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Ptosis
Functional anatomy
• Levator palpebrae superioris (LPS):
– is the primary muscle responsible for lid elevation.
– It arise...
• Frontalis & orbicularis oculi:
– frontalis muscle and the orbicularis oculi, both supplied
by the facial nerve.
– Fronta...
DEFINITION
• Ptosis (from Greek Ptosis -to "fall") is a
drooping or falling of the upper or lower
eyelid.
CLASSIFICATION OF PTOSIS
A. Congenital
B. Acquired
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Neurogenic
Myogenic
Aponeurotic
Mechanical
Neurotoxic

...
Congenital ptosis
• It is associated with congenital weakness (maldevelopment)
of the levator palpebrae superioris (LPS).
...
Telecanthus

Epicanthus inversus
Blepharophimosis syndrome
•

Rare congenital disorder

•

Dominant inheritance

•
•
•
•

•
•

Moderate to severe symmetric...
Congenital synkinetic ptosis
• This condition is characterized as a synkinesis:
when two or more muscles that are
independ...
• There are two major groups of trigeminooculomotor synkineses:
1) External pterygoid-levator synkinesis:
– is when the ey...
Marcus Gunn jaw-winking syndrome
• Accounts for about 5% of all cases of congenital ptosis
• Retraction or ‘wink’ of ptoti...
• Inverse Marcus Gunn phenomenon:
– Synkinesia between CN V and the levator more rarely causes ptosis on
mouth opening .

...
ACQUIRED PTOSIS
1. Neurogenic
– Third nerve palsy
– Third nerve misdirection
– Horner syndrome

2. Myogenic
3. Aponeurotic...
A. Neurogenic ptosis
• It is caused by innervational defects such as
third nerve palsy,
• 3rd nerve misdirection
• Horner’...
Right third nerve misdirection
• Rare, unilateral
• Aberrant regeneration following acquired third nerve palsy
• Pupil is ...
Horner syndrome
Central
(first order neurone)

Posterior hypothalamus
•

•

Brainstem disease
(vascular, demyelination)

S...
Phenyl ephrine test
• Patients with minimal ptosis (2 mm or less) should
have a phenylephrine test performed in the involv...
Ophthalmoplegic migraine
• Ophthalmoplegic Migraine is a rare eye disorder, previously
called a “complicated migraine”, wh...
IHS diagnostic criteria:
• At least 2 attacks fulfilling criterion B
• Migraine-like headache accompanied or
followed with...
Cerebral ptosis
• is due to supranuclear lesions.
• Unilateral cerebral ptosis occurs with lesions,
usually ischemic, of t...
B. MYOGENIC PTOSIS
• It is due to acquired disorders of the LPS
muscle or of the myoneural junction.
1. Myasthenia gravis
...
Myasthenia Gravis
• The ptosis in MG is frequently asymmetric and may
be unilateral, though it will tend to shift from sid...
• Curtain sign, seesaw ptosis:
– When the ptosis is asymmetric, the driving discharges
attempting to keep the more ptotic ...
Myasthenia Gravis
2. Investigations
•

Edrophonium (Camiston) test

•

Electromyography to confirm fatigue

•

Antibodies ...
Ocular myasthenia
Ptosis

•
•
•

Insidious, bilateral but asymmetrical
Worse with fatigue and in upgaze
Ptotic lid may sho...
Edrophonium (Tensilon) Test:
• Edrophonium chloride inhibits acetylcholinesterase,
• thereby prolonging the presence of ac...
Edrophonium test
Before injection

•

•

Measure amount of ptosis or
diplopia before injection
Inject i.v. atropine 0.3 mg...
Myotonic dystrophy
Facial weakness and
ptosis

Release of grip difficult

Hypogonadism
• Frontal baldness in males
• Invol...
Ocular myopathies

Ocular features

Clinical types
•
•
•

Isolated

Ptosis - slowly progressive
and symmetrical
Oculophary...
C. APONEUROTIC PTOSIS
• It develops due to defects of the levator
aponeurosis in the presence of a normal
functioning musc...
Aponeurotic ptosis

Weakness of levator aponeurosis
• Causes - involutional, postoperative and blepharochalasis
•

Mild

H...
Senile ptosis
• Senile or involutional ptosis is very common.
Asymmetric lids and redundant lid tissue in the
elderly.
• T...
D. Mechanical ptosis
• Due to excessive weight on the upper lid
– lid tumours,
– multiple chalazia
– lid oedema.

