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Living on Mars Shaun Moss [email_address] Mars Society Australia www.marssociety.org.au
Living on Mars <ul><li>1.  Earth and Mars </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Why would we want to live on Mars? </li></ul><ul><li>3.  T...
Earth  and  Mars <ul><li>Radius:  12746km  6805km </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity:  1g  0.38g  </li></ul>Luna Deimos Phobos
Earth  and  Mars Mars receives only  43%  of the sunshine that Earth does, but has  no magnetosphere or ozone layer  to bl...
Why would we want to live on other worlds? <ul><li>Survive asteroid impacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth. </li></u...
But why  Mars ? <ul><li>Mars is  by far  our best choice for colonisation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close to Earth (and aster...
The challenges of living on Mars <ul><li>Cold! </li></ul><ul><li>Very thin and toxic atmo. </li></ul><ul><li>Water frozen ...
What will we need to live on Mars? <ul><li>Physical needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air </li...
Water <ul><li>Plenty of water, frozen. </li></ul><ul><li>But:  Very cold ice is harder than rock – very hard to dig. </li>...
Air <ul><li>Earth: 20% O 2 , 80% N 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Can make air like this on Mars! </li></ul><ul><li>N 2  from Mars ’ ...
Food <ul><li>Mars ’  dirt is not suited for life (yet). </li></ul><ul><li>Food grown in sealed greenhouses. </li></ul><ul>...
Making fertile dirt <ul><li>Process Mars dirt to make it less toxic </li></ul><ul><li>Add some nutrients </li></ul><ul><li...
Clothing, etc. <ul><li>Hemp – ultra-useful plant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canvas for shoes, ...
Buildings <ul><li>Low grav & thin air means less material. </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest problem – radiation. </li></ul><ul><l...
Materials <ul><li>Iron & steel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for many things: buildings, tools, kitchen items, furniture, veh...
Electricity <ul><li>Nuclear:  problematic on Earth, even worse on Mars.  Also, would have to find uranium. </li></ul><ul><...
Vehicles & Fuel <ul><li>What sort of vehicles? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressurized rovers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATVs (q...
Robots <ul><li>Will play a big part in colonising Mars. </li></ul><ul><li>Digging, mining, construction, exploration, tran...
What will we need to bring from Earth? <ul><li>Life support equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Electronics, computers & communica...
Health & Fitness <ul><li>Low gravity means loss of bone and muscle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need lots of strength training. ...
Sport on Mars! <ul><li>Rock-climbing, abseiling </li></ul><ul><li>Hang-gliding </li></ul><ul><li>Rover racing </li></ul><u...
Terraforming <ul><li>Making Mars ’  environment hospitable to organisms from Earth. </li></ul>
Warming Mars <ul><li>Create global warming using PFCs (perfluorocarbons) – a powerful greenhouse gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Us...
Adding Nitrogen <ul><li>To make a thick atmosphere like Earth, need lots of nitrogen.  Some on Mars, but probably not enou...
Adding Life <ul><li>With  warmth  &  liquid water , life can grow. </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere develops with climate, from...
Building a Biosphere <ul><li>1. Begin with some hardy radiation- and cold-resistant microbes. </li></ul><ul><li>2. As lake...
Robot Gardeners! <ul><li>Robots will be much more advanced in 100 years. </li></ul><ul><li>They can plant seeds in the bes...
Who ’ s making plans? <ul><li>Mars Society  – analog studies, research, promoting manned Mars missions ( www.marssociety.o...
Do you want to go to Mars? <ul><li>You will need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills, education, and/or experience. </li></ul></...
