropism – Shoots respond by bending towards light.  Negative phototropism - Roots respond by bending away from light. Phototropism Response of the plant to the direction of light
  9. 9. Geotropism  Geotropism is the movement of a plant in response to gravity (either downwards or upwards).  Positive geotropism – Roots grow towards the ground  Negative geotropism - Shoots by growing away from the ground. Plant showing Geotropism
  10. 10. Hydrotropism  Hydrotropism is a growth response in which the direction is determined by the stimuli of water.  Example - Roots grow towards the source of water. Plant showing Hydrotropism
  11. 11.  Chemotropism is a growth movement of a plant part in response to chemical stimulus.  Example - Growth of pollen tubes towards ovules Flower showing Chemotropism
  12. 12.  Thigmotropism is the directional growth of a plant part in response to the touch stimulus of an object.  Climbers produce tendrils which move towards a source of support in order to coil around it and help the plant to climb. Thigmotropism Plant showing Thigmotropism
  13. 13.  Plants hormones, also called Phytohormones, are chemicals produced within the plant in a low concentrations and diffuse all around the cell.  Phytohormones regulate plant growth, development and response to the environment.
  14. 14. Types of Phytohormones Auxins Gibberellins Cytokinins Abscisic acid Ethylene
  15. 15.  Auxins are synthesised by the growing apices of the stem and root.  It promotes cell elongation and growth of stem and root.  It causes apical dominance.  It induces rooting on stem cutting.  Gibberellins are hormones that help in the growth of the stem, seed germination, bolting, and flowering.  It induces parthenocarpy.  It’s application overcomes the genetic dwarfism.  It breaks up the dormancy of seeds.
  16. 16. Cytokinins are hormones present in the areas of rapid cell division, such as fruits and seeds.  It promotes cell division and cell enlargement.  It promotes the germination of seeds. Abscisic acid is a hormone that inhibits the growth in various parts of plants.  It inhibits cell growth and cell division.  It causes dormancy of buds and seeds.  It induces wilting of leaves and closure of stomata. Ethylene is a gaseous plant growth regulator.  It plays role in ripening of fruits.
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The topic "Coordination in Plants" contains Nastic and Tropic movements in plants and phytohormones for class X CBSE and other board students.

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