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Internet de las Cosas: del Concepto a la Realidad

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Esta jornada explicará el concepto de Internet de las Cosas (IoT) y su encaje dentro de las últimas tendencias tecnológicas como Big Data o blockchain. Describirá las tecnologías que lo hacen posible. Ofrecerá ejemplos de aplicación de IoT a diferentes ámbitos como salud, ciudades inteligentes o industria. Identificará su grado de desarrollo actual. Explorará su potencial implantación en nuestras entornos vitales e influencia en nuestras actividades cotidianas en un futuro cercano.  

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Internet de las Cosas: del Concepto a la Realidad

  1. 1. 1 Internet de las Cosas: del Concepto a la Realidad CETIC (Centro de Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación), Vitoria-Gasteiz 29 de Mayo de 2018, 18:00-20:30 Dr. Diego López-de-Ipiña González-de-Artaza dipina@deusto.es http://paginaspersonales.deusto.es/dipina http://www.morelab.deusto.es @dipina
  2. 2. 2 Abstract Esta jornada explicará el concepto de Internet de las Cosas (IoT) y su encaje dentro de las últimas tendencias tecnológicas como Big Data o blockchain. Describirá las tecnologías que lo hacen posible. Ofrecerá ejemplos de aplicación de IoT a diferentes ámbitos como salud, ciudades inteligentes o industria. Identificará su grado de desarrollo actual. Explorará su potencial implantación en nuestras entornos vitales e influencia en nuestras actividades cotidianas en un futuro cercano.
  3. 3. 3 Agenda 1. ¿Qué es la Internet de las Cosas (IoT)? 2. Encaje dentro del ámbito tecnológico actual: Web de Datos, Cloud Computing, Big Data y Blockchain 3. Tecnologías que hacen posible IoT: RFID, NFC, Arduino, Fog Computing, Blockchain … 4. Áreas de aplicación de la IoT: Smart Cities, Salud e industria 4.0 5. Casos de éxito de IoT 6. IoT como habilitador de Servicios Inteligentes Personalizados 7. Conclusión
  4. 4. 4 Misión de la Future Internet (FI) • Ofrecer a todos los usuarios un entorno seguro, eficiente, confiable y robusto, que: – Permita un acceso abierto, dinámico y descentralizado a la red y a su información y – Sea escalable, flexible y adapte su rendimiento a las necesidades de los usuarios y su contexto
  5. 5. 5 Los Pilares de la Internet del Futuro • La Internet del Futuro consta de 4 pilares apoyados en una nueva infraestructura de red como base: – Internet Por y Para la Gente – Internet de los Contenidos y del Conocimiento – Internet de los Servicios – Internet de las Cosas
  6. 6. 6 Arquitectura de la Internet del Futuro
  7. 7. 7 Internet de las Cosas (IoT): Motivación • ¿Quieres saber cuántos pasos has andado? • ¿Los kilómetros que has conducido? • ¿Los watios que has consumido? • ¿Cómo mejorar la eficiencia y seguridad en tu fábrica? • Internet de las Cosas te puede decir eso y mucho más
  8. 8. 8 IoT: Infografías
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. 10 Internet de las Cosas … conectando información, gente y cosas
  11. 11. 11 Evolución hacia IoT • Desde la Web a la Web Social hacia IoT
  12. 12. 12 Historia IoT • El concepto de dispositivo inteligente conectado fue acuñado en 1982 con máquina expendedora conectada en CMU • El artículo de Mark Weiser en 1991 "The Computer of the 21st Century", y los conceptos académicos de UbiComp y PerCom fueron el germen de IoT • El término IoT fue acuñado por Kevin Aston del MIT en 1999
  13. 13. 13 Internet of Things: Definition (I) • Internet of Things (IoT) is a dynamic global network infrastructure with self-configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual “things” have identities, physical attributes and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces and are seamlessly integrated into the information network. from the IERC (the European Research Cluster on Internet of Things http://www.internet-of-things-research.eu/) – Things can range from tagged objects (RFID, NFC, QR codes, Barcodes, Image Recognition) to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), machines, vehicles and consumer electronics
  14. 14. 14 Internet of Things: Definition (II) • The internet of things (IoT) is the network of physical devices, vehicles, buildings and other items— embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity that enables these objects to collect and exchange data – Opportunity for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit – Encompasses technologies such as Smart Grids, Smart Homes, Intelligent Transportation and Smart Cities
  15. 15. 15 6 facts about IoT 1. IoT is the term used to describe any kind of application that connected and made “things” interact through the Internet 2. IoT is a communication network connecting things which have naming, sensing and processing abilities 3. IoT is the next stage of the information revolution, i.e. the inter-connectivity of everything from urban transport to medical devices to household appliances 4. Intelligent interactivity between human and things to exchange information & knowledge for new value creation 5. IoT is not just about gathering of data but also about the analysis and use of data 6. IoT is not just about “smart devices”; it is also about devices and services that help people become smarter
  16. 16. 16 Sensors
  17. 17. 17 Connectivity
  18. 18. 18 People & Process
  19. 19. 19 IoT = Sensors + Connectivity + Processing for People
  20. 20. 20 Internet de las Cosas • Red universal de objetos interconectados y direccionables basada en protocolos de comunicación estándar – IoT exhibirá un alto nivel de heterogeneidad, combinando objetos de distinta funcionalidad, tecnología o campos de aplicación – Protocolos semánticos noveles serán desarrollados para permitir a IoT escalar y coordinar a los millones de objetos que nos rodean – RFID y redes de sensores proporcionan un mecanismo de bajo coste y robusto de identificación y sensibilidad al contexto • El uso de Internet pasará de modelo request/reply a push-and-process
  21. 21. 21 Internet de las Cosas: mucho más que cosas inteligentes
  22. 22. 22 IoT: 3rd wave of Internet • Key attributes that distinguish IoT from “regular” Internet, as captured by Goldman Sachs’s S-E-N-S-E framework: Sensing, Efficient, Networked, Specialized, Everywhere
  23. 23. 23 Internet of Things (IoT) Promise • There will be around 25 billion devices connected to the Internet by 2015, 50 billion by 2020 – A dynamic and universal network where billions of identifiable “things” (e.g. devices, people, applications, etc.) communicate with one another anytime anywhere; things become context- aware, are able to configure themselves and exchange information, and show “intelligence/cognitive” behaviour
  24. 24. 24 Internet of Everything (I) • CISCO view: “From the Internet of Things (IoT), where we are today, we are just beginning to enter a new realm: the Internet of Everything (IoE), where things will gain context awareness, increased processing power, and greater sensing abilities” – IoE brings together people, process, data, and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before-turning information into actions that create new capabilities, richer experiences, and unprecedented economic opportunity.
  25. 25. 25 Internet of Everything (II)
  26. 26. 26 How big is IoT?
  27. 27. 27 Rapid growth of connected things "Fixed" computing Mobility/BYOD Internet of things Internet of everything Source: Cisco IBSG, 2013 (you go to the device) (the device goes with you) (age of devices) (people, process, data, things) 1995 2000 2013 2020 200M 10B 50B
  28. 28. 28 IoT Predictions (by 2020-22) 7,1tn IoT Solutions Revenue | IDC 1,9tn IoT Economic Value Add | Gartner 309bn IoT Supplier Revenue | Gartner 50bn Connected Devices | Cisco 14bn Connected Devices | Bosch SI http://postscapes.com/internet-of-things-market-size Peter Middleton, Gartner: “By 2020, component costs will have come down to the point that connectivity will become a standard feature, even for processors costing less than $1 “
  29. 29. 29 How does IoT Work?
