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11(7) 2020 ITJEMAST's published research articles

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Eservice quality; Online royalty; Webqual model; eSatisfaction; ANOVA; Web design and Booking.Banking system; Financial development; GDP growth; GMM; Bank return on assets (ROA); Bank return on equity (ROE); Bank net interest margin (NIM); Bank lending-deposit spread (LD) Saudi Universities; HRM; Organizational Climate; Saudi Arabia; Institutional structure; Employee satisfaction; Employee relation; Employee retention MPAEMA; Nanofiller; Polymer/clay nanocomposite; Organoclay; Thermal stability; In-situ polymerization. nt; Urban morphology; Migrant workers; City planning; Ajman Emirate.

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11(7) 2020 ITJEMAST's published research articles

  1. 1. Volume 11 Issue 7 (2020) ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 http://TuEngr.com BAMBOO APPLICATION IN BUILDING DESIGN: CASE STUDY OF GREEN SCHOOL, BALI, INDONESIA NEXUS OF FINANCIAL REPORTING QUALITY AND INVESTMENT EFFICIENCY FACTORS INFLUENCING ISLAMIC BANKING ADOPTION: EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL CONSUMER MARKET DEVELOPMENT: A CASE OF LIPETSK REGION EVALUATION ON ROAD TRANSPORT PROJECTS INVESTMENT AND PROPOSALS DEVELOPMENT FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT IN RUSSIA MEASUREMENT OF ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES EFFECT ON FOOD ITEMS CONSUMPTION PATTERN IN PAKISTAN THE ORIGINS OF RUSSIAN LIBERAL JURISPRUDENCE: B.A. KISTYAKOVSKY’S PHILOSOPHY AND SOCIOLOGY OF LAW SIMULATION OF SEQUENTIAL PROCESSING OF A MOVING EXTENDED OBJECT COMPUTER MODEL FOR TRICKLE IRRIGATION SYSTEM DESIGN RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POSITIVITY, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS AMONG CARDIAC PATIENTS: MEDIATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED STRESS FINANCIAL MECHANISM FOR COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT: VECTOR APPROACH APPLICATIONS OF ONLINE VIDEO CONFERENCING IN HIGHER EDUCATION: CASE OF SAUDI ARABIA FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSEHOLD DIETARY DIVERSITY PATTERN IN RURAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN MEASURING EXTENDED ROLES OF E-COMMERCE INCLUSION FOR THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF WEBSITE SERVICE QUALITY FOR CUSTOMER SATISFACTION USING WEBQUAL MODEL: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF SAUDI ARABIAN AIRLINES HOW DOES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND BANK EFFICIENCY? EVIDENCE FROM ASEAN COUNTRIES EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE ON HR OUTCOMES IN THE SAUDI PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES PREPARATION OF OXO METHACRYLATE- CONTAINING POLYMER/CLAY BASED NANOCOMPOSITES URBANISATION IN AJMAN PUSHING BY HOUSING DEVELOPMENT MAXIMUM EMPIRICAL LIKELIHOOD AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO GENERALIZED METHOD OF MOMENTS FOR A FINITE SAMPLE CASE OPTIMAL CONTROL AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF TUBERCULOSIS MODEL WITH FAST AND SLOW PROGRESSION DUAL-BAND HELICAL ANTENNAS FOR NAVIGATION RECEIVERS
  2. 2. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://TuEngr.com International Editorial Board Editor-in-Chief Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, PhD Professor Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA Executive Editor Boonsap Witchayangkoon, PhD Associate Professor Thammasat University, THAILAND Editorial Board: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohamed Gadi (University of Nottingham, UNITED KINGDOM) Professor Dr.Hitoshi YAMADA (Yokohama National University, JAPAN) Professor Dr. Chuen-Sheng Cheng (Yuan Ze University, TAIWAN ) Professor Dr.Mikio SATOMURA (Shizuoka University, JAPAN) Professor Dr.Chuen-Sheng Cheng (Yuan Ze University, TAIWAN) Emeritus Professor Dr.Mike Jenks (Oxford Brookes University, UNITED KINGDOM ) Professor Dr.I Nyoman Pujawan (Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, INDONESIA) Professor Dr.Toshio YOSHII (EHIME University, JAPAN) Professor Dr.Neven Duić (University of Zagreb, CROATIA) Professor Dr.Dewan Muhammad Nuruzzaman (University Malaysia Pahang MALAYSIA) Professor Dr.Masato SAITOH (Saitama University, JAPAN) Scientific and Technical Committee & Editorial Review Board on Engineering, Technologies and Applied Sciences: Associate Prof. Dr. Paulo Cesar Lima Segantine (University of São Paulo, BRASIL) Associate Prof. Dr. Kurt B. Wurm (New Mexico State University, USA ) Associate Prof. Dr. Truong V.B.Giang (Vietnam National University, Hanoi, VIETNAM) Associate Prof. Dr. Fatemeh Khozaei (Islamic Azad University Kerman Branch, IRAN) Assistant Prof.Dr. Zoe D. Ziaka (International Hellenic University, GREECE) Associate Prof.Dr. Junji SHIKATA (Yokohama National University, JAPAN) Assistant Prof.Dr. Akeel Noori Abdul Hameed (University of Sharjah, UAE) Assistant Prof.Dr. Rohit Srivastava (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, INDIA) Assistant Prof. Dr.Muhammad Yar Khan (COMSATS University, Pakistan) Assistant Prof. Dr. David Kuria (Kimathi University College of Technology, KENYA ) Dr. Mazran bin Ismail (Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA ) Dr. Salahaddin Yasin Baper (Salahaddin University - Hawler, IRAQ ) Dr. Foong Swee Yeok (Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA) Dr.Azusa FUKUSHIMA (Kobe Gakuin University, JAPAN) Dr.Yasser Arab (Ittihad Private University, SYRIA) Dr.Arslan Khalid (Shandong University, CHINA) ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies.
  3. 3. i ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. :: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies Volume 11 Issue 7 (2020) ISSN 2228-9860 http://TuEngr.com eISSN 1906-9642 FEATURE PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLES RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POSITIVITY, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS AMONG CARDIAC PATIENTS: MEDIATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED STRESS 11A07A FINANCIAL MECHANISM FOR COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT: VECTOR APPROACH 11A07B APPLICATIONS OF ONLINE VIDEO CONFERENCING IN HIGHER EDUCATION: CASE OF SAUDI ARABIA 11A07C FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSEHOLD DIETARY DIVERSITY PATTERN IN RURAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN 11A07D MEASURING EXTENDED ROLES OF E-COMMERCE INCLUSION FOR THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF WEBSITE SERVICE QUALITY FOR CUSTOMER SATISFACTION USING WEBQUAL MODEL: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF SAUDI ARABIAN AIRLINES 11A07E HOW DOES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND BANK EFFICIENCY? EVIDENCE FROM ASEAN COUNTRIES 11A07F EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE ON HR OUTCOMES IN THE SAUDI PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES 11A07G PREPARATION OF OXO METHACRYLATE-CONTAINING POLYMER/CLAY BASED NANOCOMPOSITES 11A07H URBANISATION IN AJMAN PUSHING BY HOUSING DEVELOPMENT 11A07I MAXIMUM EMPIRICAL LIKELIHOOD AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO GENERALIZED METHOD OF MOMENTS FOR A FINITE SAMPLE CASE 11A07J OPTIMAL CONTROL AND COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF TUBERCULOSIS MODEL WITH FAST AND SLOW PROGRESSION 11A07K DUAL-BAND HELICAL ANTENNAS FOR NAVIGATION RECEIVERS 11A07L
  4. 4. ii BAMBOO APPLICATION IN BUILDING DESIGN: CASE STUDY OF GREEN SCHOOL, BALI, INDONESIA 11A07M NEXUS OF FINANCIAL REPORTING QUALITY AND INVESTMENT EFFICIENCY 11A07N FACTORS INFLUENCING ISLAMIC BANKING ADOPTION: EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN 11A07O ANALYSIS OF THE REGIONAL CONSUMER MARKET DEVELOPMENT: A CASE OF LIPETSK REGION 11A07P EVALUATION ON ROAD TRANSPORT PROJECTS INVESTMENT AND PROPOSALS DEVELOPMENT FOR THEIR IMPROVEMENT IN RUSSIA 11A07Q MEASUREMENT OF ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES EFFECT ON FOOD ITEMS CONSUMPTION PATTERN IN PAKISTAN 11A07R THE ORIGINS OF RUSSIAN LIBERAL JURISPRUDENCE: B.A. KISTYAKOVSKY’S PHILOSOPHY AND SOCIOLOGY OF LAW 11A07S SIMULATION OF SEQUENTIAL PROCESSING OF A MOVING EXTENDED OBJECT 11A07T COMPUTER MODEL FOR TRICKLE IRRIGATION SYSTEM DESIGN 11A07U Contacts: Professor Dr.Ahmad Sanusi Hassan (Editor-in-Chief), School of Housing, Building and Planning, UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA, 11800 Minden, Penang, MALAYSIA. Tel: +60-4-653-2835 Fax: +60-4-657 6523, Sanusi@usm.my, Editor@TuEngr.com Associate Professor Dr.Boonsap Witchayangkoon (Executive Editor), Thammasat School of Engineering, THAMMASAT UNIVERSITY, Klong-Luang, Pathumtani, 12120, THAILAND. Tel: +66-2-5643005 Ext 3101. Fax: +66-2-5643022 DrBoonsap@gmail.com, Editor@TuEngr.com Managing Office TUENGR Group, 88/244 Moo 3, Moo Baan Saransiri, Klong#2, KlongLuang, Pathumtani, 12120, THAILAND. Tel/WhatsApp: +66-995535450. P l P id i MALAYSIA/THAILAND Side image is Durian (Durio zibethinus), the King of Fruit.
