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Micro grid for a conventional developer

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Micro grid for a conventional developer

  1. 1. Micro-grid Supply of energy to a hamlet using multiple sources of energy & managing the S-D complication © LANCO Group, AllAll Rights Reserved © LANCO Group, Rights Reserved
  2. 2. Microgeneration Large-scale generation Waste Heat Can be used for heating purposes known Used in some privately owned by-product as micro combined heat and power. industrial CHP installations. Transmission Lower losses Higher losses(8% of power losses generated globally & 26% in India is lost in AT&C) Changes to Reduces the transmission load & thus Increases the power transmitted, Grid reduces the need for grid upgrades and the need for grid upgrades Reliability and PVs, Stirling engines, and certain other Managed by power company. Maintenance systems, are usually extremely reliable. requirements Sales-pitch Focused on the "green-ness" of energy Focused on the energy crisis. exaggerations Ability to Renewables: Actual production is only a Fuel based systems are meet needs fraction of nameplate capacity. fully dispatchable © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  3. 3.  2 GW market by 2016 in India  Rural applications: Agricultural, Domestic, Lighting, Industrial applications 87% of rural population has lesser than required electricity 25% of Indian population do not have access to electricity owing to last mile connectivity issues- IEA, Oct 2012  PV cost reaching grid parity in few states © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  4. 4.  Cost economics Falling renewables LCOE vs rising APPC Most technological cost hurdles removed Direct consumers more creditworthy than SEBs Policy landscape $/Wp of modules 1.6 July blackout: Green Energy corridor 1.4 1.2 report suggests micro-grid 1 Oil import bill: Energy security 0.8 0.6 enhancement by means of DDG 27.04.2011 01.06.2011 29.06.2011 27.07.2011 24.08.2011 21.09.2011 19.10.2011 16.11.2011 14.12.2011 11.01.2012 08.02.2012 07.03.2012 04.04.2012 02.05.2012 30.05.2012 27.06.2012 25.07.2012 22.08.2012 19.09.2012 17.10.2012 14.11.2012 12.12.2012 16.01.2013 13.02.2013 Diesel subsidy directed at rural but injected at telecom High AT&C loss: 28% national average, and low ARRs indicate a compulsory shift to distributed generation Enhancing rural economy Rural development needs energy at the last mile RGGY implementation © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  5. 5. Captive + REC RESCO + REC Assumptions Captive + REC Risk to BOO model mitigated by microgrid Tariff escalation 5% RESCOs can schedule PV power REC prices 2012-17: Rs.9.3 per kWh procurement 2017-22: Rs.2.2 per kWh Scalable kits of 10kW can keep 2017 onwards: Rs.0 strides with business growth of industry Capex Rs. 8.8 cr/MW © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  6. 6. Farmer Kulveer Singh of Ganganagar told TOI, "With the help of the pump, money spent on fuel consumption is saved. In one hour, 2.5 litres of diesel is required, and in a day a generator is run for at least 8 hours. The solar pump is very cost effective.“  Cost of 1 kWh of DG is Rs. 18 at Diesel cost of Rs. 50 compared to Rs.6.7 from PV pump.  A 3 HP pump costs Rs. 4.5 Lakhs & gets a 30% capex subsidy. Components Specification Major Barriers to implement SPV panels 1800 Wp • Select kharif crops need water only in the 7-9 am & 5- Motor pumpsets 2 HP Centrifuge DC 7 pm when its dawn & dusk. Operating voltage 60 V DC • Average rural monthly income is Rs. 3000 per household, hence affordability an issue. Borewell size 150 mm dia • Inaction based on poll promise Suction head 7m to 10m BOO Pumping quantity 1,40,000 lpd model Modular storage systems A variation of the agricultural pump can also be used in Attractive EMI salt pans & prawn cultivation, where DG is harmful. This by itself is a Rs.5000 crore market. © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. Assocham report states cold storage market in India would be Rs. 64000 crore by 2017 with a phenomenal 25% CAGR!! http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2013-02-06/news/36949978_1_cold-chain-cold-storage-storage-capacity 65% of CoO of a cold storage is for energy, hence it’s a Rs.38000 crore market. 51% FDI in Retail to only increase the size of the market for cold storage. Policy Requirement for storage: No need of There is no specific policy in this direction, storage for fishing but for agriculture & but load mitigation can greatly be done by poultry, mobile cold storage vans could solar. also be a option © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  8. 8. One Astronomical stats: Per average farmer globally consumes 1100 units per yr, compared to 530 units in India. If SPV were to meet that requirement alone, it’s a Rs. 64 Lakh crore market!! Policy: RGGY gives 90% subsidy, and its implementation arm , Rural Electricification Co-operation arranges for 5% soft loan as well. Success stories IRR of 12% to 18% expected with 80% D-E ratio. • Gram Power • Mera Gaon Technology options: • SELCO Small distance (upto 1km, DC transmission recommended) Centralized battery storage (Li-ion, Flow batteries) © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved Source: MoEF, http://www.jseejournal.com/JSEE%202012/PDF%20file%20JSEE%203(1)%202012/7.Energy%20scenarios%20pp.%207-17.pdf