  30. 30. 30 Tipos de Internet de las Cosas • Al menos dos sabores: – Consumer IoT (CIoT): orientada a consumidores – Industrial IoT (IIoT) • Industria 4.0
  31. 31. 31 Consumer Internet of Things (CIoT) • The Consumer Internet of Things (CIoT) represents the class of consumer-oriented applications where: – Devices are consumer devices, such as smart appliances, e.g. refrigerator, washer, dryer, personal gadgets such as, fitness sensors, Google Glasses, etc. – Data volumes and rates are relatively low – Applications are not mission or safety critical, e.g., the failure of fitness gadget will make you, at worse, upset, but won’t cause any harm – CIoT applications tend to be “consumer-centric”
  32. 32. 32 Sectores IoT de Consumo
  33. 33. 33 IoT impulse: Smart Cities, consumer objects, mobile sensing, smart metering
  34. 34. 34 Personal data: SmartWatch & Health- promoting Data Devices
  35. 35. 35 Quantified Self & Life Logging • Quantified self is self-knowledge through self-tracking with technology – Movement to incorporate technology into data acquisition on aspects of a person's daily life in terms of inputs (e.g. food consumed, quality of surrounding air), states (e.g. mood, arousal, blood oxygen levels), and performance (mental and physical) • Self-monitoring and self-sensing through wearable sensors (EEG, ECG, video, etc.) and wearable computing  lifelogging • Application areas: – Health and wellness improvement – Improve personal or professional productivity • Products and companies: – Apple Watch, Fitbit tracker, Jawbone UP, Pebble, Withings scale
  36. 36. 36 SmartWatch Comparison 36
  37. 37. 37 Google Glass • Su misión es producir un ubiquitous computer de venta masiva – Lanzadas para los desarrolladores de Google I/O por 1500$ en el año 2013 • Renovadas en 2017 con Google Glass Enterprise Edition • Muestra información disponible sin utilizar las manos, accede a Internet mediante órdenes de voz, de manera comparable a Google Now
  38. 38. 38 • Google Home – Features • Amazon Echo – Alexa API Audible Computing • Apple AirPods – Comparison
  39. 39. 39 Features of Audible Computing Products Google Home Amazon Echo Price $130 $180 Responds to voice commands Yes Yes Always listening Yes Yes Wake word "Okay Google" Alexa, Echo, or Amazon Music streaming options Google Play Music, YouTube Music, Spotify, Pandora, iHeartRadio, TuneIn, others Amazon Prime Music, Spotify, Pandora, iHeartRadio, TuneIn, others Smart home partnerships Nest, SmartThings, Philips Hue, IFTTT Nest, Ecobee, SmartThings, Wink, Insteon, Belkin WeMo, Philips Hue, Lifx, Big Ass Fans, IFTTT, other devices via "skills" Customizable appearance Yes No Output to stereo system Yes, via Chromecast No (yes with Amazon Dot) Synced audio playback to multiple devices Yes, to any Google Cast device No Personal assistant highlights Search Google, get a personalized daily briefing, check traffic, add items to calendar, make a shopping list, make a to do list, check flight status, track a package Add items to calendar, make a shopping list, make a to do list, check flight status, track a package Other features Cast to your TV with Chromecast, launch and control Netflix and YouTube via Chromecast, send photos to your TV via Chromecast Order a pizza, play a game, arrange an Uber pickup. Echo has an ever-growing list of 900+ skills and counting https://www.cnet.com/news/google-home-vs-amazon-echo/
  40. 40. 40 Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) • The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) represents industry-oriented applications where: – Devices are machines operating in industrial, transportation, energy or medical environment – Data volumes and rates tend to be from sustained to relatively high – Applications are mission and or safety critical, e.g. the failure of a smart grid has severe impact on our life and economy, the misbehaving of a smart traffic system can threaten drivers – IIoT applications tend to be “system centric”
  41. 41. 41 Differences among IoT, M2M & CPS • Not clear cut distinction, these terms are often used interchangeably; – M2M– Machine-to-Machine • TelCo world origins, tied to the network implications of connecting machines rather than people, explosion of # of connections with limited bit-rate, ETSI is the main standardisation body; think of telemetry applications – M2M is the glue of the IoT – CPS – Cyber Physical Systems • Merging real and virtual (cyber) worlds, focusing on systems that based on duly sampled representation of the physical world can intervene through digitized actuators to change behaviours in the physical world; think of car ABS – CPS is the science bricks behind IoT – IoT hailed as a broader concept, where the focus is more on wide applications
  42. 42. 42 Smart Grid • A Smart Grid is an electrical grid which includes a variety of operational and energy measures including smart meters, smart appliances, renewable energy resources, and energy efficiency resources.
  43. 43. 43 Telehealth system Connected Healthcare: Internet of Things Examples in Health Care: https://dzone.com/articles/connected-healthcare-internet-of-things-examples-i
  44. 44. 44 Connected Health
  45. 45. 45 Industry 4.0 • Industry 4.0, Industrie 4.0 or the fourth industrial revolution, is the current trend of automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies. – It includes cyber-physical systems, the Internet of Things and Cloud Computing. – Industry 4.0 creates what has been called a "smart factory".
  46. 46. 46 Industria 4.0 y IoT
  47. 47. 47 Industry 4.0: Features • Ingredients for paradigm shift in manufacturing: autonomous robotics, additive manufacturing (3D printing), cloud computing and sensor technology (IoT) • Opportunities for innovation in terms of: – Smarter industrial processes – New business models and – Customised products • The new technological wave builds on the concept of cyber-physical systems: profound interaction of the real and virtual worlds in the manufacturing process
  48. 48. 48 Top 5 IoT Trends to Look Forward to in 20181. Trend #1 Digital Twin – Virtual clone of the real-world thing. It is a looking glass into what’s happening within physical assets. Allows product developers to create, test, build, monitor, maintain and service products in a virtual environment 2. Trend #2 Blockchain – Blockchain for IoT can transform the way business transactions are conducted globally by providing a trustworthy environment. Advantages: a) build trust; b) reduce costs; and c) accelerate transactions. 3. Trend #3 Security – As we rely on connected devices to make our lives better and easier, security is a must. All participants in the IoT ecosystem are responsible for the security of the devices, data and solutions. 4. Trend #4 SaaS – Many IoT implementations still require on-prem implementations. There will be more (and very clear) instances where Software as a Service (SaaS) is a viable option. 5. Trend #5 Cognitive Computing – For over a decade we’ve connected things with unique IP addresses. But the commoditization of sensors, processors and memory now make it possible to makes everyday things more than just connected … they can be intelligent. It increases the possibilities of what can be done with edge analytics – making sensors capable of diagnosing and adapting to their environment without the need for human intervention.