  5. 5. *Corresponding author (S.Bibi, shaguftamalik409@yahoo.com; A.Khalid arslankhalid1989@yahoo.com) ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 11 No.7 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 CODEN: ITJEA8 Paper ID:11A07A http://TUENGR.COM/V11/11A07A.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.121 1 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://TuEngr.com PAPER ID: 11A07A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POSITIVITY, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AFFECT AMONG CARDIAC PATIENTS: MEDIATING ROLE OF PERCEIVED STRESS Abdul Sattar Ghaffari 1 , Malik Mureed Hussain 2 , Muhammad Tahir 3 , Shagufta Bibi 4* , Arslan Khalid 5* 1 Zhongtai Securities, Institute for Financial Studies, School of Mathematics, Shandong University, Jinan, CHINA. 2 Department of Psychology International Islamic University, Islamabad, PAKISTAN. 3 School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, CHINA. 4 School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, CHINA 5 Department of Health Psychology, School of Nursing, Shandong University, Jinan, CHINA. A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T RA C T Article history: Received 24 June 2019 Received in revised form 16 December 2019 Accepted 10 January 2020 Available online 28 January 2020 Keywords: Heart diseases; Positivity; Perceived stress scale; Positive affects; Negative affects; Cardiac disorder; Negative affectivity; Response to stress. The number of factors involved in the development of negative affects among patients suffering in cardiovascular disorder. The psycho-social risk factors, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, exhaustion, anger, and negative affect develop negative emotions in cardiovascular patients. A high positive affect independently relates to decreased cardiovascular disease ratio, whereas low positive affect predicts adverse cardiovascular consequences. The current study aimed to explore the relationship between positivity, positive and negative effects by using perceived stress as a mediating factor among cardiac patients. We recruited 519 cardiac patients aged 20-73 years. All participants provided written informed consent. .Assessments included the positivity Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Negative and Positive Affect Scale. The results indicated that the perceived stress intermediate between positive and negative affect and stress also negatively affects the emotional relationship. Positivity had an opposite relationship with the negative affect and the perceived stress negative relationship with positive affect. Whereas; the negative affect was a significant positive relationship with perceived stress. The positive emotions are helpful for cardiac patients to reduce the negative feelings which cause to enhance the stress factor. Stress factors can be reduced by patient awareness, using stress prevention strategies and well-being interventions. Disciplinary: Health Sciences & Management, Psychological Sciences. ©2020 INT TRANS J ENG MANAG SCI TECH. ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies
  6. 6. 2 A.S. Ghaffari, R.S.Bajwa, M. Hussain, M. Tahir, S. Bibi, A. Khalid 1. INTRODUCTION Life is embedded with the number of stress factors that play essential roles in developing a physical illness such as cardiovascular diseases. Previous reports indicated that unmanageable stress depicted problematic emotional regulations and ended up in germinating cardiac ailments (Begley, 1994). The compelling psychosocial risk factors of cardiovascular diseases are negative emotions which include anger and anxiety. Contrarily, the psychosocial factors that turn out to be the cardio-protective potential factors are positively affecting factors. Positive affect resulted in enhancement of cheerfulness, life activity and joy in mood states (Roest, et al, 2010; Melamed et al, 2006). A high positive affect has been independently related to low cardiovascular disease ratio. Whereas, a low positive affect predicts adverse cardiovascular consequences like death even with percutaneous coronary intervention (Chida and Steptoe, 2008: Heo et al, 2009; Denollet, and Brutsaert, 2001). Different studies have shown that cardiac patients preceding put less positive affect, resulting in inbuilt- anger, hostility, and jealousy ultimately prone to other cardiac complications. These people do not have smart and effective coping strategies to confront life stressors (Low et al., 1998). Positive psychologists have put great attention to create awareness for optimal well-being in human functioning to fulfill the fundamental element of life including satisfaction, self-esteem, and optimism, which are related to positivity and have a positive affect. Researchers defined positivity as “a capacity of an individual to observe the life with positive way after plenty of experiences” (Milioni, et al., 2016; Alessandri, et al., 2012; Caprara et al., 2017; 2009). Enriched positivity is related to the productive and adequate state of mood and improves positive affect with significantly decreased negative affect (Alessandri et al., 2012; Caprara et al., 2012; 2017). Positivity plays a role to improve the positive affect and reduce the negative affect of risk factors on life, however; the factors that contribute among these relationships still need to be investigated. An impending mediating variable is found to be “perceived stress in cardiac patients”. Lazarus and Folkman's postulate indicated that stress as “psychological and physiological response of people although for such situation they don’t have enough resources to toggle” (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984). Perceived stress is the degree at which life situations are evaluated as stressful (Cohen et al., 1983). Conversely, in cardiac patients, the affect of perceived stress is more adverse with limited stress coping strategies (Low et al., 1998, Ghaffari et al., 2020). Another report has shown that stress is the transactional process between humans and their environment (Gloria & Steinhardt, 2014). Various research studies are conducted in the perspective of identifying the positive and negative affect among cardiac patient but the relationship of positivity among cardiac patients is in question. However, Spindler et al. (2009) throughout studied the construct of positive and negative affect by studying cardiac patients and made the scale that can be used thoroughly for studying relationship with other indicators that helps in improving health issues. Moreover, Denollet and Vries (2006) also studies the positive and negative affects relationship with perceived behavior and found that perceived stressful situation of cardiac patients affect negatively on the life of cardiac patients and it is necessary to train the cardiac patients to avoid such situation for the betterment of their health. Also, Denollet and Vries (2006) introduced some guidelines to follow in dealing with cardiac patients and their cardio diseases and attacks.
  7. 7. *Corresponding author (S.Bibi, shaguftamalik409@yahoo.com; A.Khalid arslankhalid1989@yahoo.com) ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 11 No.7 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 CODEN: ITJEA8 Paper ID:11A07A http://TUENGR.COM/V11/11A07A.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.121 3 Similarly, Versteeg et al. (2009) study the positive and negative affect to maintain the life of patients and found that negative and positive behavior directly affects the health of the person and there are certain factors that affect positively and negatively depending on upon the influencing actor and situation. Mostly, stress full situations negatively impact on the overall life of patients (Versteeg et al., 2009; Bennett et al., 2001). Furthermore, family-related situations and intervention also negatively impact on the health of cardiac patients (Hilbert, 1994). Seebach et al. (2012) and Heo et al., (2009) studied the positive and negative affects of patients but not in the case of cardiac patients but they studied a general level of patients who are suffering from any diseases or attacks. These reports provide us the new concept that positivity is an essential factor that reduced the perceived stress by using coping tactics which consequently decrease the positive influence and improve the positive response affect in one’s life. So, our study demonstrated the role of positivity on positive and negative affect by using perceived stress as a mediating factor and also has shown the relationship between these factors in cardiac patients. This study conducts in the context of cardiac patients in Pakistan to explore the relationship of the positivity behavior of the patients on the positive and negative affects. Moreover, this study also explores the mediating role of perceived stress on the relationship between positivity behavior that affects positive or negative. This study helps in guiding the cardiac patients when we able to identify the relationship between the positivity behaviors of the cardiac patient. The doctors play leading roles in guiding and suggesting activities to train their minds and control their positive and negative thinking. Moreover, this study also helps in investigating the mediating role of perceived stress that causes positive and negative affect on the life of cardiac patients. The results will be helpful for doctors in making policies to deal with the cases of cardiac patients. The health-related institution will also use the results for making procedures and guidelines for cardiac patients to deal with perceived stress situations because nowadays cardiac diseases and attacks are common in Pakistan and the only cause behind the cardiac diseases and attacks is stressful events and situations that patients experience in their lives. Therefore, it is the responsibility of doctors and health institutions to guide them related to their stressful situation and cardiac disease and attacks. So that they will care for themselves and their family, relatives, and friends. 2. METHOD 2.1 PARTICIPANTS Participants were 519 cardiac patients age range 20–73 years from cardiology institute Multan, Pakistan. The data was collected by using a convenience sampling technique. The questionnaire is distributed to cardiac patients to identify the positivity behavior affect is positive or negative on the patient. Moreover, items are also included that helps in identifying the mediating role of perceived stress on the relationship between the positivity behavior and positive or negative affect of cardiac patients. We only approach those patients who came to the hospital for cardiac-related problems and then get data from those patients. 2.2 MEASURING TOOLS Positivity Scale. Caprara et al (2012) developed the scale of positivity. It is a single scale that included eight items. This scale has used the five points which range strongly disagree too strongly
  8. 8. 4 A.S. Ghaffari, R.S.Bajwa, M. Hussain, M. Tahir, S. Bibi, A. Khalid agree. Cronbach’s alpha tested to confirm the reliability of this scale. The addition of all the points obtains the scoring of this scale. Perceived Stress Scale. Sumi et al. (2006) developed the perceived stress scale, which is the single-factor scale measures purely the degree of stress perceived by the person in the life situation in the past one month (Sumi et al., 2006). This scale contains 14 items. Each item is rated at 5 points Likert scale which ranges from 0 to 4 indicating the rating scales ask from never to very often about the perceived stress. This scale was found to be valid and reliable because it's alpha value is above 0.7. The total of the scale is obtained by getting the sum of all items. The scoring method of this scale instructs that higher scores on this scale illustrate higher levels of perceived stress in the individual. Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Watson et al (1988) developed this scale. This scale is consisting of two subscales namely negative and positive affects. Each subscale has 8 items that are measuring negative and positive affects individually. All the items have a rating scale that ranges from 1 (never) to 6 (very often). The Cronbach’s alpha value of the scale is higher than 0.7, which depicts a higher reliability ratio of the scale. The total of each subscale is done first then it is interpreting from the score which subscale sore is higher than the other. It shows that if the score is higher in subscale, then an individual has more effect on that factor (Watson et al., 1988). 2.3 PROCEDURE A consent form was signed from all the cardiac patients before the study and questionnaire were provided to them to fill. The questionnaire included Positivity Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Negative and Positive Affect Scale. It was made sure to the participants that their results would remain confidential, and it is up to them whether they want to participate or not. The participants were asked to complete the questionnaire at their own risk. Before taking the participants, they were briefed about the nature of the study and its usefulness to society. Data was collected and analyzed by using SPSS software to evaluate the results. In the mediation analysis, we calculate paths a, b, c and c’ . The path a denotes the association positivity with perceived stress, path b association of perceived stress with positive and negative affect, path c associations of positivity with positive and negative affect and path c’ is the association of positivity with positive and negative affect after adding perceived stress as a mediator. 2.4 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS Various ethics were taken into consideration to carry out the study. An authority letter was presented to the authority of the relevant university explaining the nature of the study and requested permission for the data collection. The written consent form was taken from all the participants. The participants were also ensured regarding the confidentiality and anonymity of all the data collected from them. It was ensured that no physical or psychological distress was given to the participants. 3. RESULTS Table 1 shows that positivity has a significant negative relationship with perceived stress (r= -0.704, p<0.05) and has a significant positive relationship with positive affect (r= 0.112, p<.05). Positivity has a significant negative relationship with negative affects (r=-.359, p< .05). Perceived stress also has a significant negative relationship with positive affect (r= -.238, p< .05) whereas negative affect has a positive significant relationship with perceived stress ( r =.637, p<.05).