  9. 9. • Assuming a 5% hike in tariff YoY for next 25 years, and TN policy for net-metering the LCOE turns out to be lesser than Rs.5, which is lesser than the cost incurred by installing a inverter back-up • Plug & play kits serve precisely the said purpose • Policy lacunae: Earlier subsidy was offered only to Pb-Acid batteries, and now there is a cap on capex which means installers prefer lower capex rather than LCOE for setting up. © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  10. 10. Use Component Sub-component Eliminates T&D • Solar ( PV, CSP) Distributed losses, and enhances • Wind usage of renewables. Generation • Bio-mass Unreliability of RE is • Harmonics controller Steadier backup greatly reduced. • Voltage & frequency regulation of power • Auxiliary Reactive loads Schedules supply & Communication • Net meters, PQM, OMS, Output forecasts demand of power. control • Radio/micro-wave 2 way communication Shifts peak, reliable power supply, • Batteries: Li-ion, Pb-Acid, VRB, ZBB compliments PV. Energy storage • Reactive loads: Flywheel, capacitors, RLC circuit • Grid level: Pumped hydro © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  11. 11. Forms of energy storage Major Advantages Key disadvantages Electrochemical battery Uses DC to store, and fits Unfit for very large size & the different scales of PV very small sizes Pumped storage Best fitted for GW level Very site specific storage Capacitors (Ultra-small) Intermittent voltage & Expensive & non-scalable frequency regulation Flywheels Load balancing & power Bulky & stores relatively quality management lesser energy Cryogenics Compact & mechanical Unproven & risk of based-less prone to failure operating in the high insolation solar fields Every transformation of energy accounts for atleast 12% energy dissipation, which in itself makes storage of electrons as electrons (closest to ions) ensures least wastage. © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  12. 12. • Reason for battery: – Minimal transformation of energy – Least setup time in compliance with solar • Metrics to measure cost economics Levelised Annual Cost (LAC): • Divide the required Ah by DoD, and no. of replacements from cycles per day and system life. Calculate the additional capex, and add to capex in LCOE model. • Multiply the yield by DC-DC turnaround efficiency to get the effective yield to be used in the LCOE model © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  13. 13. Lead acid VRB Li-ion Na-S Na-Ni Zn-Br Specific energy 30-40Wh/kg 10-20Wh/kg 100-250Wh/kg 150Wh/kg 90-120Wh/kg 22.7Wh/kg Energy density 60-75 Wh/l 15-25Wh/L 250-620Wh/L 250Wh/L 166Wh/L 17Wh/L Specific power 180W/kg 220W/kg 250-620W/kg 250W/kg 450W/kg 150W/kg Charge eff 50% 75% 80% Net 87% Discharge eff 92% 80% 90% Net 87% Energy price(capex) 1Wh/USD .7Wh/USD 2.5Wh/USD 1Wh/$ 2.2Wh/$ 1.053Wh/$ Power price(capex) 1.5W/$ .67W/USD .33W/$ .83W/$ .75W/$ 2W/$ 8%@21,15%@40,31% Self discharge rate 3-20%/month 10-20 years @60 per month 2% per month Cycle durability 500-800 cycles >10000 cycles 400-1200 cycles 3000-5000 cycles 2000cycles 15000 cycles Nominal cell voltage 2.105V 1.5-1.55V 3.6/3.7V 2.58V 3.5V Max power rating 1-.8MW 10kW-5MW 7kW-1MW 1MW-15MW 1 MW 0.5MW Discharge time 4 seconds-5hours 45mins-10 hours 6mins-15hours 7hrs-10hrs 8 hours 1hr-5hrs DoD 80% 95% 100% 90% 100% 100% Advantageous property Easily available Lowest maintenance Compact Large scale Telecom applications Ideal for solar with no space constraints & Where space is a places where life-time constraint & where Large farms, and costs are more fluctuations in duty integratable with Li- Purpose augmented Small rooftops with important than one- cycle of recharge is Likely to be a fit ion for medium size with solar capex constraints time costs required. Grid level storage between Li-ion & Na-S applications. High operating temp; Na should be in Freezes if left in the Major disadvantage Low life time Occupies high space High capex molten state cold Too much space. Li chemistry still defined on a usage SMF,AGM, Tubular V salts with more based, hence are being used but no charge density, Zn-Br, chemistry New ways of coping to Scope for new paradigm shift Fe-Cr becoming easy optimisation scope keep Na warm Ni-Fe or Na-Ni-I might Substitute bromide technologyGroup, All Rights Reserved © LANCO expected. substitutes remains researched widely. occupy lesser space with other hallides.
