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Soc. 101 rw ch. 13.pdf

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Soc. 101 rw ch. 13.pdf

  1. 1. Chapter 13
  2. 2. Outline What is a family? Diversity in families Theoretical perspectives Gender and Family Labor Aging in the Family Abuse Divorce, Breakups and Blended Families
  3. 3. What is a family? Family-social group whose members are bound by legal, biological or emotional ties, or some combination of the three  Meaning always changes with social, cultural, political tide of society  Industrial Revolution, Women’s Liberation, divorce rates, gay families, single parents, etc…  Nuclear family-heterosexual couple with one or more children living in a single household  Extended family-large group of relatives (incl. at least 3 generations either in one household or in close proximity
  4. 4. Diversity in Families Endogamy-marriage to someone in one’s social group  More common than exogamy Exogamy-marriage to someone from a different social group  Increasing, still rare: 5.7% of couples interracial (2000) Monogamy-marrying only one individual at a time Polygamy-allows people to have more than one spouse at a time  Polygyny-allows men to have multiple wives  Polyandry-allows women to have multiple husbands
  5. 5. Theoretical Perspectives Structural-functionalism-family is essential institution that allows modern industrial economy to function  Durkheim-marriage and family decreased men’s suicide rates Conflict Theory-nuclear family contributes to oppressive social relations  Competition over scarce resources (time, energy, leisure)  Gendered social institution (unequal power between men and women)
  6. 6. Theoretical Perspectives Symbolic Interactionism-looks at how family relations are created and maintained in interaction  Family members actively construct meaning of social bonds and roles
  7. 7. Gender and Family Labor  The Industrial Revolution created different and unequal roles for men and women-men working outside home for wages/women in home taking care of kids  Second Shift-unpaid labor inside the home; often expected of women after paid job  Hochschild-“supermom”- women who accept dual roles
  8. 8. Aging in the Family American population is aging-current average life expectancy is 78 years Retirement-Social Security benefits only source of income for 54% of retired population  10% of retired below poverty line
  9. 9. Abuse in Families *People more likely to be killed, assaulted, sexually victimized in own homes by family members than anywhere else  Related to privacy of nuclear family (early 1900s)  1 in 3 women will experience violence by partner at some point in her life  Women 5-8 times more likely to be victimized than men Domestic violence-any physical, verbal, financial, sexual, or psychological behaviors abusers use to gain and maintain power over victims
  10. 10. Abuse in Families Cycle of Violence-common behavior pattern of abusive relationships  1. Begins happily  2. Relationship grows tense  3. Violence occurs  4. “honeymoon phase”-reason victims stay Neglect-form of child abuse where caregiver fails to provide adequate nutrition, clothing or shelter Elders also subject to abuse in form of neglect, abandonment, financial exploitation, etc…  Elders and children both at risk because of relative powerlessness
  11. 11. Divorce, Custody, Child Support 2002-55% of U.S. population married/10% divorced  Rates of divorce have been steadily climbing Most who divorce remarry, but rate lower than in 1960s Increase in cohabitation-living together as a romantically involved, unmarried couple Growing acceptance of divorce-less stigma
  12. 12. Divorce, Custody, Child Support Mothers still disproportionately get kids, Trend toward joint custody-physical and legal responsibility of caring for children Children are more likely to live in poverty after divorce Women often experience downward economic mobility
  13. 13. Trends Being single-not just young; gays, long-distance relationships, communes, widows, and due to choice Cohabitation-1960-2000 number of cohabitating couples in U.S. increased 1000%  Most 25-34 years old Single parenting-only 10% of single parents fathers Intentional community-any group who form a communal living arrangement outside marriage  For a common purpose