  9. 9. *Corresponding author (S.Bibi, shaguftamalik409@yahoo.com; A.Khalid arslankhalid1989@yahoo.com) ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 11 No.7 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 CODEN: ITJEA8 Paper ID:11A07A http://TUENGR.COM/V11/11A07A.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.121 5 Table 2, indicated the perceived stress as a mediator and positive affects as an outcome. Perceived stress explained the relationship between positive affect and positivity. Results depicted the significant association between positive affects estimated by perceived stress. The significant negative association of positivity with positive affects was observed among both male and female cardiac patients (from path a). The significant negative association of positivity was observed among both male and female cardiac patients (from path b). From path ‘c’ positive significant association of positivity was determined among male cardiac patients but no significant positive association observed in female patients. Table 1: Correlation analysis among positivity, perceived stress, positive affect, and negative affect. Positivity Perceived Stress Positive affect Negative affect Positivity -- -.704** .112* -.359** Perceived Stress -- -.238** .637** Positive Affect -- -.436** Negative Affect -- M 24.15 28.42 27.9 28.0 SD 3.88 5.22 4.74 4.88 Note. M-Mean, SD= Standard Deviation;**p < 0.01, *p < 0.05 Table 2: Mediating analysis results, with positive affect as the outcome and perceived stress as a mediator. Predictors Path Coefficients axb (BCa 95% CI) R2 F A B C C’ Male Positivity -.858*** -.272*** .120* -.113 .233 (.160, .27) .086 12.864 Female Positivity -1.152*** -.283* .119 -.207 .326 (.368, 1.638) .024 2.898 Thus, perceived stress fully mediates the relationship between positivity and positive affects among male cardiac patients because when perceived stress was involved in the model as a mediator, the direct pathway between positivity and positive affects did not statistically significant (from path c´ ). To evaluate the affect size of the mediating pathway, the proportion of the total effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable (c) that was mediated by perceived stress was calculated using the formula (a × b)/c by following (Li et al., 2015). For male patients, the proportions of perceived stress mediation were 86% for positivity for males. Table 3: Mediating analysis results, with negative affect as the outcome and perceived stress as mediator. Predictors Path Coefficients axb (BCa 95% CI) R2 F A b C c’ Male Positivity -.858*** .510*** -.126* .312 -.438 (-.550, -.339) .248 45.275 Female Positivity -1.152*** 1.081*** -1.201*** .044 -1.245 (-2.082, -.816) .959 2766.794 Path coefficients, a × b products, and BCa 95% CI for these products are presented in this table. Table 3 shows the perceived stress as a mediator variable with a negative affect as the outcome variable. Table 3 explained the negative association of positivity with a negative affect between both male and female cardiac patients (from path a). From the ‘b’ path a positive association of
  10. 10. 6 A.S. Ghaffari, R.S.Bajwa, M. Hussain, M. Tahir, S. Bibi, A. Khalid perceived stress and negative affect from both male and female patients. From a ‘c’ path negative association between positivity and negative affect was observed. Hence, perceived stress fully mediates the relationship between positivity and negative affects among both male and female patients because when perceived stress was involved in the model as a mediator, the direct pathway between positivity and negative affects did not statistically significant (from path c´ ). To evaluate the affect size of the mediating pathway, we have calculated the proportion of the total effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable (c) that was mediated by perceived stress using the formula (a × b)/c by following (Li et al., 2015). For male patients, the proportions of perceived stress mediation were 24.8% for negativity for males and 95.9% for female patients. 4. DISCUSSION Previous studies have demonstrated the effect of different physiological factors on cardiac patients’ health status but the direct relationship of positivity, positive and negative affects with cardiac patients are indicated in our study. The objective of the present study was to determine the nature of the relationship that exists between perceived stress, positivity, positive affects and negative affects in cardiac patients. Our results indicated the role of different physiological factors in patients who suffered from cardiac disorders. Correlation analysis showed positivity has a significant negative relationship with perceived stress (r= -.704, p< .05) and has a significant positive relationship with positive affect (r= 0.112, p<.05). The results also indicate that the positivity has a negative relationship with negative affect. The perceived stress is also found to have a negative relationship with positive affect and the negative affect as a positive relationship with perceived stress. Our findings show that in cardiac patients, positivity has a negative influence on the perceived stress and a significant positive relationship. Our data also reveals that perceived stress is the significant factor of negative affect in cardiac patients. Begley (1994) shown that physiological factors and life situations directly related to the cardiovascular system. Different studies have demonstrated that cardiac patients are more prone to stress which ultimately increases the negative affect factor. As our results showing that the total affect of positivity and perceived stress was .112, which is significant and predicted the level and affect the perceived stress on health status. However, positivity directly connected with perceived stress which increases the positive affect value up to -.315. These results suggested that perceived stress might be the mediator between positivity and positive affect. Many recent reports have shown that a good mood with stress reliving strategies could be beneficial for cardiac patients. Lockwood and colleague’s results have shown that using strategies like humor to tackle the stress factors resulted in less blood vessel blockage, fewer angioplasties, fewer heart assaults, and a more prominent life span at the point (Lockwood, 2011). It has been shown that the experience of "charming" or mirthful feelings balances the pernicious, long haul physical impacts of troubling feelings (Sultanoff, 1998). Consequently, these inquire about further recommend that an entertaining way of life expands a person's capacity to additional successfully oversee enthusiastic misery, accordingly diminishing the harming physical effect of these conceivably unsafe feelings.
  11. 11. *Corresponding author (S.Bibi, shaguftamalik409@yahoo.com; A.Khalid arslankhalid1989@yahoo.com) ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 11 No.7 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 CODEN: ITJEA8 Paper ID:11A07A http://TUENGR.COM/V11/11A07A.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.121 7 Our study also revealed the positive affect and negative affect based on positivity and perceived stress in relation to gender. The results indicated that positivity decreases the perceived stress by increasing the positive affect and lowering the negative affecton male cardiac patients. Our results are consistent with previous studies on the normal population that positivity reduces the level of negative affectwhich further effects the perceived stress (Rosenbaum et al., 2012). Taken together, our data provide compelling evidence that positivity is directly related to perceived stress which increases the positive affect and reduces the negative affect among cardiac patients. Different factors influence the disease status including stress that has been considered as the main factor in cardiac patients. The number of other factors like smoking and diet could be the main disease promoter. All these factors together increase the risk of heart diseases in humans. So, it is suggested that in order to minimize the threat of chronic heart diseases in our society, it is important to spread awareness in the people about the causes and consequences of heart diseases. The heart is the main organ in our body that works 24/7 without any rest. Hence, any defect in that organ may lead to death. Creating awareness about such factors among cardiac patients could be beneficial to reduce the burden of disease and increases the chances of recovery. To improve the psychosocial well-being of the patient suffering from cardiac problems are used to counsel and support the patient. Interventions are implemented to manage stress and negative affects. It is recommended that different indicators are used to determine positivity related to personality traits. Patients are not only treated therapeutically but counseling is also required for patient fast recovery. Complete medication makes the patient with negative outcomes and failure of incomplete recovery. Educating the patients on how to control stress and negative emotions might be beneficial for cardiac patients. In this way, the mortality rate of the patient might be reduced. 5. CONCLUSION Positive emotions are supportive for the cardiac patients to lowering the negative feelings that increase the stress factor. Stress factors can be decreased by patient awareness, using stress prevention strategies and well-being interventions. Perceived stress is intermediate among the positive and negative affects. The perceived stress also intermediates between the positivity and positive affect. Positivity was found to be associated with negative affect and positive affect via perceived stress. The positive affects are associated with the happiness, successful outcomes and positive behavior of the cardiac patients. Positive affect is associated with good health behaviors, including physical exercise, dietary and adherence to medical advice. While negative affect includes unpleasant emotional experiences like distress, depression, hostility, etc. The stress and negative affects are also affected by the emotional relationship. It is also concluded that perceived stress has a negative relationship with positive affects. The psychological, biological and cognitive responses to stress, affect cardiac diseases regarding cardiac outcomes. Daily life stress causes psychosis and depression for cardiac patients. The models of adaptations towards illness play an important role in cardiac disease treatment. The strong relationships among positive affect and well-being found to be important for the evolving intervention programs, that will promote the development of adaptive illness models and coping behaviors, not only by focusing the negative aspects of illness and life but
  12. 12. 8 A.S. Ghaffari, R.S.Bajwa, M. Hussain, M. Tahir, S. Bibi, A. Khalid also by emphasizing positive emotions and positive life encounters. Our data suggest that perceived stress plays an essential role to facilitate the positivity with negative affect and positive affect could improve the health status of people associated with management. The increased level of positivity is beneficial to reduce the perceived stress, which ultimately decreasing negative affects and promoting positive affect. Therefore, patient awareness and positive psychological interventions that pay attention to positivity might be beneficial to lowering the negative affect and increasing the level of positive affect. Our data also provide different strategies’ to manage the stress level in cardiac patients which might be beneficial. 6. AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIAL Information can be made available by contacting the corresponding author. 7. REFERENCES Alessandri G, Caprara GV, Tisak J. (2012). Further explorations on the unique contribution of positive orientation to optimal functioning.Eur Psychol. 17(1):44–54. Begley, T. (1994). Expressed and suppressed anger as predictors of health complaints. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(6), pp.503-516. Bennett, P., Conway, M., Clatworthy, J., Brooke, S., & Owen, R. (2001). Predicting post-traumatic symptoms in cardiac patients. Heart & lung, 30(6), 458-465. Caprara GV, Alessandri G, Eisenberg N. (2012). The positivity scale. Psychol Assess. 24(3):701–712 Caprara GV, Eisenberg N, Alessandri G. (2017). Positivity: the dispositional basis of happiness. J Happiness Stud. 18(2):353–371. Caprara GV, Fagnani C, Alessandri G, et al. (2009). Human optimal functioning: the genetics of positive orientation towards self, life, and the future. Behav Genet. 39(3):277–284. Chida Y and Steptoe A. (2008). The association of anger and hostility with future coronary heart disease: A metaanalytic review of prospective evidence. J Am CollCardiol. 17: 936–946 Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. J Health SocBehav. 24(3):385–396. Denollet, J., & Brutsaert, D. (2001). Reducing Emotional Distress Improves Prognosis in Coronary Heart Disease. Circulation, 104(17), 2018-2023. Denollet, J., & De Vries, J. (2006). Positive and negative affect within the realm of depression, stress and fatigue: The two-factor distress model of the Global Mood Scale (GMS). Journal of affective disorders, 91(2-3), 171-180. Ghaffari, A.S., Bajwa, R.S., Hussain, M., Tahir, M., Bibi, S., Khalid, A. (2020). Hospital Anxiety and Depression of Patients with Heart Failure in South Punjab Pakistan: A Sectional Survey Study. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. 11(6), 11A06C: 1-10. Gloria, C., & Steinhardt, M. (2014). Relationships Among Positive Emotions, Coping, Resilience and Mental Health. Stress And Health, 32(2), 145-156. doi: 10.1002/smi.2589.
