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Reading Comprehension Strategies

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Reading Comprehension Strategies for struggling readers.

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Reading Comprehension Strategies

  1. 1. For non-fiction text By: Danielle Irizarry
  2. 2. The Strategies • In order for students to be successful while reading, they must employ reading comprehension strategies before, during, and after reading. • The following slides are examples of strategies that can be used by students to increase understanding and comprehension by students while reading non-fiction text.
  3. 3. Before Reading The goal of the strategies used before reading is to activate prior knowledge, increase interest, and to prepare the student for what they are about to read.
  4. 4. Activate Prior Knowledge • This is an important strategy for students when reading non-fiction text. • The goal is to create a link between what you are about to learn and what you already know. • For example, if you are reading a book about insects you can activate your prior knowledge and think about the insects you know about.
  5. 5. Picture Walk • Before reading anything, flip through the text to look for any pictures or graphics. • Use these to activate your prior knowledge like discussed earlier. • The pictures can play an important role in the text so this strategy will come in handy. • Keep these pictures in mind for later when you start to read.
  6. 6. Analyze Text Features • With non-fiction text, the text features are very important. • Look for headers, changes in text size or color, bold, italics, or underlining to help pick out important information. • Text features point out important information that the author is trying to portray. BOLD ITALICS UNDERLINE
  7. 7. Make Predictions • Before reading, make predictions about the text. • Read the title of the passage and ask yourself what you think might happen in the text. • For example, you can make predictions about history non-fiction text or science non-fiction text to see what you already know. • This will be something you can refer back to at the end of the lesson.
  8. 8. Identify the Purpose • Before you start to read, it is helpful to identify the purpose for reading. • With non-fiction text, many times the purpose will be to inform. • It is also important to identify any bias that might be present before you read. • Use this information to guide your reading.
  9. 9. During Reading • It is crucial for students to use reading comprehension strategies during reading. • These strategies guide the students as they read and make sure they understand the text. • This is an important step for the students metacognitively. They will need to actively think about what they are doing as they read.
  10. 10. Create Mental Pictures • As you read the text, picture what the author is describing. • If there are pictures, use these to guide your mental pictures. • Create images of what is happening or what might happen next. • For example, if you are reading about World War II pictures the conditions as they are described in the text.
  11. 11. Make Connections • As you are reading, make connections from what the author is talking about to what you already know. • Make sure to adjust your understandings as needed. • Do not let your prior knowledge interfere with what you are learning but do make connections where you can.
  12. 12. Mark the Text • If you are able, mark the text as you read. • Highlight, underline, or write in the margins important details as you read. • Use post-it notes if you are using a book that you cannot mark in. • These small notes will help you keep track of what you are reading and will you to remember important details.
  13. 13. Use Graphic Organizers • As you read, mark down information on a graphic organizer. • There are many different graphic organizers out there that can reflect different relationships. • For example, graphic organizers can be used to write down important cause and effect relationships as well as compare and contrast relationships.
  14. 14. Put it in Your Own Words • After reading a section of the text, put what the author is saying into your own words. • By doing so you are clarifying your information and making sure that your are comprehending as you go. • If you cannot put it into your own words effectively, go back and reread the passage making sure to note key details.
  15. 15. After Reading • The strategies that are used after reading the text are just as important as the strategies that are used before and during reading. • These strategies “help students integrate information from text with their own core knowledge” (Bursuck, 2011). • These strategies reinforce what was learned and make sure effective learning has taken place.
  16. 16. Reflect • Once you finish the text, reflect on what you read. • Ask yourself questions such as: – Did I understand what I just read? – Do I need more information? – What confused me? • Questions such as these can be very helpful to monitor conprehension.
  17. 17. Reread • After reading the passage once, a helpful strategy is to go back and read the text again. • Before you do so, write down some questions you might have had when reading the first time. • Think about your reflection and use that as a guide for reading the second time.
  18. 18. Summarize the Text • After reading, summarize the text as a whole. • Make sure you are able to identify the key details and put them into your own words. • Think about the facts and be able to summarize the important ones. • By putting the text into your own words at the end, you are guiding your comprehension and creating a solid foundation for knowledge that can be used later on.
  19. 19. Ask Questions/Clarify Misconceptions • Once you’ve finished reading, ask yourself questions about what you read. • Some questions can include: – What was the main point of the text? – How did that align with what I already knew? – What did I learn? • This is also a great time to clarify misconceptions that were identified during the ‘before’ stage of reading.
  20. 20. Present the Information • A great way to increase comprehension after reading a piece of text is to present the information. • This does not have to be elaborate. • Grab a friend or peer and present the information you just learned. • If you can clearly explain to someone else what you have learned you have a good grasp on the material. • If the other person has questions at the end that you cannot answer, go back to the text and read it with those questions in mind.
  21. 21. Using Reading Comprehension Strategies • Reading comprehension strategies are crucial for increasing understanding for struggling readers. • Reading is a process and this is the reason there are certain strategies that are used before, during, and after. • Students will gain more from the text if they are able to employ these strategies.
  22. 22. References Bursuck, W., & Damer, M. (2011). Teaching reading to students who are at risk or have disabilities: A multi-tier approach (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson. Coe, G., & Fitzpatrick, A. (n.d.). Reading Strategies for the Social Studies Class. Www.world-affairs.org. Keene, E., & Zimmermann, S. (2007). Mosaic of thought: The power of comprehension strategy instruction (2nd ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Nonfiction Reading Strategies. (n.d.). Retrieved April 11, 2015. Oczuks, L. (2011). Literacy Survival Tips for New Teachers! International Reading Association. Question-Answer Relationship (QAR). (2013, March 19). Retrieved April 11, 2015.