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 Bryophytes are among the simplest of the terrestrial
plants.
 Lack complex tissue system.
 Most of them are 2–5 cm tal...
 The plant body is thallus-like
and prostrate or erect.
 The body is attached to the
substratum by rhizoids.
 They lack...
 The main plant body of the bryophyte is haploid(n).
 It produces gametes, hence is called a gametophyte.
 The sex orga...
 Antherozoids are released into water and come in
contact with archegonium.
 Egg (n) + Antherozoid (n) = Zygote (2n)
 Z...
1. Ecological importance in succession - pioneers in
establishing vegetation in the barren rocks.
2. Prevent soil erosion
...
1.Mosses
2.Liverworts
3.Hornworts
 liverworts are small, less than 10 cm
long thallus body.
 The thallus is dorsiventral and
closely appressed to the subs...
1. Fragmentation
2. Gemmae
 Marchantia produce special
structures on their dorsal
structures called gemma cups.
 Gemma c...
 Male and female sex organs
are produced either on the
same or on different thalli.
 The male gametes are called
anthero...
 The zygote undergoes cell
division during development and
forms sporophyte.
 The sporophyte is differentiated
into a fo...
 Mosses are small nonvascular
bryophyta.
 They grow in dense green clumps or
mats, often in damp or shady
locations.
 T...
 Gametophyte consists of two stages.
 Protonema stage develops directly from a spore.
 It is a creeping, green, branche...
Reproduction
in Mosses
Asexual
Fragmentation
Budding
Sexual
Male-Antheridia
Female-Archegonia
 Antherozoids (n) + Egg cells (n) =
Zygote (2n)
 After fertilisation, the zygote
develops into a sporophyte,
consisting ...
Polytrichum
Sphagnum
 When spores fall onto
ground, it may germinate into
a branching, threadlike
filamentous protonema.
...
Bryophytes :Amphibians of Plant Kingdom
Bryophytes :Amphibians of Plant Kingdom
Bryophytes :Amphibians of Plant Kingdom
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Bryophytes :Amphibians of Plant Kingdom

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Bryophytes are called amphibians of the plant kingdom.

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Bryophytes :Amphibians of Plant Kingdom

  1. 1.  Bryophytes are among the simplest of the terrestrial plants.  Lack complex tissue system.  Most of them are 2–5 cm tall or others less than 10 cm long.  Commonly grow in damp, humid and shaded localities.  widely distributed throughout the world.  They are called amphibians of the plant kingdom because they can live in soil but are dependent on water for sexual reproduction.
  2. 2.  The plant body is thallus-like and prostrate or erect.  The body is attached to the substratum by rhizoids.  They lack true roots, stem or leaves.  They may possess root-like, leaf-like or stem-like structures.
  3. 3.  The main plant body of the bryophyte is haploid(n).  It produces gametes, hence is called a gametophyte.  The sex organs in bryophytes are multicellular. • Antheridium • Produces antherozoids Male sex organ • Archegonium • produces egg Female sex organ
  4. 4.  Antherozoids are released into water and come in contact with archegonium.  Egg (n) + Antherozoid (n) = Zygote (2n)  Zygotes grows into sporophyte.  The sporophyte is not free-living but attached to the photosynthetic gametophyte and derives nourishment from it.  Some sporophytes undergo meiosis, a reductional cell division, to produce haploid spores.  Spores germinate to produce gametophyte.
  5. 5. 1. Ecological importance in succession - pioneers in establishing vegetation in the barren rocks. 2. Prevent soil erosion 3. Provide food - Some mosses provide food for herbaceous mammals, birds and other animals 4. Good Packing material – Sphagnum used to pack bulbs, cuttings and seedlings for shipment 5. Used in seed beds and green houses. 6. Source of fuel - Sphagnum provide peat which is a potential source of coal and used as fuel. 7. Absorbent bandages - Sphagnum plants are slightly antiseptic and possess superior absorptive power.
  6. 6. 1.Mosses 2.Liverworts 3.Hornworts
  7. 7.  liverworts are small, less than 10 cm long thallus body.  The thallus is dorsiventral and closely appressed to the substrate.  They have rhizoids, flattened stems with overlapping scales or leaves.  They usually grow in moist, shady habitats such as banks of streams, marshy ground, damp soil, bark of trees and deep in the woods.  The leafy members have tiny leaf- like appendages in two rows on the stem-like structures.  e.g., Marchantia.
  8. 8. 1. Fragmentation 2. Gemmae  Marchantia produce special structures on their dorsal structures called gemma cups.  Gemma cups give rise to very tiny, lens shaped bodies called gemmae.  The gemmae become detached from the parent body and germinate to form new individuals.
  9. 9.  Male and female sex organs are produced either on the same or on different thalli.  The male gametes are called antherozoids.  The female gametes are called archegoniophore.  Antherozoid reach to the archegonia tip with the help of water and gets fused with egg and zygote is formed. Male thallus, Marchansia Female thallus, Marchansia
  10. 10.  The zygote undergoes cell division during development and forms sporophyte.  The sporophyte is differentiated into a foot, seta and capsule.  The capsule is surrounded by a layer called jacket.  After meiosis, spores are produced within the capsule.  These spores germinate to form free-living gametophytes.
  11. 11.  Mosses are small nonvascular bryophyta.  They grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.  They have root-like multicellular rhizoid.  They have haplo-diplonts: haploid (n) and diploid (2n) life forms alternate to each other.  It’s predominant stage of the life cycle is gametophyte. Funaria
  12. 12.  Gametophyte consists of two stages.  Protonema stage develops directly from a spore.  It is a creeping, green, branched and frequently filamentous stage.  Leafy stage develops from the secondary protonema as a lateral bud. Gametophyte Protonema stage Leafy stage
  13. 13. Reproduction in Mosses Asexual Fragmentation Budding Sexual Male-Antheridia Female-Archegonia
  14. 14.  Antherozoids (n) + Egg cells (n) = Zygote (2n)  After fertilisation, the zygote develops into a sporophyte, consisting of a foot, seta and capsule.  The sporophyte consists of three structures: i) Foot - anchors it to the gametophyte and helps to transfer water and nutrients from the gametophyte. ii) Seta - a long erect stalk iii) Capsule - produce spores  Spores are formed after meiosis.
  15. 15. Polytrichum Sphagnum  When spores fall onto ground, it may germinate into a branching, threadlike filamentous protonema.  Buds from the protonema grow into leafy male or female gametophytes  Examples : Funaria, Polytrichum and Sphagnum
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Bryophytes are called amphibians of the plant kingdom.

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