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Teaching infection toStudetns by Dr.T.V.Rao MD

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Teaching infection toStudetns by Dr.T.V.Rao MD

  1. 1. INFECTION teaching basics Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  2. 2. INFECTION IS GREAT THREAT TO LIFE The great threat to Life is Infection in spite of many Medical advances The Morbidity and Mortality in Developing countries is much higher many patients are illiterate and poor, so really we do not work on this area as there is no Accountability With advances and use misuse of Antibiotics, unhygienic practices lead to spread of Hospital acquired infections have become a threat even in Developed countries
  3. 3. Life is experience start learning The TIME IS TICKING
  4. 4. My Friends we are moving from Microbiology to Infection
  5. 5. Transmission of Infections Infections can be transmitted through a variety of routes from one part of your body to another, or from person to person, from the environment, food or even animals. People can become infected by contact… touching something or someone; by breathing something in or by swallowing something, or infections can be introduced through a cut or wound
  6. 6. Do we Spread Infections? Despite our best intentions, health professionals sometimes act as vectors of disease, disseminating new infections among their unsuspecting clients. Attention to simple preventive strategies may significantly reduce disease transmission rates
  7. 7. Infection a threat to Life Modern medicine has led to dramatic changes in infectious diseases practice. Vaccination and antibiotic therapy have benefited millions of persons. However, constrained resources now threaten our ability to adequately manage threats of infectious 1 Influenza 2 Tuberculosis
  8. 8. WHO IS INCHARGE OF INFECTION Infection control programmes are cost- effective, but their implementation is often hindered by a lack of support from administrators and poor compliance by doctors, nurses, and other health workers. Some health professionals suffer from the “Omo syndrome”—a belief that they are always super clean and sterile
  9. 9. MOST LIFE THREATING INFECTIONS CAN BE PREVENTED - RARELY CURED Just think How much we can cure these Infections Hepatitis B and C HIV Infection Influenza Today EBOLA
  10. 10. ARE OUR HANDS CLEAN JUST NO The hands of staff are the commonest vehicles by which microorganisms are transmitted between patients. Hand washing is accepted as the single most important measure in infection
  11. 11. Hand washing The hands of staff are the commonest vehicles by which microorganisms are transmitted between patients Hand washing is accepted as the single most important measure in infection control
  12. 12. When should you wash your hands? Before eating food Before and after caring for someone who is sick Before and after treating a cut or wound After using the toilet After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing
  13. 13. How should you wash your hands? Wet your hands with clean, running water (warm or cold), turn off the tap, and apply soap. Lather your hands by rubbing them together with the soap. Be sure to lather the backs of your hands, between your fingers, and under your nails. Scrub your hands for at least 20 seconds. Need a timer? Rinse your hands well under clean, running water. Dry your hands using a clean towel or air dry them.
  14. 14. Steps in Hand Washing
  15. 15. What to Use for Hand Washing Alcoholic hand disinfection is generally used in Europe, while hand washing with medicated soap is more commonly practised in the United States.
  16. 16. What is the Best Soap to wash Hands
  17. 17. Alcohol-based hand rubs are more effective against most bacteria and many viruses than either medicated or non-medicated soaps
  18. 18. CAN I USE THE ALCHOOL HAND WASH Require less time to use Result in a significantly greater reduction in bacterial numbers than soap and water in many clinical situations Cause less irritation to the skin Can be made readily accessible to HCWs Are more cost effective
  19. 19. Gloves Gloves are a useful additional means of reducing nosocomial infection, but they supplement rather than replace hand washing. Possible microbial contamination of hands and transmission of infection has been reported despite gloves being worn.
  20. 20. Masks It has never been shown that wearing surgical facemasks decreases postoperative wound infections. When originally introduced, the primary function of the surgical mask was to prevent the migration of microorganisms residing in the nose and mouth of members of the operating team to the open wound of the patient.
  21. 21. USED SYRINGE AND NEEDLE A threat to Life The important pathogens to be considered in this situation are hepatitis B virus , hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV . It is essential that the health care provider be knowledgeable about the risks of acquisition of these viruses following needle stick injuries, and the recommendations for management and follow-up. it is prudent to assume that the needle may have been contaminated with one or more of these viruses.
  22. 22. DO NOT PLAY WITH NEEDLES WHO reports in the World Health Report 2002, that of the 35 million health-care workers, 2 million experience percutaneous exposure to infectious diseases each year. It further notes that 37.6% of Hepatitis B, 39% of Hepatitis C and 4.4% of HIV/AIDS in Health-Care Workers around the world are due to needle stick injuries
  23. 23. DO NOT RECAP NEEDLES Needle stick injuries are a common event in the healthcare environment. These injuries also commonly occur during needle recapping and as a result of failure to place used needles in approved sharps containers
  24. 24. Dealing with Needle Stick Injuries Encourage bleeding at the site of puncture Wash the wound Do not scrub the wound while you're washing it. This can make the injury worse. Never try to suck the wound Dry and cover the wound. Use a sterile material to dry the wound and immediately cover the wound with a waterproof plaster or dressing.
  25. 25. Dealing with Simple Wounds A primary concern Dealing with Trivial injuries without any Infection control precautions can be Dangerous 1 Gas gangrene, 2 Tetanus 3 Cellulitis 4 Wound infection with Staphylococcus
  26. 26. Dealing with Burn Wounds A primary concern
  27. 27. Primary care in handling wounds makes the difference
  28. 28. Cut injury Looks simple but Infections can make difference
  29. 29. Hospital Acquired Infections Threat to Life and Reputation of the Hospital An infection acquired in hospital by a patient who was admitted for a reason other than that infection. This includes infections acquired in the hospital but appearing after discharge, and also occupational infections among staff of the facility
  30. 30. Hospital Acquired Infections
  31. 31. Behavioural ChangesPrevious studies have shown that the traditional approach of lecture-base education alone does not result in meaningful behavioural changes. Rather it is thought that a blended learning approach, with particular focus on the small group format is important.
  35. 35. The 10 standard infection control precautions are 1 Hand Hygiene 2. Personal Protective Equipment 3. Respiratory and Cough Hygiene 4. Management of Blood and Body Fluid Spillage 5. Occupational Exposure Management
  36. 36. The 10 standard infection control precautions are 7. Management of Care Equipment 8. Providing Care in the Most Appropriate Place 9. Management of Linen 10. Safe Management of Waste
  37. 37. UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS Use Universal Precautions. Universal precautions is an approach to infection control to treat all human blood and certain human body fluids as if they were known to be infectious for HIV, HBV and other blood borne pathogens,
  38. 38. Start Practising Hand Hygiene TODAY IS A GOOD BEGINNING You may need to wash your hands a number of times throughout your working day – pause now and think of 5 occasions where you may need to wash your hands.
  40. 40. Never Forget Manners makes a lot of Difference Medical profession has been dealing with the repercussions of “bad bedside manner” for years, and anyone who’s been to the hospital recently can tell you there has been a marked change in the way that medical staff interact with patients. The incorporation of empathy skills into medical school and residency.
  41. 41. My Friends our Patients are not lifeless objects Keep them in good Humour
  43. 43. ADVICE FROM MY TEACHRS learn more on Infectious diseases?
  44. 44. SOCIAL MEDIA AND INFECTIONThe Facebook and Twitter are well connected with issues on Infection Can be connected with me if you have any clarification you reach me Rao’s Infection care Rao’s Microbiology on FACEBOOK
  45. 45. Program created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Medical and Paramedical students for basic understanding on Infectious diseases Email doctortvrao@gmail.com