  13. 13. *Corresponding author (S.Bibi, shaguftamalik409@yahoo.com; A.Khalid arslankhalid1989@yahoo.com) ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 11 No.7 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 CODEN: ITJEA8 Paper ID:11A07A http://TUENGR.COM/V11/11A07A.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.121 9 Heo, S., Lennie, T. A., Okoli, C., & Moser, D. K. (2009). Quality of life in patients with heart failure: ask the patients. Heart & Lung, 38(2), 100-108. Hilbert, G. A. (1994). Cardiac patients and spouses: family functioning and emotions. Clinical Nursing Research, 3(3), 243-252. Lazarus R, Folkman S. (1984). Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. New York:Springer; 1984. Li, X., Kan, D., Liu, L., Shi, M., Wang, Y., Yang, X., ...& Wu, H. (2015). The mediating role of psychological capital on the association between occupational stress and job burnout among bank employees in China. International journal of environmental research and public health, 12(3), 2984-3001. Lockwood, N. (2011). The heart of the matter: The functional and relational effects of humor for cardiovascular patients. Retrieved from http://www.myheartsisters.org Low K. G, Fleisher C, Colman R, Dionne A, Casey G, Legendre S. (1998). Psychosocial variables, age, and angiographically-determined coronary artery disease in women. Annals of behavioral medicine. 20(3): 221-226. DOI: 10.1007/BF02884964 Melamed S, Shirom A, Toker S, et al. (2006). Burnout and risk of cardiovascular disease: Evidence, possible causal paths, and promising research directions. Psychol Bull. 132: 327–353 Milioni M, Alessandri G, Eisenberg N, Caprara GV. (2016). The role of positivity as a predictor of ego-resiliency from adolescence to young adulthood.PersIndivid Differ. 101:306–311. Roest, A.M. , Martens, E. J, Denollet, J., et al. (2010). Prognostic association of anxiety post myocardial infarction with mortality and new cardiac events: A meta-analysis. Psychosom Med; 72: 563–569. Rosenbaum, D. L., White, K. S., &Gervino, E. V. (2012). The impact of perceived stress and perceived control on anxiety and mood disorders in noncardiac chest pain. Journal of Health Psychology, 17(8), 1183–1192. DOI: 10.1177/1359105311433906 Seebach, C. L., Kirkhart, M., Lating, J. M., Wegener, S. T., Song, Y., Riley III, L. H., & Archer, K. R. (2012). Examining the role of positive and negative affect in recovery from spine surgery. Pain, 153(3), 518-525. Spindler, H., Denollet, J., Kruse, C., & Pedersen, S. S. (2009). Positive affect and negative affect correlate differently with distress and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiac conditions: Validation of the Danish Global Mood Scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 67(1), 57-65. Sultanoff, S. M. (1998). The health benefits of humor unfold, humor reduces the risk of heart disease, therapeutic humor. The Newsletter of the American Association for Therapeutic Humor. Sumi K. (2006). Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Perceived Stress Scale. Jpn J Health Psychol. 19(2):44–53. Versteeg, H., Pedersen, S. S., Erdman, R. A., van Nierop, J. W., de Jaegere, P., & van Domburg, R. T. (2009). Negative and positive affect are independently associated with patient-reported health status following percutaneous coronary intervention. Quality of Life Research, 18(8), 953-960. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measure of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social
  14. 14. 10 A.S. Ghaffari, R.S.Bajwa, M. Hussain, M. Tahir, S. Bibi, A. Khalid Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070. Abdul Sattar Ghaffari is a PhD Scholar, Zhongtai Securities, Institute for Financial Studies, School of Mathematics, Shandong University, Jinan, China. He holds a Master of Philosophy in Statistics. His research interest is Psychological and Medical Data Analysis. Dr. Malik Mureed Hussain is Director, Multan Postgraduate College, Multan, Pakistan. He holds PhD degree in Psychology. His research interest is Psychology. Muhammad Tahir is a PhD Scholar, School Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China. He holds a Master of Philosophy in Medicine. His Research interest is Clinical Medicine. Shagufta Bibi is a PhD Scholar, School of Psychology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, China. She holds a Master’s Degree in Psychology. Her research interest is Applied Psychology. Dr.Arslan Khalid does a Post-Doctorate in Health Psychology from Department of Health Psychology, School of Nursing, Shandong University, Jinan, China. He holds a PhD Degree in Medical Psychology from Department of Medical Psychology, School of Basic Medical Ethics, School of Medical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, China. His research interest is Medical Psychology.
  15. 15. *Corresponding author (L.Zaporozhtseva). Tel: +7-499-989-56-65. Email: Zaporozhtseva@gmail.com ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 11 No.7 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 CODEN: ITJEA8 Paper ID:11A07B http://TUENGR.COM/V11A/11A07B.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.122 1 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://TuEngr.com PAPER ID: 11A07B FINANCIAL MECHANISM FOR COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATION DEVELOPMENT: VECTOR APPROACH Lyudmila Zaporozhtseva 1* , Victoria Malitskaya 2 , Maria Chirkova 3 , Yuliya Tkacheva 1 , Irina Kuznetsova 3 1 Department of Finance and Credit, Voronezh State Agrarian University named after Emperor Peter the Great 1, RUSSIA. 2 Accounting and Taxation Department, Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, RUSSIA. 3 Accounting and Audit Department, Voronezh State Agrarian University named after Emperor Peter the Great 1, RUSSIA. A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T RA C T Article history: Received 30 July 2019 Received in revised form 06 January 2020 Accepted 16 January 2020 Available online 28 January 2020 The assessment of modern ideas of the economic essence of the development of a commercial organization is carried out, by which we are invited to understand its irreversible change, under the influence of which qualitative and quantitative indicators are updated. There was revealed their dependence on the indicator of economic value added (EVA) and the Golden Economic Rule. As a result, it is proposed to understand the financial way to develop the commercial organization as the totality of changes in financial indicators that are formed under conditions of criteria-based compliance with the golden economic rule and the creation of economic added value. Based on a combination of interpreted results according to the criteria for the formation of the financial way, three scenarios are identified, each of which corresponds to a certain financial way of the development of the enterprise. A calculation is presented for the identification of Phoenix limited liability company (LLC) based on our proposed methodology for assessing the formation of the financial development vector. The second way is proposed, namely the adjustment of the strategy of Phoenix LLC in terms of profit management based on the application of operational analysis, sensitivity analysis, and the multivariate calculation method. The set course of the target financial way will allow Phoenix LLC to increase the scale of its activity, increase capacity and ensure an increase in competitive advantages. Disciplinary: Economic and Management Sciences. 2020 INT TRANS J ENG MANAG SCI TECH. Keywords: Golden Economic Rule; Financial development vector, Strategy; Operational analysis; Sustainable development strategy; Enterprise financial strategy. 1. INTRODUCTION Maintaining and ensuring the competitiveness of a commercial organization in the face of ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies
  16. 16. 2 Lyudmila Zaporozhtseva, Victoria Malitskaya, Maria Chirkova, Yuliya Tkacheva, Irina Kuznetsova constantly increasing competition is possible only due to its continuous development. Because of this, it is of great importance to determine the factors that can guarantee the enterprise development to one degree or another, depending on the current situation. Also, when assessing the existing business environment for a commercial organization, a clear understanding of the onset of the moment from which development begins or continues is necessary (Adizes, 2007). Operating with a certain idea of development and guided by its level at a particular moment in time, in the financial management system it is possible to achieve the most preferable degree of development of commercial structures through the application of certain tools that form a specific mechanism. The theoretical foundations of the development of a commercial organization are defined in numerous publications of representatives and supporters of domestic and Western economic schools. The interest of Russian and foreign researchers and practitioners in matters of the essence of financial strategy, as the basis of the overall strategy of a commercial organization, is justified by its direct impact on the development of the enterprise (Grandi, 1996). The works of scientific research of domestic and foreign scientists determine the specifics of the development of a commercial organization, its conditions, as well as assessment methods. However, the question of the importance of forming a financial vector in the trajectory of the life cycle of an enterprise to ensure at least a minimum level of development, under the influence of certain management criteria, has not been raised. The existing level of scientific knowledge, the need for their further qualitative improvement served as a prerequisite for an in-depth study of nature, conditions, evaluation methods and allowed to justify the formation of the financial vector of the development of a commercial organization (Miller, 1984). A sufficient degree of validity of scientific and applied provisions, conclusions and recommendations presented in this article is confirmed by the use of domestic and foreign scientists, reference materials and electronic media, financial statements of a commercial organization of the Voronezh region for several years in the process of research (Phoenix LLC). The reliability of the results is ensured by the application of general scientific and special methods of scientific knowledge. The purpose of the study is to improve the development mechanism of commercial organizations. 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS In the framework of the study of the theoretical foundations of enterprise development, and assessment of modern ideas of the economic essence of the development of a commercial organization is carried out, by which we are invited to understand its irreversible change, under the influence of which qualitative and quantitative indicators are updated. It is established that in the development is very important the fact of the availability of constant financial support, as a guarantor of security of industrial and commercial activities. Therefore, it is proposed to consider the conditions for the development of the enterprise as the formation and implementation of an effective financial strategy and ensuring the financial security of a commercial
  17. 17. *Corresponding author (L.Zaporozhtseva). Tel: +7-499-989-56-65. Email: Zaporozhtseva@gmail.com ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 11 No.7 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 CODEN: ITJEA8 Paper ID:11A07B http://TUENGR.COM/V11A/11A07B.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.122 3 organization. In assessing the practical significance of these conditions for the development of the enterprise, we revealed their dependence on the indicator of economic value added (EVA) and the “golden” economic rule (Rotar, 2013). As a result, it is proposed to understand the financial vector of the development of a commercial organization as the totality of changes in financial indicators that are formed under conditions of criteria-based compliance with the golden economic rule and the creation of economic added value. Based on a combination of interpreted results according to the criteria for the formation of the financial vector, three scenarios are identified, each of which corresponds to a certain financial vector of the enterprise’s development (see Table 1). Table 1: Financial vectors matrix of commercial organization development. Тrp > Тrv> Тra > 100% The golden rule of the economy is not respected, but the growth rate of its elements (Trp)> 100% EVA > 0 and growing (1) Target (2) Basic (moderate) financial vector EVA > 0 (optimistic) (3) Inertial (pessimistic) financial vector The target (optimistic) financial vector is characterized by a combination of positive economic added value growth in compliance with the “golden” economic rule. Basic (moderate) also implies compliance with the golden economic rule, while the economic value added is not characterized by a growth trend, but it should be greater than zero. An inertial (pessimistic) financial vector is characterized by a violation of the golden economic rule, however, the growth rate of all components must exceed 100%, and one of the options for positive economic added value is growth or lack of dynamics. One of the main problems that enterprises face is the lack of a proper financial development mechanism, in which its architecture and sequence of actions would be determined. By the financial mechanism for the development of a commercial organization, we understand a holistic system that includes relatively independent and at the same time structural components that provide the enterprise with the consistent achievement of the most preferred direction of development. We have implemented the construction of such a financial mechanism based on the financial development vector (Raevneva, 2006). The financial mechanism for the development of a commercial organization, from our position, should include the following main blocks (see Figure 1): - information support for the process of evaluating the development of a commercial organization; - assessment of the formation of the financial vector of development of a commercial organization, based on which the development strategy is evaluated; - making decisions to support the identified level of development or to achieve the characteristics of the target vector; - implementation of tools for adjusting the development strategy, to achieve the target vector; - assessment of available results (Verkhoglazenko, 2014).
