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 Biology - The term biology is derived from the
Greek word bios means ‘life’ and logia means
‘study of’.
 Biology is the...
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS
1. Growth
2. Reproduction
3. Metabolism
4. Response to stimuli
 Growth is an important characteristic feature of living
beings.
 They increase in mass and number.
 Non-living objects...
 All living beings produce their offspring by the process of
reproduction.
 Reproduction is an important process for con...
 All living organisms are made of chemicals belonging to
various classes, sizes and functions.
 The chemicals within a l...
 Living organisms respond to their surroundings or
environment.
 Respond to environmental stimuli could be physical, che...
 Biodiversity - The diverse form of organisms present on
earth is called biodiversity.
 Nomenclature – It is a system of...
 Identification - Identification is the process of
assigning a pre-existing taxon name to an
individual organism.
 ICBN ...
 Bionomial nomenclature is a
system of naming species by
giving each a name composed
of two components, generic
name and ...
 Biological names are usually written in Latin word
and in italics font.
 Scientific name usually contains two parts: fi...
 Classification – It is the process of grouping of organisms
into categories based on easily observable characters.
 Tax...
 Systematics
 The word systematics is derived from the Latin
word ‘systema’ means systematic arrangement of
organisms.
...
 TAXONOMIC CATEGORY
 Classification involves hierarchy of steps where
each step represents a rank or category.
 Various...
 Species is a group of individuals in which the
individuals can interbreed among themselves.
 Members of a species have ...
 A group of closely related species is called genus.
 Example –
 Potato,tomato and brinjal are three different species
...
 A group of closely related genera is called a family.
 Families are characterised on the basis of both
vegetative and r...
 A group of closely related families is called order.
 Order and other higher taxonomic categories are
identified based ...
 Class is a major category made of one or more
related orders that posses certain similar correlated
characters.
 Exampl...
 A group of closely related classes is called phylum.
 In the Plant Kingdom phylum has been replaced
with division.
 Ex...
 A group of all the related phyla is called the Kingdom.
 Example :–
 The Kingdom Plantae comprises all plants from
var...
Kingdom
Phylum or
Division
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
ORGANISMS WITH THEIR
TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES
Common
Name
Biological
Name
Genus Family Order Class Phylum/
Division
Man Homo
s...
 Storehouses of information and specimens which
can help in identification and classification of
organisms are called tax...
 1. Herbarium
 Herbarium is the storehouse of plant specimens.
 Specimens are dried, pressed, and preserved on
sheets.
...
 2. Botanical gardens
 A botanical garden is a place where plants are grow
and displayed for the purposes of research an...
 3. Museum
 Musium is the place of collection of preserved plant
plant and animal specimens for study and
reference.
 S...
 4. Zoological parks
 Zoological park is the place where wild animals are
protected under similar to their natural habit...
 5. Key
 Keys are used for identification of plants and
animals based on similarities and dissimilarities.
 Keys are an...
 Flora, manuals, monographs, and catalogues are
other taxonomical aids.
 They help in correct identification
 Manuals p...
Chapter 1. Diversity in the Living World
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Chapter 1. Diversity in the Living World

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Class XI Biology

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Chapter 1. Diversity in the Living World

