LECTURE 1: ANATOMY OF FEMALE GENITAL TRACT BY: En. MOHD NAZRI B. ABU MODULE CYTOLOGY CLINICAL CYTOLOGY MLT236
Here is the gross appearance of a normal uterus with fundus, lower uterine segment, cervix, vaginal cuff, right fallopian tube, left fallopian tube, right ovary, and left ovary from a young woman.
Here is a normal cervix with a smooth, glistening mucosal surface. There is a small rim of vaginal cuff from this hysterectomy specimen. The cervical os is small and round, typical for a nulliparous woman. The os will have a fish-mouth shape after one or more pregnancies
<ul><li>Uterus </li></ul><ul><li>The uterus is a muscular organ that receives the fertilized oocyte and provides an appropriate environment for the developing fetus. </li></ul><ul><li>Before the first pregnancy, the uterus is about the </li></ul><ul><li>size and shape of a pear, with the narrow </li></ul><ul><li>portion directed inferiorly. </li></ul><ul><li>After childbirth, the uterus is usually larger, then regresses after menopause. </li></ul><ul><li>The uterus is lined with the endometrium. The stratum functional of the endometrium sloughs off during menstruation. The deeper stratum basal provides the foundation for rebuilding the stratum funct </li></ul>
<ul><li>Vagina </li></ul><ul><li>The vagina is a fibro muscular tube, about 10 cm long, that extends from the cervix of the uterus to the outside. </li></ul><ul><li>It is located between the rectum and the urinary bladder. </li></ul><ul><li>The vagina serves as a passageway for menstrual flow, receives the erect penis during intercourse, and is the birth canal during childbirth </li></ul>
<ul><li>Fallopian Tubes </li></ul><ul><li>There are two uterine tubes, also called oviducts. </li></ul><ul><li>There is one tube associated with each ovary. </li></ul><ul><li>The end of the tube near the ovary expands to form a </li></ul><ul><li>funnel-shaped infundibulum, which is surrounded by </li></ul><ul><li>fingerlike extensions called fimbriae. </li></ul><ul><li>At the time of ovulation, the fimbriae increase their activity </li></ul><ul><li>and create help the oocyte into the Fallopian tube. </li></ul><ul><li>Once inside the Fallopian tube, the oocyte is moved along </li></ul><ul><li>by the rhythmic beating of cilia on the epithelial lining and </li></ul><ul><li>by peristaltic action of the smooth muscle in the wall of </li></ul><ul><li>the tube. </li></ul><ul><li>The journey through the Fallopian tube takes about 7 days. Because the oocyte is fertile for only 24 to 48 hours, fertilization usually occurs in the Fallopian tube . </li></ul>
<ul><li>The cervix (the lower part of the uterus that protrudes into the vaginal canal) has an orifice that allows passage of menstrual flow from the uterus and passage of sperm into the uterus. </li></ul><ul><li>During vaginal intercourse, contact with this structure may provide sexual pleasure in some women </li></ul>cervix
ovary <ul><li>The ovaries are two organs, located at the end of each fallopian tube, that produce ova (releasing one per month from puberty to menopause). </li></ul><ul><li>The ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone , the hormones responsible for development of sex characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>These hormones are also responsible for elasticity of the genitalia, integrity of the vaginal lining, and lubrication of the genitalia. Testosterone is also produced in the ovaries—although in smaller amounts than produced in men—and is responsible for sexual desire. </li></ul>
The external female genitals are the mons pubis, the clitoris, the labia majora, and the labia minora. Together, along with the opening of the vagina, they are known as the vulva . VULVA.
<ul><li>The mons pubis is a pad of fatty tissue over the pubic bone. This structure, which becomes covered with hair during puberty, protects the internal sexual and Reproductive organs. </li></ul><ul><li>The clitoris is an erectile, hooded organ at the upper joining of the labia that contains a high concentration of nerve endings and is very sensitive to stimulation. The clitoris is the only anatomical organ whose sole function is providing sexual pleasure . </li></ul>
<ul><li>The labia majora are two spongy folds of skin—one on either side of the vaginal opening—that cover and protect the genital structures. </li></ul><ul><li>The labia minora are the two erectile folds of skin between the labia majora that extend from the clitoris on both sides of the urethral and vaginal openings. </li></ul><ul><li>The perineum is a network of muscles located between and surrounding the vagina and the anus that support the pelvic cavity and help keep pelvic organs in place. </li></ul>
INTERNAL GENITILIA EXTERNAL GENITILIA THANK YOU
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