  49. 49. 49 Blockchain in a nutshell 101 • A blockchain is a decentralized, distributed and incorruptible digital ledger that is used to record transactions across many computers. – Distributed network of computers (nodes) – where each node contains a chain-of-blocks – where each block contains a ledger with a list of transactions – where each transaction is incorruptible (i.e. cryptographically secure) – & is linked to the previous transactions for the resource it is representing. • Exemplary use cases: – Record exchange of money; – Document the way goods move through a supply chain; – Create and store contractual agreements. • Main features: – Distributed – the record is shared, and cannot be controlled by any single person. – Permissioned – each participant has secure access to the record – Secure (incorruptible) – records are safe from manipulation; consensus is required. Everything stored on the blockchain is encrypted. • H(this-block) = H(H(previous-block) + data-in-this-block)
  50. 50. 50 Blockchain in a nutshell
  51. 51. 51 Blockchain, how does it work?
  52. 52. 52 Blockchain in action
  53. 53. 53 Blockchain in more detail
  54. 54. 54 Blockchain: IoT example (I) • Imagine the journey a perishable foodstuff (say milk) takes from farm to consumer – The dairy farm: milking and initial storage; – Processing: transportation to a dairy processor for testing, pasteurizing and packaging; – Transportation: shipping in refrigerated trucks to retailers like supermarkets or convenience stores; – Retail: storage in a refrigerated display unit; – Consumption: customer purchase and consumption. • The difficulty with a supply chain like this one is that there isn’t a single, synchronized record of the transaction from beginning to end. – Blockchain is a single, synchronized, immutable record of every transaction, visible to everyone in the supply chain. – The blockchain ledger records the sequence of transactions from the beginning to the end of the supply chain. • URL: very interesting infographics about IoT and Blockchain at: http://www.sepaforcorporates.com/payments-news-2/what-is-blockchain-5- awesome-infographics/
  55. 55. 55 • Example: instrumenting the supply-chain – “transport of perishable food stuffs (such as milk) is regulated by specific conditions that ensure it arrives at the point of purchase safely” • IoT & Blockchain solution: Connected sensors for data transmission – Individual packages containing milk are instrumented with an IoT-enabled temperature sensor – The sensor stores temperature data locally and sends it via an IoT Platform to the blockchain – The blockchain stores the temperature data, where it can be viewed by each party to the transaction • IoT with blockchain can help businesses keep tabs on the health of their products at every stage of their journey through Smart Contracts. – Those contracts stored on the blockchain could specify certain conditions that must be met. Controlled temperature might be one of these. • Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HJ1W4vHPDFY Blockchain: IoT example (II)
  56. 56. 56 Internet of Things: Challenges 1. To process huge amounts of data supplied by “connected things” and to offer services as response 2. To research in new methods and mechanisms to find, retrieve, transmit and process data dynamically – Discovery of sensor data — both in time and space – Communication of sensor data: complex queries (synchronous), publish/subscribe (asynchronous) – Processing of great variety of sensor data time-series and streams: correlation, aggregation and filtering 3. Ethical and social dimension: to keep the balance between personalization, privacy and security
  57. 57. 57 La Ecuación de IoT • Conexión en red de cosas aumentadas da lugar a agregación de datos y orquestación de servicios para mejorar procesos THING IT [HW | SW] THING-BASED FUNCTION [Local | Business models known] IT-BASED SERVICE [Global | Business models required] Example SERVICE: Send ambulance in case of accident (detected by sensors) Example FUNCTION: Drive from A to B A B Source: University of St. Gallen, Prof. Dr. Elgar Fleisch
  58. 58. 58 Information flow in IoT • Information within the Internet of Things creates value in a never-ending value loop consisting of 5 stages (CREATE … to ACT):
  59. 59. 59 IoT Key Components
  60. 60. 60 IoT Architecture Sensing Layer Communication Layer Management Layer
  61. 61. 61 Ecosistema de IoT
  62. 62. 62 What do IoT apps do? (I) • Remote monitoring • Distributed and accurate sensing • Tracking location / presence (inventory, belongings) • Tracking usage / conditions • Statistics data generation – Health, energy, traffic etc. • Actuation
  63. 63. 63 What do IoT apps do? (II)
  64. 64. 64 Dominios de Aplicación
  65. 65. 65 Exemplary IoT Solutions
  66. 66. 66 Combinando Dominios IoT
  67. 67. 67 Combinando Dominios IoT
  68. 68. 68 Combinando Dominios IoT
  69. 69. 69 De la Granja Digital a la Mesa
  70. 70. 70 IoT in Precision Agriculture and Farming
  71. 71. 71 IoT Companies • House: – http://smartthings.com/ – https://nest.com/ – http://sen.se/ (“mother”) – http://bounceimaging.com/ (emergency & rescue) • Car: – http://www.automatic.com • Health & Activity – Pebble (smart watch, personal assistant) – Fitbit (personal trainer, fitness, health monitoring) – Samsung • IBM (Smart cities, dublinked) • Cisco (Internet of Everything)
  72. 72. 72 IoT Enablers (I) RFID Sensor Smart Tech Nano Tech To identify and track the data of things To collect and process the data to detect the changes in the physical status of things To enhance the power of the network by devolving processing capabilities to different part of the network. To make the smaller and smaller things have the ability to connect and interact.
  73. 73. 73 IoT Enablers (II) Networked heating systems Networked surveillance systems Connected vehicles Smart sensor platforms Network capability of devices Low power consumption Small form factor Energy harvesting capability Wireless technologies Applications Appropriate cost Enablers
  74. 74. 74 IoT Enabling Technologies • Low-cost embedded computing and communication platforms, e.g. Arduino or Rapsberry PI • Wide availability of low-cost sensors and networks • Cloud-based Sensor Data Management Frameworks: Xively, Sen.se  Democratization of Internet-connected Physical Objects
  75. 75. 75 IoT Hardware prototyping platforms – Self-contained – Cheap – Easy to program and extend – Often under Open Source and/or Open Hardware license – Self-contained – Strong online community for learning and support – Focus on easy onboarding for non-experts – Strong success in hobbyist / maker / education areas • An electronic board and associated software for easily connecting electronics to software and the Cloud which differs from professional electronics development kits:
  76. 76. 76 The Maker Movement
  77. 77. 77 The Maker Movement
  78. 78. 78 3D Printing
  79. 79. 79 IPv6 a key IoT enabler (I) • Latest revision of the Internet Protocol (IP), provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet. – Developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to deal with the long- anticipated problem of IPv4 address exhaustion • IPv6 is intended to replace IPv4, which still carries the vast majority of Internet traffic. – As of May 2018, the percentage of users reaching Google over IPv6 surpassed 22%: https://www.google.com/intl/en/ipv6/statistics.html#tab=ipv6-adoption&tab=ipv6- adoption • To make the switch, software and routers will have to be changed • IPv6 uses a 128-bit address, allowing 2128, or approximately 3.4×1038 addresses, or more than 7.9×1028 times as many as IPv4, which uses 32-bit addresses. • IPv6 addresses are represented as eight groups of four hexadecimal digits separated by colons – E.g. 2001:0db8:85a3:0042:1000:8a2e:0370:7334
  80. 80. 80 IPv6 a key IoT enabler (II) • The future of IoT will not be possible without the support of IPv6 – The global adoption of IPv6 in the coming years will be critical for the successful development of the IoT in the future • The ability to network embedded devices with limited CPU, memory and power resources means that IoT finds applications in nearly every field – IoT systems could also be responsible for performing actions, not just sensing things • 6LoWPAN is an acronym of IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks – The 6LoWPAN concept originated from the idea that "the Internet Protocol could and should be applied even to the smallest devices“ and that low-power devices with limited processing capabilities should be able to participate in the Internet of Things. – The 6LoWPAN group has defined encapsulation and header compression mechanisms that allow IPv6 packets to be sent and received over IEEE 802.15.4 (Zigbee) based networks.
