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Histology of Female reproductive system.2.2015.

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Histology of Female reproductive system.2.2015.

  1. 1. Histology of Female Reproductive System-2 Dr. Deepak N. Khedekar. Assistant Professor. Dept. of Anatomy; LTMMC &GH Mumbai 2015
  2. 2. Female Reproductive Tract-2 Histology of… • Corpus luteum. • Placenta. • Mammary Gland. • Umbilical cord.
  3. 3. Corpus Luteum… • Collapsed and folded mass of glandular tissue • Consist of Theca lutein cells Granulosa lutein cells • Connective tissue septa (rich in blood vessels) covering theca lutein cells extends inside. • Centre shows former follicular cavity.
  4. 4. Corpus luteum…
  5. 5. Corpus luteum…
  6. 6. Corpus luteum… Follicular cavity contain … • follicular fluid • Blood cells • Serum • Loose connective tissue
  7. 7. Corpus luteum Granulosa lutein cells- • contain a large spherical nucleus and • large amount of cytoplasm containing yellow pigment, hence the name, corpus luteum. • Stains lightly due to lipid contents
  8. 8. Lutein cells… Theca lutein cells - • Lies peripheral to granulosa LC • cells are smaller than the granulosa lutein cells. • Cytoplasm stains darker &contain a spherical ,dark nucleus
  9. 9. Placenta… • Temporary organ for developing embryo. • Formation by 2 components- Fetal portion formed by Chorionic plate and branching chorionic villi Maternal portion formed by decidua basalis. Maternal and fetal blood comes in proximity in the villi of the placenta which receives fetal blood from pair of umbilical arteries
  10. 10. Placenta…
  11. 11. Placenta…
  12. 12. Placenta… A section extending from the amniotic surface into the substance of the placenta. This includes … Amnion chorionic plate chorionic villi .
  13. 13. Placenta… amnion Chorionic plate Chorionic villi
  14. 14. Placenta… Blood vessel Stratum basale Chorionic villi
  15. 15. Placenta…
  16. 16. Amnion… • consists of a layer of simple cuboidal epithelium and an underlying layer of connective tissue. • The CT of the amnion is continuous with the CT of the chorionic . • The plane of fusion, however, is not evident in H&E sections;
  17. 17. Chorionic plate… • thick connective tissue mass • contains the ramifications of the umbilical arteries and vein. • vessels do not have the distinct organizational features characteristic of arteries and veins • they resemble the vessels of the umbilical cord.
  18. 18. Chorionic villi… large stem villi • forms main substance of the placenta • consists of different sizes villi. • emerge from the chorionic plate • that branch into increasingly
  19. 19. Chorionic villi… Anchoring villi • villi extend from the chorionic plate to the maternal side of the placenta and make contact with the maternal tissue free villi • simply arborize within the substance of the placenta without anchoring onto the maternal side
  20. 20. Chorionic villi…
  21. 21. Chorionic villi…
  22. 22. Tertiary chorionic villi Syncytiotrophoblast … • outermost layer of each chorionic villus • derives from the fusion of cytotrophoblast cells. • has no intercellular boundaries • nuclei are rather evenly distributed. • In some areas, nuclei are gathered in clusters ; in other regions the syncytiotrophoblast layer appears relatively free of nuclei. • Contain microvilli that project into the intervillous space. In well-preserved specimens they may appear as a striated border
  23. 23. Tertiary chorionic villi… Cytotrophoblast • consists of an irregular layer of mono-nucleated cells that lies beneath the syncytiotrophoblast. • In immature placentas, the cytotrophoblasts form an almost complete layer of cells. • cells within the core of the villus are fibroblasts and endothelial cells. • considered to be fetal placental antigen– presenting cells or placental macrophages (PM) historically known as the Hofbauer cells.
  24. 24. Secondary chorionic villi (3rd wk) • mesenchymal core surrounded by two distinct layers of the trophoblast. • Have larger number of cytotrophoblast cells than the mature tertiary villi and form complete layer of cells immediately deep to the syncytiotrophoblast . • The syncytiotrophoblast covers the surface of the chorionic villi &extends into chorionic plate. • Maternal red blood cells are present in the intervillous space.
  25. 25. Mammary gland( inactive stage) Parenchyma • is sparse and consists mainly of duct elements. • Several ducts with a small lumen • ducts are surrounded by a loose CT and together, the ducts and surrounding connective tissue constitute a lobule. • Two terminal duct lobular units (TDLU) are. Beyond the lobular unit, the connective tissue is more dense • The two types of CT(loose and dense) can be distinguished
  26. 26. Dense CT… • Thicker collagenous fibers • less cells per unit area • less variety of cell types. • Characteristically, the dense connective tissue contains numerous aggregates of adipocytes.
  27. 27. Loose CT… • thinner collagen fibers • contains far more cells per unit area • greater variety of cell types. • cluster of lymphocytes and plasma cells and individual lymphocytes . Both plasma cells and lymphocytes are cells with a rounded shape, but plasma cells are larger and show more cytoplasm. • regions of plasma cell cytoplasm display basophilia. • Elongate nuclei in spindle-shaped cells belong to fibroblasts.
  28. 28. Lining epithelium… • epithelial cells within the resting lobular units • Epithelium is cuboidal; myoepithelial cells are present. • thickening of the epithelium in one location, presumably the precursor of an alveolus • myoepithelial cells at the base of the epithelium. As elsewhere, the myoepithelial cells are on the epithelial side of the basement membrane. • During pregnancy, the glands begin to proliferate. • This can be thought of as a dual process in which ducts • proliferate and alveoli grow from the ducts.
  29. 29. Inactive mammary gland…
  30. 30. Inactive mammary gland…
  31. 31. Duct…
  32. 32. Mammary gland ( late proliferative stage) • Development of the duct elements -early proliferative • Development of the alveolar elements- late proliferative stage. Terminal duct lobular units (TDLU) . • Individual lobular units are separated by dense CT septa • The CT within the lobular unit is a typical loose connective tissue • The alveoli are well developed, and many exhibit precipitated secretory product.
  33. 33. Terminal duct lobular units (TDLU) .
  34. 34. Mammary gland ( late proliferative stage) • The alveoli as well as the intralobular ducts consist of a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells subtended by myoepithelial cells. Both components are secretory. • Several alveoli are seen merging with one another. • Interlobular ducts are easy to identify as they are surrounded by dense connective tissue. Note that it is lined by a simple columnar epithelium. The nucleus of a myoepithelial cell is seen at the base of the epithelium.
  35. 35. Active mammary gland…
  36. 36. Umbilical cord…
  37. 37. Umbilical cord… • 2 arteries • 1 vein • Whartons jelly-. Gelatin like ground substance that occupies large intercellular spaces located between the spindle-shaped mesenchymal cells appear much like fibroblasts in the near-term umbilical cord
  38. 38. Wharton’s jelly from the umbilical cord
  39. 39. Umbilical cord…
  40. 40. • 3 large vessels and their walls. • Mucoid CT fills the space between the vessels and the simple squamous epithelium lining the surface of the umbilical cord. • fine appearance of the collagen fibres • lack of apparent specialisations in this type of CT.

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