Is the opposite of remembering.
When information or data are not
retained in the memory, they are
forgetting. It is normal to an
individual. It is depending on your
age and other reasons or causes, we
tend to forget because of some
3. Psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus was
one of the first to scientifically study
forgetting. In experiments where is used
himself as the subject, Ebbinghaus tested
his memory using three-letter nonsense
syllables. He relied on such nonsense
words because relying on previously known
words would have made use of his existing
knowledge and associations in his memory.
4. In order to test for new information, Ebbinghaus
tested his memory for periods of time ranging
from 20 minutes to 31 days. He then published
his findings in 1885 in Memory: A Contribution to
His results, plotted in what is known as the
Ebbinghaus forgetting curve, revealed a
relationship between forgetting and time. Initially,
information is often lost very quickly after it is
learned. Factors such as how the information was
learned and how frequently it was rehearsed play
a role in how quickly these memories are lost.
6. FACTORS OF FORGETTING
1. Encoding Failure - it is the failure of inputting
the details of the data or information due to poor
attention, lack of concentration and ambiguous
or different motives. If information are vague,
they are easily forgotten.
2. Decay of Fading of Memory Traces -
memory trace are changes in the nerve cells of
the brain. Learned stimuli gradually decay or
fade with passage of time.
7. 3. Disuse of The Learned Material – when the
learned is no longer rehearsed or repeated,
they tend to be forgotten due to lack of
adequate stimulation of these materials.
4. Repression of Emotionally Threatening
Information (motivated forgetting) – is a
mental process of refusing to think something
because we find the thoughts unpleasant and
distasteful. Information which are
disappointing, shameful or painful from the
unconscious state of mind are pushed down
into the subconscious state of mind.
8. 5. Interference of Other Materials – the
ability to recall the learned material is blocked or
prevented by other related materials. Old and
new learning materials compete with each other
such that the ability to retain and remember
them are limited.
2 kinds of Interference:
Proactive – is the process in which old learned
material interferes with the capacity to retrieve
more recent learned materials.
9. Retroactive - recently learned
information makes it difficult to recall
6. Amnesia - it is a temporary loss of memory
due to the damage of the brain resulting from
drug use, emotional shock, or severe stress.
10. EMOTIONAL FACTORS
1. Emotionally charges situations, whether positive
or negative, may decrease forgetting.
2. Negative emotions may increase the tendency to
forget than positive or pleasant emotions.
3. Study and memorize when your emotion is at its
best. Do not study when you are in a good mood
or when you are under stress. You may not be able
to encode and store the information you are
attempting to collect.
4. Traumatic experience stored in the unconscious
state of mind may either into your conscious state
of mind affecting memory.
11. IMPROVING MEMORY
1. Feedback - knowledge of the result of an
activity performed will give you the opportunity
to check if you are learning or if there is a need
to further improve your work.
2. Recitation – recite what you have learned to
yourself. Silent recitation will make you
remember past lessons.
3. Overlearning - it does not mean going
beyond what has already been learned;
because what has already been learned is
already “learned”. It simply means that if you
wish not to forget what you have already
learned, continue to reviewing it now and then.
12. 4. Selection - it is difficult to remember all the
notes written in your notebook or the
information printed in your textbook. Hence, you
have to place selection markings in your
notebooks or textbooks which you can use to
summarize your idea.
5. Spaced practice – this is a strategy of
studying in which a relaxation or rest period (15-
30 mins.) is alloted in between a schedule of
6. Organization – this strategy can be done by
organizing your notes or making an outline so
that when your ideas are already organized,
learning become easier, clearer, and faster.
13. 7. Learning by Whole Learning by Parts –
for simple and short learning material, it is better
to learn it first as a whole before proceeding to
learn the parts.
8. Serial position – in a long list of items or
series of statement, we often remember only the
first and the last items. We tend to forget those
in the middle.
9. Sleep – a good sleep can improve memory. It is
a way of relaxing the muscle and the brain.
10. Review – is a way of using the Law of Exercise
or the Law of Use. Is a form of practice and
14. 11. Cues – create a mental picture of what you
are studying or memorizing for easy retrieval.
12. PQRST Method – this means Preview,
Question, Read, Self-recitation and Test. It is a
way of understanding and remembering your
lessons in every chapter of the book.
13. Use of Foods, Medicine and Vitamins –
they do not exactly improve memory but they
can induce or stimulate the process of learning
the material to a certain extent, if properly
15. 14. Mnemonic (pronounce as ni-monic) – is any
kind of remembering system or memory aid to
improve encoding and retrieval of cues to
enhance recall and decrease forgetting.
In rhymes - example , we use the spelling rule
“i before e, except c” like in believe, belief,
receive and receipt.
In acronyms – we, write the first letter of a
long list of items to be enumerate, such as,
Government Service and Insurance System
16. Acrostic mnemonic - is the use of sentence
such that a word begins with the item to be
learned. To remember the EGBDF of the G-clef
staff, state in the sentence as “Every Good Boy
Loci method (pronounce as Low-sigh) –
places are used as memory pegs in memorizing
a long list of items.
Peg method – a device for memorizing long
tests especially in the exact order. It is a way of
creating association between a number-word
rhyme and items to be memorized.