  81. 81. 81 IPv6 vs. IPv4 • Other important changes: • No more NAT (Network Address Translation), Auto-configuration, no more private address collisions, better multicast routing, simpler header format, simplified, more efficient routing, true quality of service (QoS), also called "flow labeling“, built-in authentication and privacy support, flexible options and extensions, easier administration (say good-bye to DHCP)
  82. 82. 82 IPv6 vs. IPv4
  83. 83. 83 HTTP 2.0 • HTTP 2.0 is the next planned version of the HTTP network protocol used by the World Wide Web. – HTTP 2.0 is being developed by the Hypertext Transfer Protocol Bis (httpbis) working group of the IETF. – Based on Google's SPDY protocol, Microsoft's HTTP Speed+Mobility proposal (SPDY based) • HTTP 2.0 would be the first new version of the HTTP protocol since HTTP 1.1 was described by RFC 2616 in 1999. – In May 2015 it was published as HTTP/2 as RFC 7540 • Goals: – Include asynchronous connection multiplexing, header compression, and request-response pipelining, while maintaining full backwards compatibility with the transaction semantics of HTTP 1.1 – Enable Server-Push • Documentation: – http://chimera.labs.oreilly.com/books/1230000000545/ch12.html
  84. 84. 84 HTTP 2.0 streams, messages and frames Binary Framing Layer Stream, Messages & Frames A connection carries any number of bidirectional streams. In turn, each stream communicates in messages, which consist of one or multiple frames, each of which may be interleaved and then reassembled via the embedded stream identifier in the header of each individual frame Request & Response Multiplexing
  85. 85. 85 Protocolos para IoT (I)
  86. 86. 86 Protocolos para IoT (II) • NFC y BLE también entran en esta categoría: Protocol CoAP XMPP RESTful HTTP MQTT Transport UDP TCP TCP TCP Messaging Request/Response Publish/Subscribe Request/Response Request/Response Publish/Subscribe Request/Response 2G, 3G, 4G Suitability (1000s nodes) Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent LLN Suitability (1000s nodes) Excellent Fair Fair Fair Compute Resources 10Ks RAM/Flash 10Ks RAM/Flash 10Ks RAM/Flash 10Ks RAM/Flash Success Stories Utility Field Area Networks Remote management of consumer white goods Smart Energy Profile 2 (premise energy management/hom e services) Extending enterprise messaging into IoT applications
  87. 87. 87 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
  88. 88. 88 Near Field Communication (NFC) • Near field communication (NFC) is a set of standards for smartphones and similar devices to establish radio communication with each other by touching them together or bringing them into close proximity, usually no more than a few centimeters – Operates at 13.56 MHz, has data transfer rate ranging from 106 kbit/s to 424 kbit/s – NFC tags contain data and are typically read-only, but may be rewriteable • Uses RFID (Radio Frequency Communication) chips that enable devices to communicate between them, bi-directionally. – Application examples: • NFC headsets and electronic wallets, eliminates the need to pair devices in Bluetooth or WiFi Direct (e.g. Android Beam / S-Beam), data exchange through NFC tags • Wider availability of NFC-enabled SmartPhones is propelling its usage: http://www.nfcworld.com/nfc-phones-list/ – Apple iPhone 6 to 8s supports NFC as part of Apple Pay
  89. 89. 89 NFC in Use • Get info from posters, make payments, exchange connections
  90. 90. 90 Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) • Bluetooth low energy (BLE) is a wireless computer network technology which is aimed at novel applications in the healthcare, fitness, security, and home entertainment industries. – Compared to "Classic" Bluetooth, it is intended to provide considerably reduced power consumption and lower cost, while maintaining a similar communication range • Power consumption is drastically reduced via a low pulsing method that keeps devices connected without the need of a continuous information stream • Features: – Operates in the same spectrum range (the 2.400 GHz-2.4835 GHz ISM band) as Classic Bluetooth technology, but uses a different set of channels. – Uses a star topology – Nodes act as presence/state indicators – Internet enabled devices as Gateways • Available devices supporting BLE (most of the new SmartPhones feature it)
  91. 91. 91 • In the market, we can encounter two types of BLE devices: – Bluetooth Smart Ready refers to devices that use a dual-mode radios, which can handle both the 4.0 technology, as well as classic Bluetooth abilities, such as transferring files, or connecting to a hands-free device. – Bluetooth Smart represents a new breed of Bluetooth 4.0 peripherals: sensor- type devices like heart-rate monitors or pedometers that run on small batteries and are designed to collect specific pieces of information. • Only connect to BT Smart Ready devices
  92. 92. 92 iBeacon – a class of BLE devices that broadcast their identifier to nearby portable electronic devices (I)
  93. 93. 93 iBeacon – a class of BLE devices that broadcast their identifier to nearby portable electronic devices (II)
  94. 94. 94 EddyStone & Physical Web
  95. 95. 95 Short range communication: NFC, QR and iBeacons
  96. 96. 96 • Sigfox, is a French company that builds wireless networks to connect low-energy objects such as electricity meters, smartwatches, and washing machines, which need to be continuously on and emitting small amounts of data • Employs "a cellular style system that enables remote devices to connect using ultra-narrow band (UNB) technology", the same used for submarine communications during World War I. • The Sigfox network and technology is aimed at the low cost machine to machine application areas where wide area coverage is required • Its network costs are reduced and it requires little energy, being termed Low-power Wide-area network (LPWAN) – Sigfox uses long waves transmitting small amounts of data very far being able to handle approximately 12 bytes per message, and at the same time no more than 140 messages per device per day • With 12 bytes one can represent any number between 1 and 79 octillion, which translates as a myriad control codes • According to Machina Research, in 2024 there were a total of 27 billion M2M connections or 80 billion connected objects, 14% of which will represent LPWA connections like those offered by Sigfox and its competitors (LoRa and Neul (Huawei))
  97. 97. 97 Communication Networks for IoT
  98. 98. 98 Web of Things (I) • The Web of Things (WoT) is a computing concept that describes a future where everyday objects are fully integrated with the Web. – The prerequisite for WoT is for the "things" to have embedded computer systems that enable communication with the Web, i.e. HTTP microserver – Such smart devices would then be able to communicate with each other using existing Web standards: HTTP & REST – http://www.webofthings.org/
  99. 99. 99 Web of Things (II) • Term used to describe approaches, software architectural styles and programming patterns that allow real-world objects to be part of the World Wide Web – Similarly to what the Web (Application Layer) is to the Internet (Network Layer) the Web of Things provides an Application Layer that simplifies the creation of Internet of Things applications – Rather than re-inventing completely new standards, the Web of Things reuses existing and well-known Web standards used in the programmable Web (e.g., REST, HTTP, JSON), semantic Web (e.g., JSON-LD, Microdata, etc.), the real-time Web (e.g., Websockets) and the social Web (e.g., oauth or social networks).