• Cicatr...
Mechanical ptosis
Causes

Dermatochalasis

Severe lid oedema

Large tumours

Anterior orbital lesions
E. NEUROTOXIC PTOSIS
• Envenomation by elapids such as cobras, or
kraits.
– Bilateral ptosis is usually accompanied by dip...
PSEUDOPTOSIS
• Pseudoptosis is the appearance of ptosis in the
absence of levator abnormality.
• Exclude pseudoptosis (sim...
• Blepharochalasis (dermatochalasis)
– refers to age-related lax, baggy skin around the
eyelids;
– it can also simulate pt...
Causes of pseudoptosis

Lack of lid support

Ipsilateral hypotropia

Contralateral lid retraction

Brow ptosis - excessive...
EVALUATION OF PTOSIS
HISTORY
• Ptosis
– Age of onset
– Duration
– One/both eye
– Diurnal variability

• Associated history :
– Diplopia
– Dysph...
• Association with
– Jaw movements
– Abnormal ocular movements
– Abnormal head posture

• History of
– Trauma or previous ...
Ocular Examination:
NORMAL POSITION OF EYELIDS
• The normal upper eyelid in primary position
– crosses the iris between th...
Ptosis
• U/L or B/L
• Complete /incomplete
• Total unilateral ptosis
– complete third nerve palsy.

• Mild to moderate uni...
• Head Posture:
– chin elevation as the ptosis is minimum in downgaze in a
patient with congenital ptosis is also one of t...
Measurements
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Margin reflex distance
Vertical fissure height
LPS action
Lid crease level
Lid level on down ...
1. MARGIN REFLEX DISTANCE
• Margin-to-reflex distance 1 (MRD1) :
– When light is thrown on the cornea a reflection occurrs...
Marginal reflex distance
• Distance between upper lid
margin and cornal light reflex
(MRD)

• Mild ptosis (2 mm of droop)
...
2. Vertical fissure height
• The distance between the upper and lower
eyelid in vertical alignment with the center of
the ...
Grading of severity of ptosis
< or = 2mm : mild ptosis
= 3 mm : moderate ptosis
= or > 4 mm : severe ptosis
3. Levator function assesment
• It is determined by the lid excursion caused by LPS
muscle (Burke’s method).
– Patient is ...
Upper lid excursion- burke’s ,method
•

Reflects levator function

•

Normal (15 mm or more)

•

Good (8 mm or more)

•

F...
Upper lid crease

Pretarsal show
fold

crease

•

•
•

•

Distance between lid margin and lid
crease in down-gaze
Normals ...
Ice test
Investigation
•
•
•
•
•
•

Serum acetylcholine receptor assay
Tensilon test
EMG
ECG
ERG
T3, T4, TSH
Surgical management
Mild
ptosis

Phenylephrine
+ve

Phenylephrine
- ve

Blepharoplasty

mullerectomy

Fasanella servat

Le...
Surgical management
ptosis

moderate

Levator
resesction

Levator
advancement

severe

Frontalis sling
Ptosis
Ptosis
Ptosis
Ptosis
Ptosis
Ptosis
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PTOSIS