  18. 18. 4 Lyudmila Zaporozhtseva, Victoria Malitskaya, Maria Chirkova, Yuliya Tkacheva, Irina Kuznetsova Figure 1: The financial mechanism for the development of a commercial organization based on a financial vector Also, the financial mechanism for the development of a commercial organization should be implemented on an ongoing basis. We propose three strategies for the development of the enterprise, based on which development support measures can be selected: 1. Sustainable development strategy - this is a development strategy that expresses the desire of a commercial organization to increase, from year to year, profit, revenue, and property in a qualitative ratio to each other, as well as to increase its value. 2. The strategy of moderate development represents the same desire for quality growth, as with the strategy of sustainable development, but in the absence of growth of the non-negative added value of a commercial organization. 3. The chaotic development strategy is a development strategy in which there is no focus on the quality and constant ratio of the growth rates of profit, revenue, and property of the organization, however, each of the selected indicators should have positive dynamics, combined with increasing or unchanged positive added value of the commercial organization (Ivanov, 2010). It should be noted that each of the strategies corresponds to a certain financial vector. The target financial vector corresponds to the strategy of sustainable development, the base one is the strategy of moderate development and the inertial one is the strategy of chaotic development, respectively. Having determined the affiliation of the activities of a commercial organization with one or
  19. 19. *Corresponding author (L.Zaporozhtseva). Tel: +7-499-989-56-65. Email: Zaporozhtseva@gmail.com ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 11 No.7 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 CODEN: ITJEA8 Paper ID:11A07B http://TUENGR.COM/V11A/11A07B.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.122 5 another development strategy, the following tasks should be solved: - maintaining the achieved level in the strategy of sustainable development together with the analysis of the information block; - with the achievement of the characteristics of the target vector in a strategy of moderate and chaotic development. This situation requires the preparation and implementation of tools for adjusting the development strategy to achieve the target vector. Then it is necessary to evaluate the results, together with the analysis of the information block (Gaponenko, 2006). Also, if a commercial organization identifies a strategy that does not support development, the following tasks should be addressed: - with reorganization; - with the formation of a financial vector through the implementation of appropriate tools. 3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Table 2 presents the calculation for the identification of Phoenix LLC based on our proposed methodology for assessing the formation of the financial development vector. Table 2: Financial vector assessment of LLC “Phoenix” development. Criteria Year 2015 2016 2017 2018 EVA (thousand rubles) 4188 5464 5940 5912 Profit growth rate (TRP), % – 139.79 106.31 99.81 The growth rate of revenue (TRV), % – 123.78 118.18 93.93 Asset Growth Rate (Tra), % – 126.95 118.22 113.6 The Golden Rule of Economics, Trp> Trv> Tra> 100 % – 139.79>123.8 <126.95>100% 106.31<118.18<118.22>100% 99.81>93.93<113.6%>100% Financial vector – Inertial financial vector Inertial financial vector Not formed It was established that in 2016-2017. The activities of Phoenix LLC were characterized by an inertial financial vector, and in 2018, the fact of the formation of a financial vector, i.e. the enterprise did not develop in terms of positive dynamics. Using the financial mechanism for the development of a commercial organization, presented earlier, we conclude that an enterprise has two functioning trajectories: reorganization and the formation of a financial vector. We have proposed the second way, namely, the adjustment of the strategy of Phoenix LLC in terms of profit management based on the application of operational analysis, sensitivity analysis, and the multivariate calculation method, by performing the following measures: - an increase in sales due to an increase in productivity by 3% with improved processing and insignificant introduction of high-yielding varieties of crop products; - increase in the price of 1 centner of grain crops by improving grain quality with tightened control over the drying process.
  20. 20. 6 Lyudmila Zaporozhtseva, Victoria Malitskaya, Maria Chirkova, Yuliya Tkacheva, Irina Kuznetsova Using our recommendations will enable Phoenix LLC in 2019 to achieve the target financial development vector and strengthen its position in the agricultural market (see Table 3). Table 3: Financial vector assessment of LLC “Phoenix” development after applying the methods of financial management Criteria Report 2018 year Plan 2019 year EVA (thousand rubles) 5912 17624 Profit growth rate (TRP),% 99.81 258.1 The growth rate of revenue (TRV),% 93.93 131.56 Asset Growth Rate (Tra),% 113.6 124.24 The Golden Rule of Economics, Trp> Trv> Tra> 100% 99.81>93.93<113.6%>100% 258.1>131.56>124.24>100% Financial vector The company is not developing Financial target vector The set course of the target financial vector, while maintaining it, will allow Phoenix LLC to scale up its operations, increase capacity through the production and sale of new (for the enterprise) types of agricultural products and ensure an increment in competitive advantages. 4. CONCLUSION Thus, we have developed a financial mechanism for the development of a commercial organization, which includes the following main blocks: information support for the process of assessing the development of a commercial organization; assessment of the formation of the financial vector of development of a commercial organization to identify development strategies; making decisions to support the identified level of development or to achieve the characteristics of the target vector; implementation of tools for adjusting the development strategy to achieve the target vector; assessment of existing results should act permanently. As a result, its use will allow a commercial organization to achieve the target financial development vector, strengthen its position in the market and ensure the growth of competitive advantages. 5. AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIAL Data can be made available by contacting the corresponding authors 6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors appreciate the financial supports from Double Twin Foundation. Helps from Mr.Sayyeses is fully acknowledged. 7. REFERENCES Adizes, I. K. (2007). Life Cycle Management Corporation. St. Petersburg, 383. Verkhoglazenko, V. N. (2014). Criterial management of company development: Monograph. M. 206. Gaponenko, A. L. Pankrukhin, A. P. (2006). Strategic management: Tutorial for universities. M.464. Grandi, T. Ward, K. (1996). Financial Business Strategy: Translation from English. M. 241. Zaporozhtseva, L. A. (2014). Strategic economic security of the enterprise: methodology of providing: Monograph. Voronezh. 261.
  21. 21. *Corresponding author (L.Zaporozhtseva). Tel: +7-499-989-56-65. Email: Zaporozhtseva@gmail.com ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 11 No.7 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 CODEN: ITJEA8 Paper ID:11A07B http://TUENGR.COM/V11A/11A07B.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.122 7 Ivanov, Yu. V. (2010). Organization and its life cycle. Problems of the regional housekeeper. 12, 3-25. Miller, D. Frizen, P. (1984). Longyear study of the life cycle of a corporation. Scientific management. 10, 1161-1183. Raevneva, O. V. (2006). Management of business development: methodology, mechanisms: monograph. Kharkov. 493. Rotar, T. S. Niazyan, V. G. (2013). Sustainable development of the enterprise: the essence and methodology of calculating the integral index of sustainable development of the enterprise. Bulletin of the Catherine Institute. 2, 31-40. Professor Dr.Lyudmila Zaporozhtseva is Professor at Department of Finance and Credit, Voronezh State Agrarian University named after Emperor Peter the Great 1, RUSSIA. She holds a Doctor of Economics degree. Her scientific research includes Enterprise Financial Development, Financial Vector, Financial Mechanism, Commercial Organization. Professor Dr.Victoria Malitskaya is Professor of the Accounting and Taxation Department. She holds Doctor of Economics. Her scientific interests are Accounting, Analysis and Audit of Financial Assets, Consolidated Financial Statements. Dr.Maria Chirkova an Associate Professor of the Accounting and Audit Department, Voronezh State Agrarian University named after Emperor Peter the Great 1, Russia. She has a Doctor of Economics degree. Her scientific interests are Accounting, Analysis and Audit in Trade, Accounting and Analysis of Bankruptcies. Dr.Yuliya Tkacheva is an Associate Professor at Department of Finance and Credit, Voronezh State Agrarian University named after Emperor Peter the Great 1, RUSSIA. She holds a Doctor of Economics degree. Her scientific research is Entrepreneur Development, Financial Vector, Financial Mechanism, Commercial Organization. Dr.Irina Kuznetsova is an Associate Professor at Accounting and Audit Department, Voronezh State Agrarian University named after Emperor Peter the Great 1, Russia. She holds a Doctor of Economics degree. Her scientific research encompasses Entrepreneur Innovation, Financial Vector, Financial Mechanism, Commercial Organization. Trademarks Disclaimer: All product names including trademarks™or registered® trademarks mentioned in this article are the property of their respective owners, using for identification and educational purposes only. Use of them does not imply any endorsement or affiliation.
