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Attention

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Attention

  1. 1. ATTENTION Dr. Jayesh V Patidar www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Attention is the focus of consciousness on a particular object or ideas at a particular time, to the exclusion of other objects or ideas. 2/6/20152 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  3. 3. Find the T R R R R T R R R R 2/6/20153 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  4. 4. Find the T R R R R T R R R R R R R R R R R R R 2/6/20154 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  5. 5. Find the Blue Letter L L L L L L L L 2/6/20155 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  6. 6. Find the Blue Letter L LL L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L LL LL L L L L L 2/6/20156 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  7. 7. Find the vertical T TT T TTT TTT 2/6/20157 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  8. 8. Find the vertical T TTT TT T TTT TTT TTT TTT 2/6/20158 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  9. 9. Find the vertical T R RT TT R R T R 2/6/20159 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  10. 10. Find the vertical T TT R T T R R R T T TR R T R R T R 2/6/201510 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  11. 11. Find the Blue L L L L L L T T T T T 2/6/201511 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  12. 12. Find the Blue L T LL L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L LL L L L L L T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T L 2/6/201512 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  13. 13. All Searches Are NOT Equal 2/6/201513 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  14. 14. 2/6/201514 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  15. 15. A Is More Difficult Than B A B 2/6/201515 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  16. 16. Why Is This Important? Watch the Dial Watch for Light 2/6/201516 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  17. 17. Is There Trouble? 2/6/201517 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  18. 18. DEFINATION  Attention is the concentration of conscious upon one object rather than upon another - (Dumyille-1938)  Attention is defined as a process which compels the individual to select some particular stimulus according to his interest & attitude out of the multiplicity of stimuli present in the environment. - (Sharma RN-1967) 2/6/201518 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  19. 19. CHARACTERISTICS OF ATTENTION  It is a selective mental activity.  It is constantly shifts from one object to another or from one aspect of the situation to another.  Attention is focusing of consciousness on a particular object.  Attention is a state of preparedness or alertness: Process of attention involves motor adjustments on the part of the person who is attentive. 2/6/201519 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  20. 20. TYPES OR VARIETIES OF ATTENTION  Voluntary (volitional)  Involuntary (non-volitional) 2/6/201520 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  21. 21. TYPES OR VARIETIES OF ATTENTION  It demands the conscious effort on our part.  For example, solving an assigned problem in Mathematics, answering a question in examination needs voluntary attention.  It is further sub divided into two categories:  Implicit volitional attention  Explicit volitional attention 2/6/201521 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com Voluntary Attention
  22. 22. TYPES OR VARIETIES OF ATTENTION  Implicit volitional attention: — A single act of will is responsible for arousing attention. — For example; a teacher assigns practice work to a child & warns of punishment if not completed. This can make him exercise his will power, attend to assigned task & finish it properly. 2/6/201522 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com Voluntary Attention
  23. 23. TYPES OR VARIETIES OF ATTENTION  Explicit volitional attention: — Attention is obtained by repeated acts of will. — One has to struggle hard for keeping oneself attentive; it requires a strong will power, keen attention & strong motives for accomplishment of the task. — For example, the attention paid during examination days for securing good grades. 2/6/201523 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com Voluntary Attention
  24. 24. TYPES OR VARIETIES OF ATTENTION  This type of attention is aroused without the play of will or without making a conscious effort on our part.  For example, we give involuntary attention to loud sounds, bright lights & strong odors etc  Involuntary non-volitional attention aroused by the instincts is called enforced non-volitional attention. For example, giving attention out of curiosity. 2/6/201524 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com Involuntary Attention
  25. 25. TYPES OR VARIETIES OF ATTENTION  Non-volitional attention aroused by the sentiments is called spontaneous non-volitional attention. For example, we give somewhat automatic or spontaneous attention towards some objects, idea, person around which our sentiments are formed. 2/6/201525 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com Involuntary Attention