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Ptosis

  1. 1. Ptosis
  2. 2. Functional anatomy • Levator palpebrae superioris (LPS): – is the primary muscle responsible for lid elevation. – It arises from the back of the orbit and extends forwards over the cone of eye muscles. – It inserts into the eyelid and the tarsal plate, a fibrous semicircular structure which gives the upper eyelid its shape. – The LPS is supplied by the superior division of the oculomotor nerve. • Muller’s muscles: – The way that the LPS attaches to the tarsal plate is modified by the underlying Müller's muscle. – This involuntary muscle, comprising sympathetically innervated smooth muscle, – has the capacity to 'tighten' the attachment and so raise the lid a few millimetres.
  3. 3. • Frontalis & orbicularis oculi: – frontalis muscle and the orbicularis oculi, both supplied by the facial nerve. – Frontalis contraction helps to elevate the lid by acting indirectly on the surrounding soft tissues, – while orbicularis oculi contraction depresses the eyelid.
  4. 4. DEFINITION • Ptosis (from Greek Ptosis -to "fall") is a drooping or falling of the upper or lower eyelid.
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION OF PTOSIS A. Congenital B. Acquired 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Neurogenic Myogenic Aponeurotic Mechanical Neurotoxic C. Pseudotosis
  6. 6. Congenital ptosis • It is associated with congenital weakness (maldevelopment) of the levator palpebrae superioris (LPS). 1. Simple congenital ptosis – not associated with any other anomaly. 2. Congenital ptosis with associated weakness of superior rectus muscle. 3. Blepharophimosis syndrome, – which comprises congenital ptosis, blepharophimosis, telecanthus and epicanthus inversus . 4. Congenital synkinetic ptosis – (Marcus Gunn jaw winking ptosis). – In this condition there occurs retraction of the ptotic lid with jaw movements i.e., with stimulation of ipsilateral pterygoid muscle.
  7. 7. Telecanthus Epicanthus inversus
  8. 8. Blepharophimosis syndrome • Rare congenital disorder • Dominant inheritance • • • • • • Moderate to severe symmetrical ptos Short horizontal palpebral aperture Telecanthus (lateral displacement of medial canthus) Epicanthus inversus (lower lid fold larger than upper) Lateral inferior ectropion Poorly developed nasal bridge and hypoplasia of superior orbital rims
  9. 9. Congenital synkinetic ptosis • This condition is characterized as a synkinesis: when two or more muscles that are independently innervated have either simultaneous or coordinated movements. • In MARCUS GUNN PHENOMENON – The stimulation of the trigeminal nerve by contraction of the pterygoid muscles of jaw results in the excitation of the branch of the oculomotor nerve that innervates the LPS ipsilaterally, so the patient will have rhythmic upward jerking of their upper eyelid.
  10. 10. • There are two major groups of trigeminooculomotor synkineses: 1) External pterygoid-levator synkinesis: – is when the eyelid raises upon Jaw thrust to opposite side (homolateral external pterygoid) Jaw is projected forward (bilateral external pterygoid) Mouth is opened widely 2) Internal pterygoid-levator synkinesis – is when the eyelid raises upon teeth clenching • External pterygoid-levator synkinesis is the more common group.
  11. 11. Marcus Gunn jaw-winking syndrome • Accounts for about 5% of all cases of congenital ptosis • Retraction or ‘wink’ of ptotic lid in conjunction with stimulation of ipsilateral pterygoid muscles Opening of mouth Contralateral movement of jaw
  12. 12. • Inverse Marcus Gunn phenomenon: – Synkinesia between CN V and the levator more rarely causes ptosis on mouth opening . • Marin Amat syndrome: – is a facial nerve aberrant innervation syndrome with levator inhibition with mouth opening. • Ptosis in Lambert-Eaton syndrome : – may temporarily improve after a brief period of upgaze. • Eyelid myotonia : – may cause transient difficulty opening the eyes after a forceful contraction or transient lid retraction after looking up. • Blepharospasm : – is a focal dystonia causing involuntary eye closure; – levator function is normal. • In apraxia of lid opening, – the patient has difficulty in voluntarily initiating lid elevation although there is no levator impairment or blepharospasm. • Rosenbach's sign: – A fine tremor of the lid may occur in hyperthyroidism
  13. 13. ACQUIRED PTOSIS 1. Neurogenic – Third nerve palsy – Third nerve misdirection – Horner syndrome 2. Myogenic 3. Aponeurotic 4. Mechanical 5. Neurotoxic