  22. 22. *Corresponding author (A.Nasser Alshahrani) Tel: +966555760117. Email: amer4841@gmail.com ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 11 No.7 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 CODEN: ITJEA8 Paper ID:11A07C http://TUENGR.COM/V11/11A07C.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.123 1 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://TuEngr.com PAPER ID: 11A07C APPLICATIONS OF ONLINE VIDEO CONFERENCING IN HIGHER EDUCATION: CASE OF SAUDI ARABIA Amer Nasser Alshahrani 1* , Irfan Naufal Umar 1 , Mariam Mohammed 1 1 School of Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA. A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T RA C T Article history: Received 20 August 2019 Received in revised form 11 December 2019 Accepted 16 January 2020 Available online 03 February 2020 Keywords: e-Video conferencing; Higher education; Student development; Lifelong learning; Online Meetings & Video Conferencing; Supervision. Students’ engagement in online learning is one of the ongoing challenges in most Saudi universities, which mainly concern about making them more independent and to take charge of their own decisions. Previous studies showed that traditional supervision faces several problems related to students’ feelings of control that may occur when there is a limited clarification of the concept being studied. This study investigated the potential of using videoconferencing in supervision practices. Fifteen students were invited for an interview. The results showed that students’ general perceptions of videoconferencing use were positive in which the majority of students were found to favor the use of videoconferencing as a supplement to the face-to-face approach. This study would provide insights on how teleconferencing related services can empower the current supervision practices through the use of structure and formed dialogues between students and supervisors. Disciplinary: Education Sciences (Information Technology in Education). ©2020 INT TRANS J ENG MANAG SCI TECH. 1. INTRODUCTION Many previous studies from different perspectives have documented the profound impact of videoconferencing on students’ learning. This is simply because the utilization of technology imposes an influence on students' various cognitive experiences in different learning conditions. Based in part on the support of these influences, Saudi universities are eager to assess technology utilization in driving students’ learning experience (Smith & Abouammoh, 2013). Previous studies showed that traditional supervision faces several problems related to students’ feelings of control which may occur when there is a limited clarification of the concept being studied (Kennepohl et al., 2006). Within the Saudi context, this is commonly reasoned to the weakness in ways of communication, weak relationship between supervisors and students, lack of cooperation to understand the argument, thus mutual misunderstanding (Al-Hammad, 2000). Also, when it comes ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies
  23. 23. 2 Amer Nasser Alshahrani, Irfan Naufal Umar, Mariam Mohammed to videoconferencing utilization, two issues with current studies have been recognized. One is the relationships between instructors and students in online supervision have not been adequately explored in Saudi higher education (Almalki, 2011; Baki, 2004). Most previous studies have tended to focus on the effects of adopting technology on students by assessing differences in online and traditional lectures rather than exploring the supervision relationship between instructors and students. Second, the little evidence of videoconferencing effectiveness for supervision purposes in certain Saudi universities may negatively influence its generalization to other universities in the Kingdom (Al Ghamdi, 2017). On the other hand, there are several issues (including lack of mechanisms to promote active interaction, and commitment to the learning task) reported by the ministry of higher education in accordance with the current practices of traditional postgraduates’ supervision (Abdulkareem, 2001). Therefore, the current system of education at King Saud University is passing through a period of significant transition through the consideration of technological deployment for developing the quality of learners’ learning. Such transformation requires that the process of supervision undertake a serious consideration for using online learning tools alongside traditional learning and teaching practices (Alabdulkareem, 2014). This led some universities such as King Saud University to consider the use of the videoconferencing tool as a way for facilitating lecturers’ supervision of postgraduates. This study investigated the potential of using videoconferencing in supervision practices. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 POSTGRADUATE SUPERVISION Supervision is the process of managing and guiding postgraduates throughout their research by engaging in active communication to understand a concept (Jones, 2011). A great part of the previous works is mostly focusing on distinguishing the capacities that the supervisor needs to complete, with periodic reference to an enculturation, coaching or child-rearing capacity. With the literature on learning and educating has investigated an applied approach in some profundity, there has been minimal comparable investigation for supervision (Lee, 2008) in the context of higher education. According to Denicolo (2004), university students assume to interact with supervisors for the aim of getting the necessary guidelines and suggestions on aspects related to their research works. The one-part relationship that encapsulates this uncommon juggling errand is that of doctoral students and supervisee when both are scholarly members in a similar organization. Moreover, the process associated with the instructional development and supervision helps extensively in enhancing scholarly execution of understudies (Bitzer & Albertyn, 2011). Because supervision of direction goes for upgrading educating and learning through appropriate direction and arranging, and concocting methods for enhancing instructors professionally and subsequently helping them discharge their imaginative capacities so that through them the instructional procedure is made strides (Drennan & Clarke, 2009). Meanwhile, the process for supervising students is believed to promote them to be familiar with the wellsprings of help with taking care of their instructional issues (Okendu, 2012). As such, it can be concluded that supervision as a process help educators comprehended the instructional process and helps them in the utilization of expert writing, diaries, free and reasonable showing materials,
  24. 24. *Corresponding author (A.Nasser Alshahrani) Tel: +966555760117. Email: amer4841@gmail.com ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 11 No.7 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 CODEN: ITJEA8 Paper ID:11A07C http://TUENGR.COM/V11/11A07C.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.123 3 varying media help and other related instructional instruments. In light of this, Dann (2008) illustrated the strong association between technology utilization in supervision and the students’ progress through their research works. Other previous scholars like Sinclair (2004); McCallin and Nayar (2012); Harbon and England (2006); and Hemer (2012) explained the need for exploring the role of Information Technology (IT) and ICT in advancing postgraduates’ participation to complete their projects. This includes the relationship between drop-out and non-completion rates as well as dissatisfaction with the supervision experience. Hecq (2009) and McCormack (2004) reported the potential tension between the student’s expectations of the research degree and their experience to understand and overcome various research-related challenges. Meanwhile, as a result, some conflicts between expectations and actual experiences may show up; the reason is the lack of communication between students and their supervisions in different stages of the research. Thus, the present work seeks to explore the use of videoconferencing within the Saudi context to address its potential for transforming the current supervision practices. 2.2 ACADEMIC SUPERVISION IN SAUDI ARABIA The Saudi government focuses on enhancing the society’s view of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), and in expanding open distance programs to help the nation be in line with the latest educational advances. Late advances in innovative technologies, including iPods and iPads, PDAs, and worldwide situating gadgets are demonstrating prominent with youth. The evidence in the writing of Al-Turki (2014) who discovered college understudy enthusiasm for ICT in the educational program, affirmed as of late by AlMegren and Yassin (2013). Furthermore, Saudi understudies and the workforce have inspirational states of mind to utilize the web as a part of education; distinguishing adaptability, openness, and effective correspondence as key properties. In general, teachers will consolidate ICT works in their educational modules (Alebaikan, 2010; Alghanmi, 2014). Be that as it may, Saudi colleges do not generally embrace web-based learning, incompletely because of certain issues concerning the availability and use of licensed innovation rights along with students’ participation in an online discussion. According to Attia (2014), the effective use of technology to enhance learning and supervision practices is currently one of the fundamental aspects for understudies encountering a mixed way to enable students to deal with their courses. While these matters make boundaries, additional propels in ICT and web capacity may serve to diminish their effect. Hence, an in-depth exploration of online tools in promoting students- to-supervisor communication is needed. It is valuable to follow the advancement of supervision in Saudi Education to comprehend the way of the supervisory framework in Saudi schools. The part of supervision has changed significantly throughout the years. Before the development of Saudi Arabia and before the foundation of the Department of Education, schools were private and for the most part religious schools. The head instructor of the school is the one who takes charge of regulating and coordinating the educators in the school. Schools are mostly following a straightforward learning approach, so the supervision practices are to favor the capability of new educators and name them, to coordinate the instructor with general mandates the system should concern showing strategies, and to tackle any issues that may emerge between the school and the group.