  100. 100. 100 Web of Things Architecture • The following layers compose WoT: – Layer 1 (ACCESS): ensures things have a Web accessible API, transforming them into programmable things – Layer 2 (FIND): reuses Web semantic standards to describe things and their services – Layer 3 (SHARE): data generated by things can be shared in an efficient and secure manner – Layer 4 (COMPOSE): integrates the services and data offered by things into higher level Web tools
  101. 101. 101 The Programmable World • Los siguientes pasos para alcanzar la quimera de Programmable World: 1. Transformar los objetos cotidianos en inteligentes 2. Conectar estos objetos entre ellos y hacer que “conversen”, algo de lo que productos como SmartThings están tratando 3. Construir aplicaciones basadas en esta conectividad, interconectándolas con datos externos para predecir, por ejemplo, patrones de tiempo o consumo eléctrico • Soluciones como IFTTT facilitan esa conectividad entre diferentes canales de datos
  102. 102. 102 IFTTT • IFTTT is a service that lets you create powerful connections with one simple statement: – IFTTT is pronounced like “gift” without the “g” • Channels are the basic building blocks of IFTTT: Facebook, Evernote, Email, Weather, LinkedIn • Each channel has its own Triggers and Actions: – The this part of a Recipe is a Trigger, e.g. “I’m tagged in a photo on Facebook” – The that part of a Recipe is an Action, e.g. “send me a text message” – Pieces of data from a Trigger are called Ingredients • Demos: https://ifttt.com/myrecipes/personal
  103. 103. 103 Atooma • Es como un IFTTT pero para SmartPhones • Permite definir eventos condicionales (IF) que lanzan automáticamente tareas (DO) asociadas actividades que pueden ser detectadas por tu móvil (hora, localización, estado de la batería, etc.) – URL: http://www.atooma.com/
  104. 104. 104 IoT & Cloud Computing Interdependency • Cloud computing and IoT are tightly coupled – The growth of IoT and the rapid development of associated technologies create a widespread connection of “things.” • Leads to production of large amounts of data, which needs to be stored, processed and accessed – Cloud computing as a paradigm for big data storage and analytics • The combination of cloud computing and IoT will enable new monitoring services and powerful processing of sensory data streams.
  105. 105. 105 Infraestructura Virtualizada: Cloud Computing Un paradigma de computación emergente donde los datos y servicios residen en centros de datos muy escalables que pueden ser accedidos ubicuamente desde cualquier dispositivo conectado a Internet.
  106. 106. 106 Cloud Computing es … • … capacidad computacional y almacenamiento virtualizada expuesta mediante infraestructura agnóstica a la plataforma y accedida por Internet – Recursos IT compartidos en demanda, creados y eliminados eficientemente y de modo escalable a través de una variedad de interfaces programáticos facturados en base a su uso
  107. 107. 107 Arquitectura Cloud Computing
  108. 108. 108 Ventajas y Retos de Cloud Computing
  109. 109. 109 Cloud Computing Limitations for IoT • Connectivity to the Cloud is a MUST but … – Some IoT systems need to be able to work even when connection is temporarily unavailable or under degraded connection • Cloud Computing assumes that there is enough bandwidth to collect the data – That can become an overly strong assumptions for Industrial Internet of Things applications • Cloud Computing centralises the analytics thus defining the lower bound reaction time of the system – Some IoT applications won’t be able to wait for the data to get to the cloud, be analysed and for insights to get back
  110. 110. 110 Edge Computing • Pushing the frontier of computing applications, data, and services away from centralized nodes to the logical extremes of a network. – It enables analytics and knowledge generation to occur at the source of the data.
  111. 111. 111 Edge Computing: Benefits • Locally confines regional data processing of M2M/big data applications that incur large data traffic to edge-servers, and reduces network bandwidth. – Executes real-time applications that require high-speed response at the nearer edge-servers which will satisfy the severe real-time requirement. • Offloads some of the computation intensive processing on the user’s device to edge servers and makes application processing less dependent on the device’s capability.
  112. 112. 112 Fog Computing = IoT + Cloud Computing (I) • The software industry’s three building blocks, subject to Moore’s law, are: storage, computing and network – The problem is, right now everything is sorted in the cloud, which means you have to push all this data up, just to get the distilled big data feedback down. • Fog computing is a decentralized computing infrastructure in which computing resources and application services are distributed in the most logical, efficient place at any point along the continuum from the data source to the cloud o improve efficiency and reduce the amount of data that needs to be transported to the cloud for data processing, analysis and storage. o done for efficiency reasons, but it may also be carried out for security and compliance reasons.
  113. 113. 113 Fog Computing = IoT + Cloud Computing (II)
  114. 114. 114 Web Semántica • Problema de la Web Actual: – El significado de la web no es comprensible por máquinas • Web Semántica  crea un medio universal de intercambio de información, aportando semántica a los documentos en la web – Añade significado comprensible por ordenadores a la Web – Usa técnicas inteligentes que explotan esa semántica – Liderada por Tim Berners-Lee del W3C • Misión  “turning existing web content into machine-readable content“
  115. 115. 115 Web of Data: Limitaciones de la Web de Documentos • Demasiada información con muy poca estructura y hecha además para consumo humano – Es una web sintáctica no semántica – La búsqueda de contenidos es muy simplista • Se requieren mejores métodos • Los contenidos web son heterogéneos – En términos de contenido – En términos de estructura – En términos de codificación de caracteres • El futuro requiere integración de información inteligente
  116. 116. 116 Linked Data • “A term used to describe a recommended best practice for exposing, sharing, and connecting pieces of data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web using URIs and RDF.“ • Allows to discover, connect, describe and reuse all sorts of data – Fosters passing from a Web of Documents to a Web of Data • In September 2011, it had 31 billion RDF triples linked through 504 millions of links • Thought to open and connect diverse vocabularies and semantic instances, to be used by the Semantic community • URL: http://linkeddata.org/
  117. 117. 117 Linked Data Principles 1. Uses URIs to identify things 2. Uses HTTP URIs to enable those things to be dereferenced by both people and user agents 3. Provides useful info (structured description and metadata) about a thing/concept referenced by an URI 4. Includes links to other URIs to improve related information discovery in the web
  118. 118. 118 Linked Data Example http://…/isb n978 Programming the Semantic Web 978-0-596-15381-6 Toby Segaran http://…/publi sher1 O’Reilly title name author publisher isbn http://…/isb n978 sameAs http://…/rev iew1 Awesome Book http://…/rev iewer Juan Sequeda http://juanseque da.com/id hasReview hasReviewer description name sameAs livesIn Juan Sequedaname http://dbpedia.org/Austin
  119. 119. 119 Linked Data Life Cycle • Linked Data must go through several stages (several iterations on Linkage) before are ready for exploitation:
  120. 120. 120 Schema.org • Initiative launched in 2011 by Bing, Google, Yahoo and then Yandex • Objective: “create and support a common set of schemas for structured data mark-up on web pages.” – Propose to use their schemas to annotate contents in a web page with metadata • Metadata are recognized by search engines and other parsers, thus accessing to the “meaning” of portals • Their vocabularies were inspired by earlier formats like Microformats, FOAF, GoodRelations and OpenCyc • Offer schemas in the following domains (http://schema.org/docs/schemas.html): – Events, health, organization, person, place, product, offer, revisión and so on. • To map declarations in microdata to RDF the following tools can be used: http://tools.seochat.com/category/schema-generators • More info at: http://schema.org/ • Examples: – http://schema.org/CreativeWork – http://paginaspersonales.deusto.es/dipina/ (microdata.reveal Chrome plugin)
  121. 121. 121 Avoiding Data Silos through Semantics in IoT • Cut-down semantics is applied to enable machine- interpretable and self-descriptive interlinked data – Integration – heterogeneous data can be integrated or one type of data combined with other – Abstraction and access – semantic descriptions are provided on well accepted ontologies such as SSN – Search and discovery – resulting Linked Data facilitates publishing and discovery of related data – Reasoning and interpretation –new knowledge can be inferred from existing assertions and rules
  122. 122. 122 Actionable Knowledge from Linked Data • Don’t care about the data sources (sensors) care about knowledge extracted from their data correlation & interpretation! – Data is captured, communicated, stored, accessed and shared from the physical world to better understand the surroundings – Sensory data related to different events can be analysed, correlated and turned into actionable knowledge – Application domains: e-health, retail, green energy, manufacturing, smart cities/houses
  123. 123. 123 Data Understanding through Linked Statistics & Visualizations
  124. 124. 124 Bringing together IoT and Linked Data: Sustainable Linked Data Coffee Maker • Hypothesis: “the active collaboration of people and Eco-aware everyday objects will enable a more sustainable/energy efficient use of the shared appliances within public spaces” • Contribution: An augmented capsule-based coffee machine placed in a public spaces, e.g. research laboratory – Continuously collects usage patterns to offer feedback to coffee consumers about the energy wasting and also, to intelligently adapt its operation to reduce wasted energy • http://socialcoffee.morelab.deusto.es/
  125. 125. 125 Social + Sustainable + Persuasive + Cooperative + Linked Data Device 1. Social since it reports its energy consumptions via social networks, i.e. Twitter 2. Sustainable since it intelligently foresees when it should be switched on or off 3. Persuasive since it does not stay still, it reports misuse and motivates seductively usage corrections 4. Cooperative since it cooperates with other devices in order to accelerate the learning process 5. Linked Data Device, since it generates reusable energy consumption-related linked data interlinked with data from other domains that facilitates their exploitation
  126. 126. 126 Persuasive Interfaces to Promote Positive Behaviour Change GreenSoul, H2020 project 2016-2018, EE11
  127. 127. 127 Linked Data by IoT Devices • Modelling not only the sensors but also their features of interest: spatial and temporal attributes, resources that provide their data, who operated on it, provenance and so on – With SSN, SWEET, SWRC, GeoNames, PROV-O, … vocabularies
  128. 128. 128 Knowledge graphs: Encyclopaedias for machines • It consists of a formal description of certain knowledge that can be accessed and reasoned about by computers – fundamental to empower intelligent systems • Apple’s Siri, Microsoft’s Cortana, Amazon Echo, or Google Now, for example, heavily rely on knowledge graphs to fulfill your requests. – a representation based on entities, relations, and facts. • For example, the IMDb knowledge graph, meant to be used by both people and computers. – Actors, directors, writers or films, are the entities while <acted_in> or <writer_of> some of the relations. You can see the facts in each entity page. • https://www.imdb.com/name/nm0424060/ • The range of questions (usually referred as queries) that can be asked to a knowledge graph is broad. It can involve any combination of relations, entities, classes or facts. – If the knowledge graph is relatively complete, it is guaranteed to provide high-quality answers in a minuscule amount of time. • The three most prominent general knowledge graphs to date: YAGO, DBpedia, and WikiData. • More at: https://www.ambiverse.com/knowledge-graphs-encyclopaedias-for-machines/
  129. 129. 129 Knowledge graphs: Encyclopaedias for machines
  130. 130. 130 Google Knowledge Graph
  131. 131. 131 IoT Platform Requirements Devices Connectivity Platforms Internet of Things Connected things, products, services, systems, etc. Security Networks Apps & Analytics Databases Source: Machina Research 2014
  132. 132. 132 IoT Platforms • Allow to manage remote devices and exchange messages to enable building IoT applications – Remote Device Management • Manage the device life cycle from onboarding till decommissioning • Receive device information • Configure devices remotely • Send commands to devices – Message Management • Collect sensor data and store it in the HCP persistence layer • Supports various transport protocols and message formats – Application Enablement • Use Device Management and Message Management functionality in your applications • IoT software platform can be classified according to the following criteria: device management, integration, security, protocols for data collection, types of analytics, and support for visualizations
  133. 133. 133 IoT Platforms IoT Software Platform Device management? Integration Security Protocols for data collection Types of analytics Support for visualizations? 2lemetry - IoT Analytics Platform** Yes Salesforce, Heroku, ThingWorx APIs Link Encryption (SSL), Standards ( ISO 27001, SAS70 Type II audit) MQTT, CoAP, STOMP,M3DA Real-time analytics (Apache Storm) No Appcelerator No REST API Link Encryption (SSL, IPsec, AES-256) MQTT, HTTP Real-time analytics (Titanium [1]) Yes (Titanium UI Dashboard) AWS IoT platform Yes REST API Link Encryption (TLS), Authentication (SigV4, X.509) MQTT, HTTP1.1 Real-time analytics (Rules Engine, Amazon Kinesis, AWS Lambda) Yes (AWS IoT Dashboard) Bosch IoT Suite - MDM IoT Platform Yes REST API *Unknown MQTT, CoAP, AMQP,STOMP *Unknown Yes (User Interface Integrator) Ericsson Device Connection Platform (DCP) - MDM IoT Platform Yes REST API Link Encryption (SSL/TSL),Authenticati on (SIM based) CoAP *Unknown No EVRYTHNG - IoT Smart Products Platform No REST API Link Encryption (SSL) MQTT,CoAP, WebSockets Real-time analytics (Rules Engine) Yes (EVRYTHNG IoT Dashboard) IBM IoT Foundation Device Cloud Yes REST and Real-time APIs Link Encryption ( TLS), Authentication (IBM Cloud SSO), Identity management (LDAP) MQTT, HTTPS Real-time analytics (IBM IoT Real-Time Insights) Yes (Web portal) ParStream - IoT Analytics Platform*** No R, UDX API *Unknown MQTT Real-time analytics, Batch analytics (ParStream DB) Yes (ParStream Management Console) PLAT.ONE - end-to- end IoT and M2M application platform Yes REST API Link Encryption (SSL), Identity Management (LDAP) MQTT, SNMP *Unknown Yes (Management Console for application enablement, data management, and device management) ThingWorx - MDM IoT Platform Yes REST API Standards (ISO 27001), Identity Management (LDAP) MQTT, AMQP, XMPP, CoAP, DDS, WebSockets Predictive analytics(ThingWorx Machine Learning), Real-time analytics (ParStream DB) Yes (ThingWorx SQUEAL) Xively- PaaS enterprise IoT platform No REST API Link Encryption (SSL/TSL) HTTP, HTTPS, Sockets/ Websocket, MQTT *Unknown Yes (Management console) Source: https://dzone.com/articles/iot-software-platform-comparison
  134. 134. 134 IoT como habilitador de las Ciudades Inteligentes • IoT allows for the pervasive interaction with/between the smart things leading to an effective integration of information into the digital world. – Smart things - instrumented with sensing, actuation, and interaction capabilities - have the means to exchange information and influence the real world entities and other actors of a smart city eco-system in real time, forming a smart pervasive computing environment to achieve a more livable city