  1. 1.  Biology - The term biology is derived from the Greek word bios means ‘life’ and logia means ‘study of’.  Biology is the study of life and living organisms.  Life - Life can be defined as the property or quality of the living organisms that distinguishes from dead or non-living in some functions like:  growth  metabolism  response to stimuli  reproduction
  2. 2. CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS 1. Growth 2. Reproduction 3. Metabolism 4. Response to stimuli
  3. 3.  Growth is an important characteristic feature of living beings.  They increase in mass and number.  Non-living objects also grow in mass by accumulation of material on its surface.  Growth in a living being takes place due to internal processes, i.e. cell division.  Plants show continuous growth throughout their life span, while animals show growth up to a certain age.
  4. 4.  All living beings produce their offspring by the process of reproduction.  Reproduction is an important process for continuing the lineage of a species.  Fungi reproduce by asexual spores.  Yeast and Hydra by budding.  Planaria (flat worms) by regeneration.  Unicellular organisms like bacteria, unicellular algae or Amoeba, reproduction is synonymous with growth, i.e., increase in number of cells. Reproduction Sexual Asexual
  5. 5.  All living organisms are made of chemicals belonging to various classes, sizes and functions.  The chemicals within a living organism are constantly being made and changed into some other biomolecules.  The sum total of all the chemical reactions occurring in our body is metabolism.  No non-living object exhibits metabolism. Metabolism Anabolism Catabolism
  6. 6.  Living organisms respond to their surroundings or environment.  Respond to environmental stimuli could be physical, chemical or biological.  Plants respond to external factors like light, water, temperature, other organisms, pollutants, etc.  Organisms can sense and respond to environmental cues.  Photoperiod affects reproduction in seasonal breeders, both plants and animals.  Organisms handle chemicals entering their bodies and aware of their surroundings.  Human being, the only organism, which has self- consciousness.
  7. 7.  Biodiversity - The diverse form of organisms present on earth is called biodiversity.  Nomenclature – It is a system of naming of organisms.  There are millions of plants and animals in the world.  Plants and animals are known in the local area by their local names.  These local names are vary from place to place, region to region and within a country also.  So, it is impossible for any person to remember the names of an organism in all the languages.  Hence, there is need for a uniform system of nomenclature of organisms.
  8. 8.  Identification - Identification is the process of assigning a pre-existing taxon name to an individual organism.  ICBN - International Code for Botanical Nomenclature  ICZN - International Code for Zoological Nomenclature
  9. 9.  Bionomial nomenclature is a system of naming species by giving each a name composed of two components, generic name and species name.  Carolous Linnaeus invented the modern system of binomial nomenclature. Carolous Linnaeus
  10. 10.  Biological names are usually written in Latin word and in italics font.  Scientific name usually contains two parts: first word is Genus and second word is Species or specific epithet.  Genus name starts with a Capital letter while species name starts with a small letter.  Biological name is or printed in italics to indicate their Latin origin and underlined, when it is handwritten.  Example: Mangifera indica ( Mango), Homo sapiens ( Human), Oryza sativa (Rice), Triticum aestivum (Wheat)
  11. 11.  Classification – It is the process of grouping of organisms into categories based on easily observable characters.  Taxon - The scientific term for any unit used in the science of biological classification is called taxon.  Taxonomy - Taxonomy is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups.  Carolus Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy. Process of Taxonomy Characterization Identification Classification Nomenclature
  12. 12.  Systematics  The word systematics is derived from the Latin word ‘systema’ means systematic arrangement of organisms.  Systematics is the study of the diversification of living forms, both past and present, and the relationships among living things through time.  Linnaeus used Systema Naturae as the title of his publication
  13. 13.  TAXONOMIC CATEGORY  Classification involves hierarchy of steps where each step represents a rank or category.  Various steps of the classification hierarchy are called taxonomic categories.  Each level in the hierarchy represents an increase in organisational complexity.
  14. 14.  Species is a group of individuals in which the individuals can interbreed among themselves.  Members of a species have a large number of similar characters.  Example:-  Mangifera indica (Mango),  Solanum tuberosum (potato)  Panthera leo (lion); SPECIES
  15. 15.  A group of closely related species is called genus.  Example –  Potato,tomato and brinjal are three different species but all belong to the genus Solanum.  Lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus) and tiger (Panthera tigris) are members of the genus Panthera.
  16. 16.  A group of closely related genera is called a family.  Families are characterised on the basis of both vegetative and reproductive features of plant species. Example :-  Three different genera Solanum, Petunia and Datura are placed in the family Solanaceae.  In animals, genus Panthera and genus Felis belong to the family Felidae. FAMILY
  17. 17.  A group of closely related families is called order.  Order and other higher taxonomic categories are identified based on the aggregates of characters. Example :–  Plant families like Convolvulaceae, Solanaceae are included in the order Polymoniales.  In animals, Felidae and Concidae belong the order Carnivora.
  18. 18.  Class is a major category made of one or more related orders that posses certain similar correlated characters.  Example –  Class mammalia has a number of orders like carnivora, rodentia, primata, insectivora, etc. all possess mammary glands, external ears and hair. 
  19. 19.  A group of closely related classes is called phylum.  In the Plant Kingdom phylum has been replaced with division.  Example - Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia belong to the Phylum Chordata.
  20. 20.  A group of all the related phyla is called the Kingdom.  Example :–  The Kingdom Plantae comprises all plants from various divisions.  All heterotrophic organisms which are eukaryotic and lack a cell wall are kept under Animal Kingdom. KINGDOM
  21. 21. Kingdom Phylum or Division Class Order Family Genus Species
  22. 22. ORGANISMS WITH THEIR TAXONOMIC CATEGORIES Common Name Biological Name Genus Family Order Class Phylum/ Division Man Homo sapiens Homo Hominidae Primate Chordate Mammalia Housefly Musca domestica Musca Muscidae Diptera Insecta Arthropoda Mango Mangifera indica Mangifera Anacardiac eae Sapindal es Dicotyledo nae Angiospermae Wheat Triticum aestivum Triticum Poaceae Poales Monocotyle donae Angiospermae
  23. 23.  Storehouses of information and specimens which can help in identification and classification of organisms are called taxonomic aids.  Study of various species of plants, animals and other organisms are useful in agriculture, forestry, industry, etc.  These studies are useful to know about our bio- resources and their diversity.  These help in identification, naming, and classification of organisms.
  24. 24.  1. Herbarium  Herbarium is the storehouse of plant specimens.  Specimens are dried, pressed, and preserved on sheets.  These sheets are arranged systematically according to the universally accepted system of classification.  Herbarium sheet contains information about date and place of the collection, collector’s name, local and scientific name, family, etc.  It provides quick referral systems in taxonomical studies.
  25. 25.  2. Botanical gardens  A botanical garden is a place where plants are grow and displayed for the purposes of research and education.  Each plant contains labels indicating their scientific name and family. Some famous botanical gardens:  Indian Botanical Garden, Calcutta  National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow  Garden of Medicinal Plants, North Bengal University, West Bengal
  26. 26.  3. Museum  Musium is the place of collection of preserved plant plant and animal specimens for study and reference.  Specimens are preserved in containers or jars in preservative solutions and can be preserved as dry also.  Insects are preserved in insect boxes after collecting, killing, and pinning.  Large animals are stuffed and preserved.
  27. 27.  4. Zoological parks  Zoological park is the place where wild animals are protected under similar to their natural habitat.  It provides opportunity for studying the behaviour and food habits of the animals. Some famous Zoo in India:  Zoological Park, Mysore  Nehru Zoological Park, Hyderabad  Trivandrum Zoo  Chennai Zoo
  28. 28.  5. Key  Keys are used for identification of plants and animals based on similarities and dissimilarities.  Keys are analytical in nature and based on contrasting characters in a pair called couplet.  Out of two proposed characters, only one which is relevant is accepted while the other is rejected.  Each statement in a key is called a lead.  Separate taxonomic keys are required for each taxonomic category such as family, genus, order, etc.
  29. 29.  Flora, manuals, monographs, and catalogues are other taxonomical aids.  They help in correct identification  Manuals provide information for identification of names of various species in a given area.  Monograph contain information on any particular taxon.
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