  25. 25. 4 Amer Nasser Alshahrani, Irfan Naufal Umar, Mariam Mohammed Therefore, promoting the communication of students-supervisor is essential to enhance students’ academic performance (Bakker et al., 2015; Pluut et al., 2015). Such performance was found to be associated with the active participation of students throughout the learning stages, which the literature addressed it as a sort of students’ engagement in a learning task (Currey et al., 2015; Horstmanshof & Zimitat, 2007; Krause & Coates, 2008; Kuh, 2009; Neumann & Hood, 2009; Sakurai et al, 2016). After all, we considered the role of videoconferencing in promoting Saudi postgraduates’ online engagement in supervision activities. 2.3 VIDEO CONFERENCING Early employments of video conferencing found in medical-related studies and business applications (Knipe & Lee, 2002). The utilization of videoconferencing in this review identifies with educational programs carried via videoconferencing and the utilization of videoconferencing for preparing and boosting peer-to-peer communication. Educational programs taught via videoconferencing, as indicated by Chen and Willits (2007), is to convey a learning background to the students. It is expected to improve student learning; this contrasts from another kind of videoconference: shared classes. Not at all like shared class offerings that interface areas consistently, educational modules videoconferencing is not an ordinary event (Satar, 2016). Alternatively, it can be said that it is an intermittent affair to upgrade learning. Raths (2015) recognizes educational programs upgrade as a successful utilization of videoconferencing. This may incorporate associations with zoos, galleries, creators, theme specialists, or associations with different classrooms. Hence, videoconferencing can be a compelling apparatus for instructors' proficient advancement (Loranc-Paszylk, 2016). The videoconferencing in supervision related practices still considered an effective technique for providing the necessary services for connecting the students with their supervisors (Gordon et al., 2015; Rousmaniere & Frederickson, 2016). The difficulties incorporate the cost of the innovation and associations, the nature of the hardware, and the classroom environment and techniques that make the learning knowledge (Blau et al., 2016). There are various cases of fruitful execution of videoconferencing identified with educational modules. These encounters incorporate virtual field trips, connecting with specialists, class exchanges, and shared activities between classes. Some previous studies showed the effectiveness of using videoconferencing technology to accommodate various learning and teaching practices in higher education, particularly for supervision. For example, O’Neil et al. (2017) explore university supervisors’ perceptions and experiences with live remote supervision. They found that remote supervision may offer a practical and cost-efficient tool to supervisors and students by facilitating the supervision of field experiences in physical education and can potentially help shift towards a new paradigm of supervision in teacher education. Ingham and Fry (2016) introduced a model of supervision called 'blended supervision' and its initial implementation and evaluation. Explain how blended supervision is achieving supervision and teaching outcomes. The authors claimed that such a model using videoconferencing means for communication could potentially promote the current supervision and teaching practices, not just practices using blended supervision. Another study by Haynes, Mosley, and Dewar (2016) evaluated the use of videoconferencing to deliver and supervise a weekly
  26. 26. *Corresponding author (A.Nasser Alshahrani) Tel: +966555760117. Email: amer4841@gmail.com ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 11 No.7 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 CODEN: ITJEA8 Paper ID:11A07C http://TUENGR.COM/V11/11A07C.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.123 5 exercise for clinical purposes. Other previous studies like the one conducted by Knipe and Lee (2002) explained the effectiveness of videoconferencing in the teaching and learning based on the interaction and discussion elements that enable students to take place in the learning process. Their study found that remote site students had a positive perception of the quality of teaching and learning in remote videoconferencing. Wang (2004) showed that students' use of Internet-based desktop videoconferencing tools allow them to develop their oral communication and visual interaction, which caused the multiple communication channels that allowed students to engage in active discussion and expression of oneself. However, it is necessary to mention that some studies did not see videoconferencing as an effective tool for other learning and teaching purposes that included learning of complex concepts (Giesbers et al., 2014). Regarding the style of supervision in a videoconference meeting, Könings et al. (2016) found that supervisors can be stimulated to organize online group meetings with videoconferencing software, which might contribute to providing an effective feedback environment to students. They asserted that videoconferencing played a key mediator between supervisors and students by stimulating constructive dialogue. These observations gave knowledge to the conceivable outcomes to use videoconferencing to improve the educational programs. An assortment of methodologies has been utilized reflected in cases that incorporate virtual field trips (Fitch et al., 2016), mentoring, collaboration with other members, and diverse interactions (Alelaiwi et al., 2015). Based on these, it can be said that videoconferencing provides the necessary elements for students and instructors to communicate and discuss research related matters at any time and anywhere. Therefore, investigating the effect of such utilization on students’ online engagement in Saudi higher education is essential. 3. METHOD This study used a qualitative approach to capture students’ perceptions of videoconferencing. The convenience of students (time and willingness) after being suggested by their supervisors was considering when the participants' selection. 3.1 PROCEDURE The unstructured interview was used in this study to report students’ perceptions about the use of videoconferencing technology for supervision purposes. A total of 15 participants were randomly selected from the same sample size, based on willingness to add more insights. We interviewed students separately to precisely capture and record unique information. We noted down what’s known “reflective interview notes” to help understand the connection between different points of view. The interview results used to provide more insights about students’ perceptions of the technology under investigation, which can help in consolidating the research objects and provide the basis for extending the results-driven from the questionnaire. The main questions asked were: 1. How do you find the use of videoconferencing in supervision?
  27. 27. 6 Amer Nasser Alshahrani, Irfan Naufal Umar, Mariam Mohammed 2. What are the opportunities from using videoconferencing in supervision? 3. What are the challenges of using videoconferencing for supervision? The researcher studied the existing literature Before designing the interview questions and protocol, intensively; that led to the use of open questions to understand the concept behind the research variables under investigation. Relevant theories or related themes were collected, and to each of them, several questions were developed. Based on these questions, an interview guide was developed (see section 3.7.1). To prepare the interviews, the questions were divided into different categories. However, during the interviews, the order of questions in the interview guide may not strictly follow. Due to the open and semi-structured way of conducting the study, it seemed to make more sense to let the interviewees answer the questions in an unconstrained way, mentioning everything that came into their mind. 4. RESULTS Interviewing 15 students (9 male and 6 female, 22-34 years old) in this study revealed some new insights. Regarding students’ general perceptions of videoconferencing use, students, in general, favored the use of videoconferencing as a supplement to the face-to-face approach. For example, one participant stated that “I feel more relaxed when I communicate with my supervisor via the provided videoconferencing system at the university; it’s like saying we are all in this together.” Another student was mostly concerned about the supervisors’ role in investing the time for their students after formal discussion. For example, he stated that “My supervisor and I may set some goals in my research and try to achieve them, but sometimes the supervisor still needs to remain about the progress we had, and that’s why sometimes it is better to meet the supervisor from time to time to discuss key points before we use the video conferencing tool.” Other students addressed the potential of this tool in facilitating their research schedule and provide a way to continue their research, especially when they are staying away from the university campus. One student, in particular, shared that “…..using videoconferencing is a solution to my communication problem as my supervisor speaks English, so I usually find it difficult to understand some words. When we use videoconferencing, I usually record the session and replay again to make sure that I am in the right direction.” As for the opportunities from using the video conferencing tool, the majority of students expressed different interesting benefits from such use, for example, one participant stated that “one important benefit from using this medium is actually in making it easy for me to share my thoughts with my supervisors and search at the same time for solutions online.”
  28. 28. *Corresponding author (A.Nasser Alshahrani) Tel: +966555760117. Email: amer4841@gmail.com ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 11 No.7 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 CODEN: ITJEA8 Paper ID:11A07C http://TUENGR.COM/V11/11A07C.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.123 7 Other concerns were mostly related to the recording of the session and writing down notes for students to use every time they meet with their supervisor face-to-face. For example, two students expressed that “……yes true, I use it when I have to stay with my family which is like 60 km away from the main campus. My supervisor doesn’t mind meeting me frequently via videoconferencing. And I find sharing my desktop with my supervisor via the videoconferencing tool is something essential, especially when I am working on statistical matters that require my supervisor’s guide.” “It depends, I like using the screen recording option we have here because I can replay it when I work on the revisions. My supervisor also likes to use the sharing doc option where we can highlight some important parts to extend…” From there, it can be said that the main opportunities from using video conferencing among students at King Saud University can be narrowed into its potential to make it easy for students to meet their supervisors at any time and from anywhere; sharing files and screen; recording the session; reduce communication barriers when the supervisor is a foreigner, and help students monitor with their supervisor about the work progress. As for the challenges of the videoconferencing tool, majority of the students addressed the Internet speed issue, for example, one student stated that “for some reasons when I use the screen sharing option with my supervisor, the connection starts to be slow and even may lead to some difficulties in maintaining the session.” Another interesting aspect that was highlighted by one student is the need for a reminder or notification to help the student and supervisor to meet, for example, “compared to Skype for business, the current videoconferencing tool does not offer a reminder option that is connected to your university email account. I sometimes forget about the meeting or when it should take place exactly. Based on these comments, it can be assumed that students found the videoconferencing tool to be mostly a useful solution to maintain their communication and interaction with their supervisors. 5. CONCLUSION This study would provide insights on how teleconferencing related services can empower the current supervision practices through the use of structure and formed dialogues between students and supervisors. It would also contribute to the existing theories on digital learning like transactional distance theory by explaining the association between instructors and students when communicating through a medium that allows active interaction and managing of previous discussions for understanding various learning problems. It is assumed that results from this study would empower the traditional supervision practices by opening the doors for Saudi higher education to improve students’ online engagement with their supervisors.
  29. 29. 8 Amer Nasser Alshahrani, Irfan Naufal Umar, Mariam Mohammed This study would help the Ministry of Higher Education in Saudi Arabia in general and King Saud University in particular to understand the boundaries of teleconferencing services such as videoconferencing to provide the communication-related elements necessary for postgraduate engagement in an online context. It will also serve as a source for explaining how videoconferencing can promote the current supervision practices in the Kingdom, which have always been seen to follow the traditional face-to-face method. The video conferencing method is considered greatly helpful in the wake of the New Coronavirus Covid19 pandemic to reduce the risk of infection in the classroom. 6. AVAILABILITY OF DATA AND MATERIAL Data can be made available by contacting the corresponding author. 7. REFERENCES Abdulkareem, R. (2001). Supervisory practices as perceived by teachers and supervisors in Riyadh schools, Saudi Arabia. Ohio University. Al Ghamdi, A. (2017). The influence of lecturer text-based immediacy on student engagement experiences and learning outcomes in distance education in Saudi Arabia. Victoria University. Al-Hammad, I. (2000). The obstacles of instructional supervision in Riyadh schools. Unpublished Master thesis. King Saud University: Riyadh, 128. Al-Turki, S. M. (2014). Assessment of information technology awareness and usage in higher education in Saudi Arabia: sample study in Jazan and King Faisal University KSA. International Journal of Advanced Research in IT and Engineering, 3(9), 1-17. Alabdulkareem, R. (2014). Differentiated Supervision Model: A Way of Improving School Leadership in Saudi Arabia. US-China Education Review B, ISSN 2161-6248, 4(3), 186- 192. Alebaikan, R. A. (2010). Perceptions of blended learning in Saudi universities. Alelaiwi, A., Alghamdi, A., Shorfuzzaman, M., Rawashdeh, M., Hossain, M. S., & Muhammad, G. (2015). Enhanced engineering education using smart class environment. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 852-856. Alghanmi, S. (2014). Investigating the Interpersonal and Contextual Factors Govern Saudi Lecturers' Motivation in Creating Innovative Blended Learning Environment that Web2. 0- Based. TOJET: The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 13(3). Almalki, A. (2011). Blended learning in higher education in Saudi Arabia: A study of Umm Al- Qura University. AlMegren, A., & Yassin, S. Z. (2013). Learning Object Repositories in e-Learning: Challenges for Learners in Saudi Arabia. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-learning, 16(1). Attia, M. A. (2014). Postgraduate students’ perceptions toward online assessment: The case of the faculty of education, Umm Al-Qura University. Education for a Knowledge Society in Arabian Gulf Countries (International Perspectives on Education and Society, Volume 24) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 24, 151-173. Baki, R. (2004). Gender-Segregated Education in Saudi Arabia: Its Impact on Social Norms and the Saudi Labor Market. education policy analysis archives, 12(28), n28.