  14. 14. A. Neurogenic ptosis • It is caused by innervational defects such as third nerve palsy, • 3rd nerve misdirection • Horner’s syndrome, • Ophthalmoplegic migraine • Cerebral ptosis • Multiple sclerosis.
  15. 15. Right third nerve misdirection • Rare, unilateral • Aberrant regeneration following acquired third nerve palsy • Pupil is occasionally involved • Bizarre movements of upper lid accompany eye movements Right ptosis in primary position Worse on right gaze Normal on left gaze
  16. 16. Horner syndrome Central (first order neurone) Posterior hypothalamus • • Brainstem disease (vascular, demyelination) Spinal cord disease (syringomyelia, tumours) Pre-ganglionic (second order neurone) Superior cervical ganglion Intrathoracic lesions (Pancoast tumour, aneurysm) • • Neck lesions (glands, trauma) Post-ganglionic (third order neurone) Ciliospinal centre of Budge( C8 - T2 ) Internal carotid artery disease • Cavernous sinus mass •
  17. 17. Phenyl ephrine test • Patients with minimal ptosis (2 mm or less) should have a phenylephrine test performed in the involved eye or eyes • Either 2.5 or 10% phenylephrine is instilled in the affected eye or eyes. Usually two drops are placed and the patient is reexamined 5 minutes later. • The MRD1 is rechecked in the affected and unaffected eyes . • A rise in the MRDl of 1.5 mm or greater is considered a positive test. This indicates that Müller's muscle is viable
  18. 18. Ophthalmoplegic migraine • Ophthalmoplegic Migraine is a rare eye disorder, previously called a “complicated migraine”, which is also recognized as cranial neuralgia by the International Classification of Headache Disorders (HIS II) . • This disorder most commonly presents itself in early childhood or infancy. • To date, there is no conclusive hypothesis as to the etiology of this disorder (3, 4). • Ophthalmoplegic migraines are characterized by – Severe headaches – weakening of muscles around the eye. – these headaches commonly precede episodes of partial paralysis of one or more ocular nerve (most commonly the third cranial nerve), – drooping of the eyelid, – double vision, – dilation of pupils
  19. 19. IHS diagnostic criteria: • At least 2 attacks fulfilling criterion B • Migraine-like headache accompanied or followed within 4 days of its onset by paresis of one or more of the third, fourth and/or sixth cranial nerves • Parasellar, orbital fissure and posterior fossa lesions ruled out by appropriate investigations
  20. 20. Cerebral ptosis • is due to supranuclear lesions. • Unilateral cerebral ptosis occurs with lesions, usually ischemic, of the opposite hemisphere, and is more common with right hemisphere lesions. • Bilateral supranuclear ptosis may occur with unilateral or bilateral hemispheric lesions. • Ptosis has been reported in as many as 37.5% of patients with hemispheric strokes.
  21. 21. B. MYOGENIC PTOSIS • It is due to acquired disorders of the LPS muscle or of the myoneural junction. 1. Myasthenia gravis 2. Myotonic dystrophy 3. Ocular myopathies 4. oculo-pharyngeal muscular dystrophy 5. following trauma to the LPS muscle.
  22. 22. Myasthenia Gravis • The ptosis in MG is frequently asymmetric and may be unilateral, though it will tend to shift from side to side • It characteristically fluctuates from moment to moment and is worsened by prolonged upgaze (fatiguable ptosis). • Cogan's lid twitch sign, – characteristic of myasthenia, consists of a brief overshoot twitch of lid retraction following sudden return of the eyes to primary position after a period of downgaze.
  23. 23. • Curtain sign, seesaw ptosis: – When the ptosis is asymmetric, the driving discharges attempting to keep the more ptotic eyelid open are also transmitted, per Hering's law, to the less ptotic eyelid. – Manually raising the more ptotic lid causes relaxation and the eye with less ptosis, sometimes even no ptosis, may suddenly crash.
  24. 24. Myasthenia Gravis 2. Investigations • Edrophonium (Camiston) test • Electromyography to confirm fatigue • Antibodies to acetylcholine receptors • CT or MRI for presence of thymoma 3. Treatment options • Medical - anticholinesterases, steroids and azathioprine • Thymectomy
  25. 25. Ocular myasthenia Ptosis • • • Insidious, bilateral but asymmetrical Worse with fatigue and in upgaze Ptotic lid may show ‘twitch’ and ‘hop’ signs Diplopia • Intermittent and usually vertical
