4. We use the present simple:
To talk about feelings and opinions
She loves football
I like pop music
To talk about thoughts
I don’t think she likes her new job
To talk about natural incidents
The sun rises in the east
5. To talk about a present habit
Present simple can be used with frequency
7. Add –s for most verbs
Add –es for verbs that end in –ch,-ss,-sh,-x
8. Change the –y to –i and add –es when the
base form ends in consonant +y
Do not change –y when the base form ends
in a vowel+y…….add –s
9. The present continuous tense is used to express:
what is happening now or around the time of
A momentary action can be understood by
Ex:she is coming
It is aching
10. Constant habits
To show habit that is constantly or
ex: he is always working
She is always grumbling
Near future(decided future)
With a future meaning to show what
you have always arranged to do
11. I am coming
YOU are coming
SHE is coming
12. The present continuous is normally used with
words such as:
At the moment
At the present moment
13. Some verbs are used only in simple tenses…
Ex:you cannot say “I am knowing”
There are some verbs that cant see in
want like belong know suppose need love
see release mean prefer have hear
believe understand remember forget
seem notice appreciate have(possess)
14. When a verb ends in a single “e” it is dropped before adding
This does not happen when a verb ends in
“ee”, “oe”, “ye”, “ge”
When verbs of two or more syllables whose last syllable
contains only one vowel and ends in a single consonant we
have to double this consonant if the stress falls on the last
15. We use the present perfect to talk about things that
happened at an indefinite time in past.you can use the
present perfect when you don’t know when
something happened or when the specific time is not
When we use present perfect,there is a connection
with the present.
Ex: I’ve lost my key(I haven’t got it now)
I’ve forgotten her name(I can’t remember it now)
16. We often use the present perfect to give new
information or to announce a recent
Ex:do you know about Dilrukshi ?she has
gone to Japan.
17. You can use the present perfect with “just”
(a short time ago)
Ex:no thanks.i’ve just had lunch
You can use present perfect with “already” to
say that something has happened sooner
Ex: when is seetha going to start her new job?she has
18. Use the present perfect with ‘since’ or ‘for’ to
talk about something than began in the past and
continued to the present.(and may continue into
Use the present perfect with since+point in time to show
when something is started.
Since can also introduce a time clause
If the action ended in the past ,use the past simple in the time clause.
If the action still continuous in the present,use the present perfect in the
Ex: I haven’t seen him since Monday.
19. use the present perfect with „for‟+length of
time to show how long a present situation
Ex:He has lived in london for six years
We often use “ever” and “never” in present
ex:Have you ever eaten cuttle fish?
I have never smoked a cigarrete.
20. We use present perfect after a superlative
Ex:you are the prettiest girl I’ve ever met in my life
we have to use the present perfect with
“this is the first time……..”
Ex:This is the first time I have faced such a problem
21. We use the present perfect when we talk
about a period of time that continuous up to
the present or something that has happened
several times up to the present.
Ex:I haven’t seen him recently.have you?
we often use the present perfect with “yet”
shows that the speaker is expecting
something to happen.
Ex:Hasn’t it stopped raining yet?
22. We use present perfect with this
week,this term ,etc…if the period
indicated by these times are nor over at the
time of speaking
Ex:I have drunk four bottles of coca cola today.
We use present perfect with ‘been’ to show
Ex:We have been angry with each other for two years
23. I have gone
YOU have gone Have/has
SHE has gone
24. We use present perfect continuous for an
action or situation that began in the past and
continuous until now.
Past f uture
25. We can use the present perfect continuous
for repeated actions up to now.they can be
actions that are done many times in a period
of time from the past and until now.
I have been having driving lessons for a couple of months.
I have been going to evening classes in french.
26. We can also use it to talk about an action
which has just stopped and has a present
Ex :It has been raining.that’s why the ground is wet.
We can use present perfect continuous
with for ,since,how
long, recently, lately…..
Ex :I have been attending this class for three months
27. I have been working
YOU have been working
SHE has been working