33. Decreased levels of thyroxin causes a decrease in the cellular respiration rate. cells produce less energy and become less active.
36. ADRENAL GLANDS (CORTEX & MEDULLA) 1. One gland is located on top of each kidney. 2. Composed of two very different types of tissue a. Outer - The adrenal cortex b. Inner - The adrenal medulla
53. THE PINEAL GLAND Located near the base of the brain . Secretes Melatonin . Melatonin increases at night and decreases in the day. This cyclic release helps regulate sleep.
56. PROSTAGLANDINS 1. PROSTAGLANDINS are a group of hormone-like lipids, that also regulate cell activities. 2. Unlike hormones, prostaglandins are NOT produced by specific endocrine glands. 3. They are produced in small quantities by many cells throughout the body. They act locally .
57. 4. Relaxation of Smooth Muscles that line the air passages and blood vessels, regulation of blood pressure, contraction of the intestinal walls and the uterus, and stimulation of the body's inflammatory response to infection.
59. DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE I OR JUVENILE ONSET Before age 25, little or no insulin production, requires a strict diet and daily injections of insulin. TYPE II OR ADULT ONSET After age 40, produce normal amounts of insulin, but cells are unable to respond properly because of lack of insulin receptors, can be controlled by diet.
60. 11. HYPOGLYCEMIA CAUSED BY EXCESS (HIGH) INSULIN OR LOW BLOOD SUGAR, A Disorder in which Glucose is Stored rather than being properly delivered to the cells of the body – causing cells to starve to death. This leads to a lower blood glucose concentration and subsequent release of Glucagon and Epinephrine ( Adrenaline ).
61. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include Lethargy, Dizziness, Nervousness, Overactivity, and in extreme cases, Unconsciousness ( Ketoacidosis or Diabetic Coma ) and DEATH. 12. HYPERGLYCEMIA CAUSED BY LOW INSULIN OR HIGH BLOOD SUGAR. Can cause Nausea and Rapid Breathing, possibly leading to Oxygen Deficiency, Circulatory and Nervous System Failure, Diabetic Coma, or even Death.
62. STRESS & HEALTH A. Factors that serve as stressors to the body produce stress and threaten homeostasis. B. Types of Stress Stress may be physical, psychological, or some combination of the two. 1. Physical stress threatens the survival of tissues, such as extreme cold, prolonged exercise, or infections.
64. FEEDBACK MECHANISMS The endocrine system uses feedback mechanisms to respond and adjust to changes that occur in and outside the body. In a Feedback Mechanism , the last step in a series of events controls the first step.
65. HOMEOSTASIS 1. HOMEOSTASIS is defined as a STABLE internal environment. 2. ANTAGONISTIC HORMONES have opposite effect on the body. 3. To maintain homeostasis, hormone secretions must be tightly regulated. 4. Most hormones are controlled by a FEEDBACK MECHANISM .
66. 5. NEGATIVE FEEDBACK INHIBITS further release of the initial hormone. 6. POSITIVE FEEDBACK STIMULATES further release of the initial hormone. Glycogen secretion Insulin secretion Blood glucose level decreases Blood glucose level Increases
67. NEGATIVE FEEDBACK MECHANISMS Regulating Hormone Release 1. Regulates the release of 30 Hormones . 2. Involves interactions of nervous, endocrine, and circulatory systems. 3. Involves hypothalamus and anterior pituitary