  26. 26. USES OF ATTENTION  It provides strength & ability to continue the task of cognitive functioning despite the obstacles put by the distractions like noise & other weather conditions.  It helps in better organization of the perceptual field for maximum clarity & understanding of the object or phenomenon. 2/6/201526 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  27. 27. USES OF ATTENTION Count…  It helps in bringing mental alertness & preparedness.  It helps in providing deeper concentration by focusing one’s consciousness upon one object at a time rather than two. 2/6/201527 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  28. 28. METHOD OF AROUSING ATTENTION (OR) FACTOR AND CONDITIONS FAVORABLE FOR CAPTURING ATTENTION (OR) DETERMINANTS OF ATTENTION  External Factors or Conditions  Internal Factors or Conditions 2/6/201528 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  29. 29. External Factors or Conditions Nature of the stimulus Intensity of the stimulus Size of the stimulus Contrast, change & Novelty Location of the stimulus Repetition of stimulus Movement of the stimulus Definite form of the object Isolation of the stimulus 2/6/2015 29 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  30. 30. Internal Factors or Conditions Interest & attention Motives Mental set-up Past experience Emotion Habit Aim Meaning Disposition & temperament 2/6/2015 30 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  31. 31. DURATION AND DEGREE OF ATTENTION  Span of attention: The maximum amount of material that can be attended in one period of attention is called span to attention. This can be visual attention or auditory attention.  Span of visual attention: Experiments have been carried out to measure the span of visual attention by making brief exposures to a number of object. The time of exposure is very short, ranging from 1/100 to 1/5 of a second. 2/6/201531 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  32. 32. DURATION AND DEGREE OF ATTENTION  Span of auditory attention: The number of auditory impressions perceived at a single instance is slightly greater. An adult can perceive eight sounds given rapidly in succession. But when sounds are given in a rhythm, a much larger number of sounds can be perceived. 2/6/201532 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  33. 33. DURATION AND DEGREE OF ATTENTION Duration of Attention:  It refers to how long one can attend to an object without a break.  If we attend to a single, simple object for instance, a dot, it will remain in the focus of our consciousness for only a second at the most, then something in the margin will crowd it out or memory of a past event will intrude.  The duration of attention depends upon the nature of the material, the interest of the observer, & other conditions. 2/6/2015 33 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  34. 34. DURATION AND DEGREE OF ATTENTION Sustained Attention (Act of Fixation of mind):  To sustain attention, is to concentrate one’s activity continuously upon some object or a happening or a problem.  The individual attention always remains on tract & the activity proceeds systematically without any serious distraction.  All internal as well as external factors of getting attention can be helpful in this track. 2/6/2015 34 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  35. 35. DURATION AND DEGREE OF ATTENTION Shifting Attention:  While paying attention towards an object or an event it is not possible to hold attention continuously with the same intensity for a longer duration.  It is constantly shifting from one object to another, from one aspect of the situation to another.  We can perform only one voluntary act at a time & not two or more acts at a time.  We can quickly shift attention from one voluntary act to another. 2/6/2015 35 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  36. 36. DURATION AND DEGREE OF ATTENTION Division of Attention:  Division of attention means to attend to two or more tasks simultaneously.  Psychologists say we cannot attend to two things at a given time, & there is no possibility of division of attention.  The reason for paying attention to more than one task at a given time can be: — In performing two tasks simultaneously one of the two activities requires no attention. — Attention rapidly shifts from one task to the other 2/6/2015 36 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  37. 37. DISTRACTION  Distraction means any stimulus whose presence interferes with the process of attention or draws away attention from the object which we wish to attend. -(HR Bhatia-1968) 2/6/201537 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  38. 38. SOURCES OF DISTRACTION External Factors/Environmental factors: Noise, music, improper lighting, uncomfortable seats, unfavorable temperature, inadequate ventilation etc. Internal factors: Emotional disturbances, ill health, boredom, lack of motivation, fatigue etc. 2/6/201538 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  39. 39. TYPES OF DISTRATION Continuous distraction Discontinuous distraction 2/6/201539 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  40. 40. IMPORTANCE OF ATTENTION IN NURSING PROFESSION  It helps in bringing mental alertness & preparedness.  It helps the nurse to concentrate by focusing consciousness on one object at a time rather than two.  It helps the nurse for better organization of the perceptual field for maximum clarity & understanding of the patient condition. 2/6/201540 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  41. 41. Count…  It provides strength & ability to continue the task of cognitive functioning despite the obstacles laid by the distractions.  The nurse can use psychology of attention for invoking not only voluntary but also involuntary attention to her job. 2/6/201541 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com
  42. 42. Thank you 2/6/201542 www.drjayeshpatidar.blogspot.com

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