• Collapsed and folded mass of glandular tissue
• Consist of
Theca lutein cells
Granulosa lutein cells
• Connective tissue septa (rich in blood vessels)
covering theca lutein cells extends inside.
• Centre shows former follicular cavity.
Granulosa lutein cells-
• contain a large
spherical nucleus and
• large amount of
yellow pigment, hence
the name, corpus
• Stains lightly due to
Theca lutein cells -
• Lies peripheral to
• cells are smaller than the
granulosa lutein cells.
• Cytoplasm stains darker
&contain a spherical
• Temporary organ for developing embryo.
• Formation by 2 components-
Fetal portion formed by Chorionic plate and
branching chorionic villi
Maternal portion formed by decidua basalis.
Maternal and fetal blood comes in proximity
in the villi of the placenta which receives fetal
blood from pair of umbilical arteries
• consists of a layer of simple cuboidal
epithelium and an underlying layer of
• The CT of the amnion is continuous with the
CT of the chorionic .
• The plane of fusion, however, is not evident in
• thick connective tissue mass
• contains the ramifications of the umbilical
arteries and vein.
• vessels do not have the distinct organizational
features characteristic of arteries and veins
• they resemble the vessels of the umbilical
large stem villi
• forms main substance of the placenta
• consists of different sizes villi.
• emerge from the chorionic plate
• that branch into increasingly
• villi extend from the chorionic plate to the
maternal side of the placenta and make
contact with the maternal tissue
• simply arborize within the substance of the
placenta without anchoring onto the maternal
Tertiary chorionic villi
• outermost layer of each chorionic villus
• derives from the fusion of cytotrophoblast cells.
• has no intercellular boundaries
• nuclei are rather evenly distributed.
• In some areas, nuclei are gathered in clusters ; in
other regions the syncytiotrophoblast layer
appears relatively free of nuclei.
• Contain microvilli that project into the intervillous
space. In well-preserved specimens they may
appear as a striated border
Tertiary chorionic villi…
• consists of an irregular layer of mono-nucleated
cells that lies beneath the syncytiotrophoblast.
• In immature placentas, the cytotrophoblasts
form an almost complete layer of cells.
• cells within the core of the villus are fibroblasts
and endothelial cells.
• considered to be fetal placental antigen–
presenting cells or placental macrophages (PM)
historically known as the Hofbauer cells.
Secondary chorionic villi (3rd wk)
• mesenchymal core surrounded by two distinct
layers of the trophoblast.
• Have larger number of cytotrophoblast cells
than the mature tertiary villi and form
complete layer of cells immediately deep to the
• The syncytiotrophoblast covers the surface of
the chorionic villi &extends into chorionic plate.
• Maternal red blood cells are present in the
Mammary gland( inactive stage)
• is sparse and consists mainly of duct elements.
• Several ducts with a small lumen
• ducts are surrounded by a loose CT and together,
the ducts and surrounding connective tissue
constitute a lobule.
• Two terminal duct lobular units (TDLU) are. Beyond
the lobular unit, the connective tissue is more dense
• The two types of CT(loose and dense) can be
• Thicker collagenous fibers
• less cells per unit area
• less variety of cell types.
• Characteristically, the dense connective tissue
contains numerous aggregates of adipocytes.
• thinner collagen fibers
• contains far more cells per unit area
• greater variety of cell types.
• cluster of lymphocytes and plasma cells and
individual lymphocytes . Both plasma cells and
lymphocytes are cells with a rounded shape, but
plasma cells are larger and show more cytoplasm.
• regions of plasma cell cytoplasm display basophilia.
• Elongate nuclei in spindle-shaped cells belong to
• epithelial cells within the resting lobular units
• Epithelium is cuboidal; myoepithelial cells are present.
• thickening of the epithelium in one location,
presumably the precursor of an alveolus
• myoepithelial cells at the base of the epithelium. As
elsewhere, the myoepithelial cells are on the epithelial
side of the basement membrane.
• During pregnancy, the glands begin to proliferate.
• This can be thought of as a dual process in which ducts
• proliferate and alveoli grow from the ducts.
Mammary gland ( late proliferative stage)
• Development of the duct elements -early proliferative
• Development of the alveolar elements- late
Terminal duct lobular units (TDLU) .
• Individual lobular units are separated by dense CT
• The CT within the lobular unit is a typical loose
• The alveoli are well developed, and many exhibit
precipitated secretory product.
Mammary gland ( late proliferative stage)
• The alveoli as well as the intralobular ducts consist of
a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells subtended by
myoepithelial cells. Both components are secretory.
• Several alveoli are seen merging with one another.
• Interlobular ducts are easy to identify as they are
surrounded by dense connective tissue. Note that it is
lined by a simple columnar epithelium. The nucleus of
a myoepithelial cell is seen at the base of the
• 2 arteries
• 1 vein
• Whartons jelly-.
Gelatin like ground substance that occupies
large intercellular spaces located between the
spindle-shaped mesenchymal cells appear
much like fibroblasts in the near-term umbilical
• 3 large vessels and
• Mucoid CT fills the
space between the
vessels and the simple
lining the surface of
the umbilical cord.
• fine appearance of the
• lack of apparent
specialisations in this
type of CT.
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