  30. 30. *Corresponding author (A.Nasser Alshahrani) Tel: +966555760117. Email: amer4841@gmail.com ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 11 No.7 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 CODEN: ITJEA8 Paper ID:11A07C http://TUENGR.COM/V11/11A07C.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.123 9 Bakker, A. B., Vergel, A. I. S., & Kuntze, J. (2015). Student engagement and performance: A weekly diary study on the role of openness. Motivation and Emotion, 39(1), 49-62. Bitzer, E. M., & Albertyn, R. M. (2011). Alternative approaches to postgraduate supervision: A planning tool to facilitate supervisory processes. South African Journal of Higher Education, 25(5), 874-888. Blau, I., Weiser, O., & Eshet-Alkalai, Y. (2016). Face-to-face versus one-way and two-way videoconferencing: How medium naturalness and personality traits influence achievement and perceived learning? Paper presented at the Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI), 2016 11th Iberian Conference on. Chen, Y.-J., & Willits, F. K. (2007). A path analysis of the concepts in Moore’s theory of transactional distance in a videoconferencing learning environment. International Journal of E-Learning & Distance Education, 13(2), 51-65. Currey, J., Oldland, E., Considine, J., Glanville, D., & Story, I. (2015). Evaluation of postgraduate critical care nursing students’ attitudes to, and engagement with, Team-Based Learning: A descriptive study. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 31(1), 19-28. Dann, S. (2008). Applying services marketing principles to postgraduate supervision. Quality Assurance in Education, 16(4), 333-346. Denicolo, P. (2004). Doctoral supervision of colleagues: Peeling off the veneer of satisfaction and competence. Studies in Higher Education, 29(6), 693-707. Drennan, J., & Clarke, M. (2009). Coursework master’s programs: the student’s experience of research and research supervision. Studies in Higher Education, 34(5), 483-500. Fitch, D., Cary, S., & Freese, R. (2016). Facilitating social work role plays in online courses: The use of video conferencing. Advances in Social Work, 17(1), 78-92. Giesbers, B., Rienties, B., Tempelaar, D. T., & Gijselaers, W. (2014). Why increased social presence through web videoconferencing does not automatically lead to improved learning. E-Learning and Digital Media, 11(1), 31-45. Gordon, R. M., Wang, X., & Tune, J. (2015). Comparing psychodynamic teaching, supervision, and psychotherapy over videoconferencing technology with Chinese students. Psychodynamic psychiatry, 43(4), 585-599. Harbon, L., & England, N. (2006). The cultural practice of Research Higher Degree supervision over distance: a case in progress. University of Sydney papers in TESOL, 2009, 87-107. Haynes, F., Mosley, K., & Dewar, J. (2016). 147 Use of videoconferencing to deliver a supervised individual home exercise programme. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, 15, S89. Hecq, D. (2009). Interactive narrative pedagogy as a heuristic for understanding supervision in practice-led research. New Writing, 6(1), 40-50. Hemer, S. R. (2012). Informality, power and relationships in postgraduate supervision: Supervising PhD candidates over coffee. Higher Education Research & Development, 31(6), 827-839. Horstmanshof, L., & Zimitat, C. (2007). Future time orientation predicts academic engagement among first‐year university students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(3), 703- 718. Ingham, G., & Fry, J. (2016). A blended supervision model in Australian general practice training. Australian family physician, 45(5), 343.
  31. 31. 10 Amer Nasser Alshahrani, Irfan Naufal Umar, Mariam Mohammed Jones, A. (2011). Seeing the messiness of academic practice: Exploring the work of academics through narrative. International Journal for Academic Development, 16(2), 109-118. Kennepohl, D., Baran, J., Connors, M., Quigley, K., & Currie, R. (2006). Remote access to instrumental analysis for distance education in science. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 6(3). Knipe, D., & Lee, M. (2002). The quality of teaching and learning via videoconferencing. British Journal of Educational Technology, 33(3), 301-311. Könings, K. D., Popa, D., Gerken, M., Giesbers, B., Rienties, B. C., van der Vleuten, C. P., & van Merriënboer, J. J. (2016). Improving supervision for students at a distance: videoconferencing for group meetings. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 53(4), 388-399. Krause, K. L., & Coates, H. (2008). Students’ engagement in first‐year university. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 33(5), 493-505. Kuh, G. D. (2009). What student affairs professionals need to know about student engagement. Journal of College Student Development, 50(6), 683-706. Lee, A. (2008). How are doctoral students supervised? Concepts of doctoral research supervision. Studies in Higher Education, 33(3), 267-281. Loranc-Paszylk, B. (2016). Incorporating cross-cultural videoconferencing to enhance Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) at the tertiary level. Paper presented at the New Directions in telecollaborative research and practice: selected papers from the second conference on telecollaboration in higher education. McCallin, A., & Nayar, S. (2012). Postgraduate research supervision: A critical review of current practice. Teaching in Higher Education, 17(1), 63-74. McCormack, C. (2004). Tensions between student and institutional conceptions of postgraduate research. Studies in Higher Education, 29(3), 319-334. Neumann, D. L., & Hood, M. (2009). The effects of using a wiki on student engagement and learning of report writing skills in a university statistics course. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 25(3), 382-398. O’Neil, K., Krause, J. M., & Douglas, S. (2017). University Supervisor Perceptions of Live Remote Supervision in Physical Education Teacher Education. International Journal of Kinesiology in Higher Education, 1(4), 113-125. Okendu, J. N. (2012). The influence of instructional process and supervision on academic performance of secondary school students of rivers state, Nigeria. Academic Research International, 2(3), 490. Pluut, H., Curşeu, P. L., & Ilies, R. (2015). Social and study related stressors and resources among university entrants: Effects on well-being and academic performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 37, 262-268. Raths, D. (2015). 6 Ways Videoconferencing Is Expanding the Classroom: With Instant Access to International Collaborators, Virtual Field Trips and Courses in Other Districts, Learning Can Happen Anywhere in the World. THE Journal (Technological Horizons In Education), 42(4), 12. Rousmaniere, T., & Frederickson, J. (2016). Remote Live Supervision: Videoconference for OneóWayóMirror Supervision. Using Technology to Enhance Clinical Supervision, 157. Sakurai, Y., Parpala, A., Pyhältö, K., & Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (2016). Engagement in learning: a
  32. 32. *Corresponding author (A.Nasser Alshahrani) Tel: +966555760117. Email: amer4841@gmail.com ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 11 No.7 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 CODEN: ITJEA8 Paper ID:11A07C http://TUENGR.COM/V11/11A07C.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.123 11 comparison between Asian and European international university students. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 46(1), 24-47. Satar, H. M. (2016). Meaning-making in online language learner interactions via desktop videoconferencing. ReCALL, 28(03), 305-325. Sinclair, M. (2004). The pedagogy of good PhD supervision: A national cross-disciplinary investigation of PhD supervision: Department of Education, Science and Training Canberra. Smith, L., & Abouammoh, A. (2013). Higher education in Saudi Arabia: Reforms, challenges and priorities. In Higher Education in Saudi Arabia (pp. 1-12): Springer. Wang, Y. (2004). Supporting synchronous distance language learning with desktop videoconferencing. Amer Nasseris Alshahrani is a PhD candidate in Education at the School of Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia. He is interested in Education Collaboration, Long Distance Education, Information Technology-based Learning. Professor Dr.Irfan Naufal Umar is Professor in Education at Universiti Sains Malaysia. He got his Bachelor's degree in Chemistry from Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. He obtained his PhD in Education, and his Master of Education in Instructional Design and Technology from the University of Pittsburg, USA. He is interested in Teaching and Learning, Teacher Training, Learning Environments. Dr.Mariam Mohammed is a Senior Lecturer at Centre for Instructional Technology Practices and Multimedia, Universiti Sains Malaysia. She obtained her PhD of Education in 2012, and her Master in Computer Based Learning and Training in 2007, and her Bachelor in Information Technology in Organization from the University of Southampton, United Kingdom. Trademarks Disclaimer: All product names including trademarks™ or registered® trademarks mentioned in this article are the property of their respective owners, using for identification and educational purposes only. The use of them does not imply any endorsement or affiliation.
  33. 33. *Corresponding author (M. Asim Yasin). Email: dr.asim@ciitvehari.edu.pk ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 11 No.7 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 CODEN: ITJEA8 Paper ID:11A07D http://TUENGR.COM/V11A/11A07D.pdf DOI: 10.14456/ITJEMAST.2020.124 1 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://TuEngr.com PAPER ID: 11A07D FACTORS AFFECTING THE HOUSEHOLD DIETARY DIVERSITY PATTERN IN RURAL AREAS OF SOUTHERN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN Maria Iftikhar 1 , Muhammad Asim Yasin 1* , Rafaqet Ali 1 , Samiullah 1 , Muhammad Imran Khan 1 , Nazish Iftikhar 1 1 Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, Multan Road, Vehari, PAKISTAN. A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T RA C T Article history: Received Received in revised form Accepted 23 January 2020 Available online 03 February 2020 Keywords: Household dietary diversity score (HDDS); HDDP; Household characteristics; Ordered logistic regression. This study has been designed to examine the household characteristics that affect the household dietary diversity pattern in rural areas of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Household Dietary Diversity Pattern (HDDP) indicates the economic ability of a household to access a variety of foods. Apparently, HDDP is simple but affected by many collaborative factors. HDDP is multidimensional in nature. It depends on four important components: availability, stability, accessibility, and utilization. So, there are many socio-economic characteristics that can affect HDDP. Primary data was collected from 300 rural households. A detailed questionnaire was developed by following the guidelines of FAO for seeking information from the respondents. The ordered logistic regression was used for data analysis. The results of this study indicate that estimated coefficients of education, income, land size and livestock affect positively household dietary diversity score. The estimated coefficient of the age of household head, family size of household and time to reach the main market affect negatively household dietary diversity score. The study also suggested important policy recommendations to improve the dietary diversity score of rural households. Disciplinary: Multidisciplinary (Economic and Management Science, Nutrition Science) 2020 INT TRANS J ENG MANAG SCI TECH. 1. INTRODUCTION Household Dietary Diversity Pattern (HDDP) shows the summary of food that is utilized by people in case of comprising good nutrients or not (FAO, 2014). It is a qualitative degree of food ©2020 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

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