  135. 135. 135 The need for Smart Cities • Challenges cities face today: – Growing population • Traffic congestion • Space – homes and public space – Resource management (water and energy use) – Global warming (carbon emissions) – Tighter city budgets – Aging infrastructure and population
  136. 136. 136 What is a Smart City? • Smart Cities improve the efficiency and quality of the services provided by governing entities and business and (are supposed to) increase citizens’ quality of life within a city – This view can be achieved by leveraging: • Available infrastructure such as Open Government Data and deployed sensor networks (IoT) in cities • Citizens’ participation through apps in their smartphones – Or go for big companies’ “smart city in a box” solutions
  137. 137. 137 What is a Smart Sustainable City? A smart sustainable city is an innovative city that uses information and communication technologies and other means to improve quality of life, efficiency of urban operation and services, and competitiveness, while ensuring that it meets the needs of present and future generations with respect to economic, social and environmental aspects https://itunews.itu.int/en/5215-What-is-a-smart-sustainable-city.note.aspx
  138. 138. 138 Smart City Applications • sadfafd
  139. 139. 139 • Smart Cities seek the participation of citizens: – To enrich the knowledge gathered about a city not only with government-provided or networked sensors' provided data, but also with highly dynamic user-generated data • BUT, how can we ensure that users and their generated data can be trusted and has enough quality? – W3C has created the PROV Data Model, for provenance interchange Citizen Participation
  140. 140. 140 User-generated Data: Google Maps vs. Open Street Map • OSM is an excellent cartographic product driven by user contributions • Google Maps has progressed from mapping for the world to mapping from the world, where cartography is not the end product, but rather the necessary means for: – Google’s autonomous car initiative, combine sensors, GPS and 3D maps for self-driving cars. – Google’s Project Wing: a drone-based delivery systems to make use of a detailed 3D model of the world to quickly link supply to demand • By connecting the geometrical content of its Google Maps databases to digital traces that it collects, Google can assign meaning to space, transforming it into place. – Mapping by machines if not about “you are here”, but to understand who you are, where you should be heading, what you could be doing there!
  141. 141. 141 CrowdSensing • Individuals with sensing and computing devices collectively share data and extract information to measure and map phenomena of common interest
  142. 142. 142 Personal Data • Defined as "any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person ("data subject")”
  143. 143. 143 Urban Intelligence / Analytics • Broad Data aggregates data from heterogeneous sources: – Open Government Data repositories and IoT deployments – User-supplied data through social networks or apps – Public private sector data or – End-user private data • Humongous potential on correlating and analysing Broad Data in the city context: – Leverage digital traces left by citizens in their daily interactions with the city to gain insights about why, how and when they do things – We can progress from Open City Data to Open Data Knowledge • Energy saving, improve health monitoring, optimized transport system, filtering and recommendation of contents and services
  144. 144. 144 Smarter Cities • Smarter Cities  cities that do not only manage their resources more efficiently but also are aware of the citizens’ needs. – Human/city interactions leave digital traces that can be compiled into comprehensive pictures of human daily facets – Analysis and discovery of the information behind the big amount of Broad Data captured on these smart cities deployment Smarter Cities= Internet of Things + Broad Data + Citizen Participation through Smartphones + Urban Analytics
  145. 145. 145 Analytics in the Smart City: Data- driven decision making
  146. 146. 146 From Open Data to Open Knowledge
  147. 147. 147 Perspectivas de crecimiento de IoT: realidad o promesa • Success stories in the following domains: – Intelligent Waste Management – Animals and Environment Monitoring – Smart Grids: IoT and knowledge based control for energy efficiency – Comprehensive system for agriculture intelligence • Internet of Things Success Stories #1 to #3: – https://www.smart- action.eu/publications/archive/2015/10/55099c948b1ac6 826c142aa6fcd402e4/
  148. 148. 148 IoT & Big Data • IoT is also expected to generate large amounts of data from diverse locations, with the consequent necessity for quick aggregation of the data, and an increase in the need to index, store, and process such data more effectively
  149. 149. 149 IoT & Big DataTensHundredsThousandsMillionsBillionsConnections Internet of Things Machine-to-Machine Isolated (autonomous, disconnected) Monitored Smart Systems (Intelligence in Subnets of Things ) Telemetry and Telematics Smart Homes Connected Cars Intelligent Buildings Intelligent Transport Systems Smart Meters and Grids Smart Retailing Smart Enterprise Management Remotely controlled and managed Building automation Manufacturing Security Utilities Internet of Things Sensors Devices Systems Things Processes People Industries Products Services Growth in connections generates an unparalleled scale of data Source: Machina Research 2014
  150. 150. 150 From M2M to IoT towards Big Data Data Big data Changing data models Real-time Processing Aggregation Internet of Things Large estates of devices Evolving applications All forms of data Data streaming and processing Pre-IoT (M2M) Limited estate of devices Single purpose applications Structured / Semi- structured Data transfers (sensors and actuators) Source: Machina Research 2014
  151. 151. 151 Data has changed • 90% of the world’s data was created in the last two years • 80% of enterprise data is unstructured • Unstructured data growing 2x faster than structured
  152. 152. 152 Nature of Data in IoT • Heterogeneity makes IoT devices hardly interoperable • Data collected is multi-modal, diverse, voluminous and often supplied at high speed • IoT data management imposes heavy challenges on information systems
  153. 153. 153 ¿Qué es Big Data? • "Big Data are high-volume, high-velocity, and/or high-variety information assets that require new forms of processing to enable enhanced decision making, insight discovery and process optimization“ Gartner, 2012 – El término “Big Data” se originó dentro de la comunidad open source, donde hubo un esfuerzo por desarrollar procesos de análisis que fueran más rápidos y escalables que el data warehousing tradicional, y pudieran extraer valor de los inmensos volúmenes de datos no estructurados producidos a diario por usuarios web • Es una oportunidad para encontrar percepciones en nuevos y tipos emergentes de datos y contenidos, para hacer a tu negocio más ágil, y para responder preguntas que fueron consideradas con anterioridad fuera de tu alcance.
  154. 154. 154 Big Data Evolution • Data explosion!! – 48 hours of data from stock market ~ 5 TB – Semi and non-structured data provided in real-time through social networks – Google processes PB/hour • Bioinformatics – huge datasets about genetics and drugs • Money whitening / terrorist funding, Spatial Data • 85% of Fortune 500 organizations are not able to process Big Data to gain competitive advantage – Gartner • Currently more than 1.9 zettabytes of data are being produced
  155. 155. 155 Necesidad de Big Data Analytics • La percepción de los procesos de Data Warehousing es que son lentos y limitados en escalabilidad • La necesidad de converger datos de varias fuentes, tanto estructuradas como no estructuradas • Es crítico el acceso a la información para extraer valor de las fuentes de datos incluyendo dispositivos móviles, RFID, la web y otro largo listado de tecnologías sensoriales automatizadas.