  14. 14. Bulk applications: 1 MW onwards, calculations done for a 20MWp solar farm and 3hrs of storage, 25 yrs system size Technology-wise cost Na-S Zn-Br VRB No. of replacements 3 1 1 Capacity overshoot(DoD) 11% 0% 5% $/W $ 2.7 $ 0.5 $ 1.0 $/Wh $ 1.0 $ 1.0 $ 1.4 Round-trip efficiency 87% 60% 60% Initial capex cost(USD) $16 mn $ 14.25 mn $ 22.56 mn Total cost(Rs.) 324 cr 270 cr 318 cr Energy output (kWh) 204.89 mn 194.466 mn 194.466mn LCOE(Rs./kWh) 15.83 13.90 16.4 Flow batteries(VRB & Zn-Br) are better suited to bulk storage, given the longevity & lesser maintenance. Features that compliments integration with PV. Li-ion applicable only when precision & greater dependence needs to be imparted in the system. © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  15. 15. Bulk applications: 10kW onwards, calculations done for a 100 kWp solar farm and 5hrs of storage, 25 yrs system size & 2 cycles per day Technology- wise cost Na-S Li-ion Zn-Br VRB Na-Ni Li-Fe Pb-Acid No. of replacements 5 3 2 2 10 3 16 Capacity overshoot(DoD) 11% 0% 0% 5% 5% 0% 25% $/W $ 2.7 $ 1.70 $ 0.5 $ 1.0 $ 1.3 $ 1.65 $ 1.00 $/Wh $ 1 $ 1.23 $ 1. $ 1.4 $ 0.5 $ 1.10 $ 1.00 Round-trip efficiency 76% 96% 60% 60% 76% 94% 85% Initial cost($) 0.11 mn 0.123 mn 0.13 mn 0.15 mn 0.05 mn 0.11 mn 0.125 mn Total cost(Rs.) 2.18 cr 1.76 cr 1.73 cr 1.87 cr 1.67 cr 1.66 cr 2.8 cr Total yield (MWh) 987 1039 947 947 987 1034 1011 LCOE (Rs./kWh) 22.08 16.92 18.27 19.70 16.99 16.09 27.69 Combination of Zn-Br & Li ion batteries, seem to rule the roost. © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  16. 16. Gap analysis for integrating battery with PV Whom we could partner with.. • Zn-Br redox batteries What we What we have don’t ZBB • Micro-grid installation • Multiple resource management • Na-Ni battery Fiamm • Telecom solution • EVs • Li-ion,Ni-Cd & Pb-acid batteries BYD • Micro-grid installation • Evs • PV EPC Meeco • Li-ion from Durion • Micro-grid Other storage providers: Gleideweister (VRB), SAFT (Li-ion), High-view storage © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  17. 17. Key technology comparisons Battery Technologies Players Country technology commercially classification available Flow batteries Zinc Bromide ZBB USA Flow batteries Vanadium Redox Cellstrom(Gleidwe Switzerland ister) Flow batteries Iron Chromium Deeya India-US Molten Salt Sodium Sulphur NGK Japan Molten Salt Sodium Nickel Fiamm Switzerland Li-ion Manganese based PSI, SAFT Korea,France Li-ion Cobalt & Iron Meeco, BYD EU,China based © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  18. 18. Short-listing of technologies  For grid level storage Pumped Hydro seems to be the most effective form of storage  Longer life, lower LAC & suitability for kW to 10MW range makes flow, molten & Li-ion batteries a better proposition © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  19. 19. Evaluation of key probables Company Name ZBB Fiamm BYD Products portfolio PIU,micro-grid, Zn-Br Na-Ni, Ni-Cd, Lead Acid Lead Acid,Li-ion(2 batteries; Integration with batteries; Electric vehicles, chemistries) batteries; other batteries possible Integration with other PCU, multi-source mgmt batteries possible Core strengths Integratable with other Rich experience in micro- Very broad product batteries also grids in Italy portfolio Weakness Arguably a start-up Not open to varied battery Chinese tag applications Strategic threat Fragile finances being a start- Is a PV module mfg also, up might set-up a shop on their own for micro-grids in India Economics Suitable for MW farms & kW Only for kW but long Competes at every level level set-ups duration storage like telecom © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  20. 20. Reason for rejection of other players Company Reason Cellstrom Only storage solution & no power electronics or micro-grid solution available Meeco Own a subsidiary called Durion which does Li-ion, but is by itself a solar EPC and has done 200MW. Partnering with them might create additional competition for solar EPC in India later SAFT Too big to deliver customized solutions NGK Na-S had a explosion in September 2011 and since have stopped selling along with warranties PSI Not suitable to large farms, and not a big enough player Deeya Too early in the start-up stages © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  21. 21. Small Indian players Foreign govt. agencies promoting micro-grid • Apnagaon • NEDO-Japan • Meragoan • EBTC-EU Domestic battery manufacturers • Husk power •Rocket • Kuvam energy •Amaraja • Gram power •Amco(is entering into JV with SAFT) Indian companies trying to venture into micro-grid & smart-grid HCL General Capgemini Power Grid L&T ABB CISCO infosystems Electric Mahindra- IBM Siemens Schneider Azure Hitachi Tata power Clean ventures © LANCO Group, All Rights Reserved
  22. 22. Thanks. © LANCO Group, AllAll Rights Reserved © LANCO Group, Rights Reserved

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