  26. 26. Edrophonium (Tensilon) Test: • Edrophonium chloride inhibits acetylcholinesterase, • thereby prolonging the presence of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. • This results in enhanced muscle strength. • In ptosis, a positive test is the elevation of eyelids in 2-5 minutes post adminstration of Tensilon. • A negative response is no improvement within 3 minutes. • the Tensilon test has a relatively low sensitivity, approximately 60% for MG. • False positive results occur in patients with – Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome (LEMS), – Amyothrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and – localized intracranial mass lesions. • Edrophonium chloride can cause overactivation of the parasympathetic system, and cause unwanted side effects like fainting, dizziness, involuntary defecation, severe bradycardia, apnea, and even cardiac arrest. It is important to always have atropine at hand if such side effects should occur
  27. 27. Edrophonium test Before injection • • Measure amount of ptosis or diplopia before injection Inject i.v. atropine 0.3 mg Positive result • • Inject i.v. test dose of edrophonium (0.2 ml-2 mg) Inject remaining (0.8 ml-8 mg) if no hypersensitivity
  28. 28. Myotonic dystrophy Facial weakness and ptosis Release of grip difficult Hypogonadism • Frontal baldness in males • Involvement of tongue and pharyngeal muscles • Intellectual deterioration • Ophthalmoplegia - uncommon • Presenile stellate cataracts • Muscle wasting •
  29. 29. Ocular myopathies Ocular features Clinical types • • • Isolated Ptosis - slowly progressive and symmetrical Oculopharyngeal dystrophy • Ophthalmoplegia - slowly Kearns-Sayre syndrome progressive and symmetrical (pigmentary retinopathy) (no diplopia) •
  30. 30. C. APONEUROTIC PTOSIS • It develops due to defects of the levator aponeurosis in the presence of a normal functioning muscle. • It includes – involutional (senile) ptosis, – postoperative ptosis • Ptosis due to aponeurotic weakness associated with blepharochalasis (Blepharochalasis is an inflammation of the eyelid that is characterized by exacerbations and remissions of eyelid edema, which results in a stretching and subsequent atrophy of the eyelid tissue resulting in redundant folds over the lid margins) – Posttraumatic dehiscence or disinsertion of the aponeurosis.
  31. 31. Aponeurotic ptosis Weakness of levator aponeurosis • Causes - involutional, postoperative and blepharochalasis • Mild High upper lid crease Good levator function Severe Absent upper lid crease Deep sulcus
  32. 32. Senile ptosis • Senile or involutional ptosis is very common. Asymmetric lids and redundant lid tissue in the elderly. • The levator aponeurosis attaches the levator muscle to the tarsal plate, which forms the eyelid. • Aging may cause levator dehiscencedisinsertion (LDD)—with stretching, thinning, or detachment of the aponeurosis. • Normally, with the eyelids gently closed, the upper lid margin lies 5 mm to 7 mm below the upper lid fold (the skin fold at the upper part of the lid). • An increase in this distance suggests LDD.
  33. 33. D. Mechanical ptosis • Due to excessive weight on the upper lid – lid tumours, – multiple chalazia – lid oedema. • Cicatricial Ptosis – ocular pemphigoid – trachoma.
  34. 34. Mechanical ptosis Causes Dermatochalasis Severe lid oedema Large tumours Anterior orbital lesions
  35. 35. E. NEUROTOXIC PTOSIS • Envenomation by elapids such as cobras, or kraits. – Bilateral ptosis is usually accompanied by diplopia, dysphagia and/or progressive muscular paralysis. – Regardless, neurotoxic ptosis is a precursor to respiratory failure and eventual suffocation caused by complete paralysis of the thoracic diaphragm. – It is therefore a medical emergency and immediate treatment is required.
  36. 36. PSEUDOPTOSIS • Pseudoptosis is the appearance of ptosis in the absence of levator abnormality. • Exclude pseudoptosis (simulated ptosis) on inspection. • Its common causes are: – microphthalmos, – anophthalmos, – enophthalmos – Phthisis bulbi. – Double elevator palsy – Blepharospasm – Contralateral proptosis
  37. 37. • Blepharochalasis (dermatochalasis) – refers to age-related lax, baggy skin around the eyelids; – it can also simulate ptosis but levator function is normal • Duane's syndrome – the palpebral fissure narrows on ocular adduction because of globe retraction causing dynamic enophthalmos.
  38. 38. Causes of pseudoptosis Lack of lid support Ipsilateral hypotropia Contralateral lid retraction Brow ptosis - excessive eyebrow skin Dermatochalasis - excessive eyelid skin
  39. 39. EVALUATION OF PTOSIS
  40. 40. HISTORY • Ptosis – Age of onset – Duration – One/both eye – Diurnal variability • Associated history : – Diplopia – Dysphagia – Muscle weakness • Vision