  156. 156. 156 Características de Big Data
  157. 157. 157 Las 4 Vs de Big Data
  158. 158. 158 IoT & Big Data • The more data that is created, the better understanding and wisdom people can obtain
  159. 159. 159 Types of Analytics (I)
  160. 160. 160 Types of Analytics (II) • Predictive analysis enables you to move from sense and respond to predict and act
  161. 161. 161 Types of Analytics (III)
  162. 162. 162 Types of Analytics (II)
  163. 163. 163 How does Big Data Analytics work? Source: Virtualisation and Validation of Smart City Data. Dr Sefki Kolozali. Dr Payam Barnaghi
  164. 164. 164 IoT Data Processing Architectures
  165. 165. 165 Apache Hadoop • Hadoop es una framework gratuita en Java para procesar grandes volúmenes de datos en un entorno de computación distribuido – Hace posible la ejecución de aplicaciones sobre sistemas con miles de nodos que procesan miles de terabytes – Su sistema de ficheros distribuido facilita la rápida transferencia de datos entro nodos y permite al sistema seguir operando ininterrumpidamente en caso de fallo de un nodo – Inspirado por Google MapReduce, un modelo de computación donde una aplicación se divide en varias partes • Cada una de esas partes (fragmentos o bloques) puede ser ejecutada en cualquier nodo de un clúster – El ecositema actual de Apache Hadoop consiste de: • Hadoop kernel, MapReduce, el sistema de ficheros distribuido de Hadoop (HDFS) y otros proyectos relacionados como Apache Hive, HBase and Zookeeper. – Usado por los grandes agentes de la industria Google, Yahoo and IBM
  166. 166. 166 Apache Spark • Apache Spark provides programmers with an application programming interface centered on a data structure called the resilient distributed dataset (RDD), a read-only multiset of data items distributed over a cluster of machines, that is maintained in a fault-tolerant way. – It was developed in response to limitations in the MapReduce cluster computing paradigm, which forces a particular linear dataflow structure on distributed programs – Oriented to stream data processing allowing for CEP (Complex Event Processing)
  167. 167. 167 Summary: IoT Benefits (I)
  168. 168. 168 Summary: IoT Benefits (II)
  169. 169. 169 IoT Benefits
  170. 170. 170 IoT Market • The global IoT market will grow from $157B in 2016 to $457B by 2020, attaining a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 28.5%
  171. 171. 171 Summary: Challenges of IoT (I) • Platform : form and design of the products (UI and UX) , analytics tools used to deal with the massive data streaming from all products in a secure way , and scalability which means wide adoption of protocols like IPv6 in all vertical and horizontal markets . • Connectivity: Connectivity includes all parts of the consumer’s day and night using wearables, smart cars, smart homes, and in the big scheme smart cities. • Business Model: The bottom line is a big motivation for starting, investing in, and operating any business, without a sound and solid business models for IoT we will have another bubble , this model must satisfied all the requirements for all kinds of e-commerce; vertical markets, horizontal markets and consumer markets. • Killer Applications: Three functions needed in any killer applications, control “things”, collect “data”, analyze “data”. • Security: The IoT introduces unique physical security concerns implying that IoT privacy concerns are complex and not always readily evident.
  172. 172. 172 Summary: Challenges of IoT (II) • Learn how to make money with it – make it sustainable – Finding meaningful use cases is key to success – Visions are allowed, but first bills have to be paid – New business models are key to making money with IoT – Business models will have an impact on the architecture of solutions! • IoT can be complex! – Keep it simple by structured data models and good scale – Keep it understandable for customers and consumers
  173. 173. 173 Summary: Challenges of IoT (III) • Society: People, security, privacy – A policy for people in the Internet of Things: Legislation (GDPR) – Decisions – do not delegate too much of our decision making and freedom of choice to things and machines – Privacy and Security will distinguish between success and failure – Managing one’s own privacy will become a complex task – and needs to be kept simple – Historical personal data availability – who will delete the data? • Environmental aspects – Resource efficiency – Pollution and disaster avoidance
  174. 174. 174 Summary: Challenges of IoT (IV) • Technological – Architecture (edge devices, servers, discovery services, security, etc.) – Governance, naming, identity, interfaces – Service openness, interoperability – Connections of real and virtual world – Standards • Establishing a common set of standards – The same type of cabling, – The same applications or programming – The same protocol or set of rules that will apply to all • Energy sources for millions -even billions - of sensors – Wind – Solar, – Hydro-electric
  175. 175. 175 Conclusión • Internet de las Cosas al Servicio de las Personas: – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ge0q7jJuvbs
  176. 176. 176 Conclusión • Internet de las Cosas al Servicio de las Personas: – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ge0q7jJuvbs
  177. 177. 177 Internet de las Cosas: del Concepto a la Realidad CETIC (Centro de Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación), Vitoria-Gasteiz 29 de Mayo de 2018, 18:00-20:30 Dr. Diego López-de-Ipiña González-de-Artaza dipina@deusto.es http://paginaspersonales.deusto.es/dipina http://www.morelab.deusto.es @dipina
  178. 178. 178 References • Internet of Things towards Ubiquitous and Mobile Computing – http://research.microsoft.com/en- us/UM/redmond/events/asiafacsum2010/presentations/Guihai- Chen_Oct19.pdf • 5 key questions to ask about the Internet of Things – http://www.slideshare.net/DeloitteUS/5-questions-the-iot-internet-of-things • Internet Connected Objects for Reconfigurable Eco-systems – https://docbox.etsi.org/workshop/2012/201210_M2MWORKSHOP/zz_POSTE RS/iCore.pdf • Internet of Things and Big Data – Bosch, August 2015 – https://www.bosch- si.com/media/bosch_software_innovations/media_landingpages/connectedw orld_1/bcw_2016/bcw_1/download_page_1/download_page/bcw16_mongo db_collateral_followup_sponsor.pdf • The internet of things and big data: Unlocking the power – http://www.zdnet.com/article/the-internet-of-things-and-big-data-unlocking- the-power/
  179. 179. 179 References • Deconstructing the Internet of Things – https://jenson.org/deconstructing-the-iot/ • Mobile in IoT Context ? Mobile Applications in "Industry 4.0“ – http://www.slideshare.net/MobileTrendsConference/karol-kalisz-vitaliy-rudnytskiy- mobile-in-iot-context-mobile-applications-in-industry-40 • Inside the Internet of Things (IoT) – A primer on the technologies building the IoT – Deloitte – http://dupress.com/articles/iot-primer-iot-technologies-applications/ • Internet of Things (IoT) - We Are at the Tip of An Iceberg – Dr. Mazlan Abbas – http://www.slideshare.net/mazlan1/internet-of-things-iot-we-are-at-the-tip-of-an- iceberg • Infographic: What are Beacons and What Do They Do? – https://kontakt.io/blog/infographic-beacons/ • iBeacon – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBeacon
  180. 180. 180 References • ITU News – What is a smart sustainable city?, – https://itunews.itu.int/en/5215-What-is-a-smart-sustainable- city.note.aspx • Frost & Sullivan's Predictions for the Global Energy and Environment Market, – http://www.slideshare.net/FrostandSullivan/frost-sullivans- predictions-for-the-global-energy-and-environment-market • Fog Computing with VORTEX – http://www.slideshare.net/Angelo.Corsaro/20141210-fog • What Exactly Is The "Internet of Things"? – A graphic primer behind the term & technologies – http://postscapes.com/what-exactly-is-the-internet-of-things- infographic
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