Questions? Email questions to:  shaunmoss@yahoo.com.au
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Living on mars.ppt

  1. 1. Living on Mars Shaun Moss [email_address] Mars Society Australia www.marssociety.org.au
  2. 2. Living on Mars <ul><li>1. Earth and Mars </li></ul><ul><li>2. Why would we want to live on Mars? </li></ul><ul><li>3. The challenges of living on Mars </li></ul><ul><li>4. What will we need, and how can we get all these things? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Health & Fitness </li></ul><ul><li>6. Terraforming </li></ul>
  3. 3. Earth and Mars <ul><li>Radius: 12746km 6805km </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity: 1g 0.38g </li></ul>Luna Deimos Phobos
  4. 4. Earth and Mars Mars receives only 43% of the sunshine that Earth does, but has no magnetosphere or ozone layer to block radiation. Earth Mars Distance from Sun 150Gm (1AU) 228Gm (1.5AU) Atmosphere 101.3kPa 78% N 2 21% O 2 1% Ar 0.6kPa 95% CO 2 3% N 2 2% Ar Temperature 185 – 331K Mean: 287K (14 ° C) 133 – 293K Mean: 210K (-63 ° C) Length of solar day 24h 1 sol = 24h 40m Length of year 365.25d 668.6 sols (1.88y = 687d) Axial tilt 23.4 ° 25.2 °
  5. 5. Why would we want to live on other worlds? <ul><li>Survive asteroid impacts. </li></ul><ul><li>Population growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop many new technologies & systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a global view of Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>For the challenge and adventure! </li></ul><ul><li>Why not? </li></ul>
  6. 6. But why Mars ? <ul><li>Mars is by far our best choice for colonisation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close to Earth (and asteroids) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warmth and light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has seasons like Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources – atmosphere, water, metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for terraforming </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The challenges of living on Mars <ul><li>Cold! </li></ul><ul><li>Very thin and toxic atmo. </li></ul><ul><li>Water frozen solid. </li></ul><ul><li>High radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Low gravity. </li></ul><ul><li>Long way from home. </li></ul><ul><li>No shops! </li></ul>
  8. 8. What will we need to live on Mars? <ul><li>Physical needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warmth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunshine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technological needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers & communications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicles & fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robots </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Water <ul><li>Plenty of water, frozen. </li></ul><ul><li>But: Very cold ice is harder than rock – very hard to dig. </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: Heat up the ground, cause ice to sublimate, and capture the steam. </li></ul><ul><li>Also: Recycle. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Air <ul><li>Earth: 20% O 2 , 80% N 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Can make air like this on Mars! </li></ul><ul><li>N 2 from Mars ’ atmo </li></ul><ul><li>O 2 from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fe 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recycle using plants (photosynthesis) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Food <ul><li>Mars ’ dirt is not suited for life (yet). </li></ul><ul><li>Food grown in sealed greenhouses. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydroponics – growing plants without dirt. </li></ul><ul><li>Aquaponics – fish farming combined with hydroponics. </li></ul><ul><li>Chickens & eggs </li></ul>
  12. 12. Making fertile dirt <ul><li>Process Mars dirt to make it less toxic </li></ul><ul><li>Add some nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Recycle food scraps & manure (human, chook) </li></ul><ul><li>Use earthworms (they ’ re also good food for fish and chooks) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Clothing, etc. <ul><li>Hemp – ultra-useful plant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canvas for shoes, bags, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lubricants, paint, plastics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemp oil – nutritional supplement, skin cream </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Later: cotton, synthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually: wool & leather </li></ul>
  14. 14. Buildings <ul><li>Low grav & thin air means less material. </li></ul><ul><li>Biggest problem – radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Surface structures – pile dirt on the roof. </li></ul><ul><li>Underground – protection from radiation, and easier to keep warm (but need big machines to dig). </li></ul><ul><li>Domes – Glass or plastic, maybe inflatable. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Materials <ul><li>Iron & steel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for many things: buildings, tools, kitchen items, furniture, vehicles, robots, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mars is covered in iron! (rust) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make steel using carbon from atmo. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many other metals available on Mars. </li></ul><ul><li>Can also make bricks, concrete, glass and plastics from local resources. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Electricity <ul><li>Nuclear: problematic on Earth, even worse on Mars. Also, would have to find uranium. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar: possible, but less sunlight on Mars. </li></ul><ul><li>Wind! Lots of wind on Mars; the air is thin, but high-speed. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Vehicles & Fuel <ul><li>What sort of vehicles? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressurized rovers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATVs (quad bikes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gliders, planes, balloons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rockets, spaceships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walking rovers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good fuel: methane (CH 4 ) & oxygen (O 2 ) – easy to make from Mars atmo and water. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Robots <ul><li>Will play a big part in colonising Mars. </li></ul><ul><li>Digging, mining, construction, exploration, transportation. </li></ul><ul><li>Electronics from Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Bodies could be imported from Earth, or made on Mars from steel and other metals. </li></ul><ul><li>Software – Earth or Mars. </li></ul>
  19. 19. What will we need to bring from Earth? <ul><li>Life support equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Electronics, computers & communications gear </li></ul><ul><li>Robots, machinery, motors, tools </li></ul><ul><li>Solar panels, windmills </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds, animals </li></ul><ul><li>Cooking equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Games, books, musical instruments </li></ul>
  20. 20. Health & Fitness <ul><li>Low gravity means loss of bone and muscle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need lots of strength training. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High radiation increases risk of cancer & genetic mutation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay inside during solar flares. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air, food & water probably better than Earth! </li></ul><ul><li>Build parks to play in, and to provide sunshine (artificial or real) </li></ul>
  21. 21. Sport on Mars! <ul><li>Rock-climbing, abseiling </li></ul><ul><li>Hang-gliding </li></ul><ul><li>Rover racing </li></ul><ul><li>Gliding, ballooning </li></ul><ul><li>Flying with wings! </li></ul><ul><li>Snow sports </li></ul>
  22. 22. Terraforming <ul><li>Making Mars ’ environment hospitable to organisms from Earth. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Warming Mars <ul><li>Create global warming using PFCs (perfluorocarbons) – a powerful greenhouse gas. </li></ul><ul><li>Use mirrors in space to reflect more sunlight onto Mars. </li></ul><ul><li>Heating Mars causes frozen CO 2 to sublime, thickening atmo and causing more warming – a runaway greenhouse . </li></ul>
  24. 24. Adding Nitrogen <ul><li>To make a thick atmosphere like Earth, need lots of nitrogen. Some on Mars, but probably not enough. </li></ul><ul><li>Can get more N 2 from Venus or Titan. Venus closer, but Titan easier. </li></ul>Venus: 96.5% CO 2 3.5% N 2 Titan: 98.4% N 2 1.6% CH 4
  25. 25. Adding Life <ul><li>With warmth & liquid water , life can grow. </li></ul><ul><li>Biosphere develops with climate, from polar/alpine towards temperate/tropical. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic engineering. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Building a Biosphere <ul><li>1. Begin with some hardy radiation- and cold-resistant microbes. </li></ul><ul><li>2. As lakes form, add aquatic plants – these convert the atmo to oxygen. Water provides protection from UV. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Aquatic animals. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Rising oxygen levels cause an ozone (O 3 ) layer to form, providing UV protection on land. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Plants on land, then animals. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Eventually humans can walk around on Mars without a spacesuit. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Robot Gardeners! <ul><li>Robots will be much more advanced in 100 years. </li></ul><ul><li>They can plant seeds in the best spots, and look after the plants and animals. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Who ’ s making plans? <ul><li>Mars Society – analog studies, research, promoting manned Mars missions ( www.marssociety.org.au ) </li></ul><ul><li>Mars Homestead – designing a future Mars settlement. ( www.marshome.org ) </li></ul><ul><li>4 Frontiers – company planning to build Mars settlement. ( www.4frontierscorp.com ) </li></ul><ul><li>Red Colony – open source plan for colonising and terraforming Mars. ( www.redcolony.com ) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Do you want to go to Mars? <ul><li>You will need: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills, education, and/or experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some scientific knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good health & fitness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good people skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A range of interests. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good things to study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering, science, technology, medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IT, electronics, mathematics, robotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metalworking trades, mechanics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music, writing, film-making </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Questions? Email questions to: shaunmoss@yahoo.com.au
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Living on Mars (Y7 Science)

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