  41. 41. • Association with – Jaw movements – Abnormal ocular movements – Abnormal head posture • History of – Trauma or previous surgery – Poisoning – Use of steroid drops – Any reaction with anesthesia – Bleeding tendency • Previous photographs may prove to be of great help. • Is there a family history of ptosis or of other muscle weakness?
  42. 42. Ocular Examination: NORMAL POSITION OF EYELIDS • The normal upper eyelid in primary position – crosses the iris between the limbus (junction of the iris and sclera) and the pupil, – usually 1 mm to 2 mm below the limbus; – the lower lid touches or crosses slightly above the limbus. – Normally there is no sclera showing above the iris. • The palpebral fissures: – are normally 9 mm to 12 mm from upper to lower lid margin.
  43. 43. Ptosis • U/L or B/L • Complete /incomplete • Total unilateral ptosis – complete third nerve palsy. • Mild to moderate unilateral ptosis – Horner's syndrome, – partial third nerve palsy. • Mild to moderate bilateral ptosis – neuromuscular disorders, such as MG, – muscular dystrophy, – Ocular myopathy.
  44. 44. • Head Posture: – chin elevation as the ptosis is minimum in downgaze in a patient with congenital ptosis is also one of the indications for surgery especially in the pediatric age group. – In ptosis there will be superior altitudinal defect which is corrected by elevating the eyelids • Ocular Motility: – Importance in myogenic ptosis, – To R/O 3rd nerve palsy – presence of strabismus, especially vertical strabismus entails that it be corrected prior to the correction of the ptosis. • Visual acuity – Best-corrected visual acuity should be assessed to record any amblyopia if present, especially in cases of congenital ptosis. • Pupillary Examination: – TO diagnosis Horner’s syndrome – Involvement in a case of third nerve palsy
  45. 45. Measurements 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Margin reflex distance Vertical fissure height LPS action Lid crease level Lid level on down gaze
  46. 46. 1. MARGIN REFLEX DISTANCE • Margin-to-reflex distance 1 (MRD1) : – When light is thrown on the cornea a reflection occurrs .the distance from the central pupillary light reflex to the upper eyelid margin with the eye in primary gaze. • NORMAL : 4 - 5 mm. • If the margin is above the light reflex the MRD 1 is a +ve value. • If the lid margin is below the corneal reflex in cases of very severe ptosis the MRD 1 would be a –ve value.
  47. 47. Marginal reflex distance • Distance between upper lid margin and cornal light reflex (MRD) • Mild ptosis (2 mm of droop) • Moderate ptosis (3 mm) • Severe ptosis (4 mm or more)
  48. 48. 2. Vertical fissure height • The distance between the upper and lower eyelid in vertical alignment with the center of the pupil in primary gaze, with the patient’s brow relaxed. • Normal – 9-10mm in primary gaze • Should be seen in up gaze, down gaze and primary gaze • Amount of ptosis = difference in palpebral apertures in unilateral ptosis or Difference from normal in bilateral ptosis
  49. 49. Grading of severity of ptosis < or = 2mm : mild ptosis = 3 mm : moderate ptosis = or > 4 mm : severe ptosis
  50. 50. 3. Levator function assesment • It is determined by the lid excursion caused by LPS muscle (Burke’s method). – Patient is asked to look down, and thumb of one hand is placed firmly against the eyebrow of the patient (to block the action of frontalis muscle) by the examiner. – Then the patient is asked to look up and the amount of upper lid excursion is measured with a ruler held in the other hand by the examiner. – Levator function is graded as follows: • • • • Normal 15 mm Good 8 mm or more Fair 5-7 mm Poor 4 mm or less
  51. 51. Upper lid excursion- burke’s ,method • Reflects levator function • Normal (15 mm or more) • Good (8 mm or more) • Fair (5-7 mm) • Poor (4 mm or less)
  52. 52. Upper lid crease Pretarsal show fold crease • • • • Distance between lid margin and lid crease in down-gaze Normals - females 10 mm; males 8 mm Absence in congenital ptosis indicates poor levator function High crease suggests an aponeurotic defect • Distance between lash line and skin fold in primary position of gaze
  53. 53. Ice test
  54. 54. Investigation • • • • • • Serum acetylcholine receptor assay Tensilon test EMG ECG ERG T3, T4, TSH
  55. 55. Surgical management Mild ptosis Phenylephrine +ve Phenylephrine - ve Blepharoplasty mullerectomy Fasanella servat Levator resection
  56. 56. Surgical management ptosis moderate Levator resesction Levator advancement severe Frontalis sling
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