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Academic Writing Skills 1

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Academic Writing Skills 1

  1. 1. Study Writing skills – I 16 – Nov – 2008, Sunday 16/Nov/2008, Sun KSV M.Phil. - D.P.Barad Writing skills for academic purpose Liz Hamp-Lyons & Ben Heasley Pub: CUP
  2. 2. 16/Nov/2008, Sun KSV MPhil - D.P.Barad <ul><li>Write a para in 100-150 words. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ how M.Phil. will help you? </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Introductory para of your dissertation’ </li></ul><ul><li>Make use of pin page. </li></ul><ul><li>You can write on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree for monetary gain, i.e. increment in salary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessity as advanced degree to secure / job safety. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop academic skills (viz. translation, CALL, research aptitude…) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any other … </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Academic Writing processes 16/Nov/2008, Sun KSV MPhil - D.P.Barad <ul><li>Our aim in this study is to: </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing the idea that writing is a set of processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Showing how to distinguish between academic and personal styles of writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at the grammar of academic discourse. </li></ul><ul><li>Practicing visualizing text as a pre-writing step. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>1. When you write an important text, do you make more than one draft? </li></ul><ul><li>2. If option is given, do you prefer to write on paper or use a computer? Have you ever asked yourself why? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What do you do before you start writing? </li></ul><ul><li>4. How do you start writing? Do you begin at ‘the beginning’ or jump in wherever you have some ideas? Do you think one approach is better than another? </li></ul>16/Nov/2008, Sun KSV MPhil - D.P.Barad Thinking about writing processes:
  5. 5. <ul><li>5. What do you do while you are writing? Do you stop and think? Do you ever go back to the beginning and start again? </li></ul><ul><li>6. When you finish your first complete draft, what do you do next? </li></ul>16/Nov/2008, Sun KSV MPhil - D.P.Barad
  6. 6. Discuss answers with your friends… 16/Nov/2008, Sun KSV MPhil - D.P.Barad <ul><li>Remember, there are no correct answers, only sensible or thoughtless ones. Freely discuss all views. </li></ul><ul><li>Would your answer be same for writing in your own language? </li></ul><ul><li>Objective of this questionnaire: to capture thinking about something in order to talk clearly about it later. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Write again … 16/Nov/2008, Sun KSV MPhil - D.P.Barad <ul><li>Prepare final draft of ‘how M.Phil. will help you? Or ‘ Introductory para of your dissertation’. </li></ul><ul><li>Write your name and submit pages to your facilitator for evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>You can also email me the same write-up later on: [email_address] </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is academic writing? <ul><li>There are different kinds of academic writing in English. Some of these differences arise from the different disciplines and the ways in which they create and share knowledge; some relate to the audience (reader); and some to the use of which the text will be put. </li></ul><ul><li>The rules and definitions are very complicated. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet we can easily recognize the difference between informal and formal (academic) writing. </li></ul>16/Nov/2008, Sun KSV MPhil - D.P.Barad
  9. 9. Recognizing academic writing <ul><li>Read: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguists were and remain convinced by Noam Chomsky of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who discovered that however disparate human languages seem, all share a common, basic structure, seemingly hardwired into the brain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Identify three features of this sentence that you think are academic. </li></ul></ul>16/Nov/2008, Sun KSV MPhil - D.P.Barad
  10. 10. <ul><li>Read </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The way you speak says a lot about you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify three features of this sentence that seem non-academic to you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss with your partner…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let us see the answers … </li></ul></ul>16/Nov/2008, Sun KSV MPhil - D.P.Barad
  11. 11. Features of academic and non-academic writings 16/Nov/2008, Sun KSV MPhil - D.P.Barad <ul><li>In first sentence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference to academics, ‘linguists’ and ‘Noam Chomsky of …’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of passive voice ‘Linguists were and remain convinced by N.Chomsky …’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows truth status of statement, ‘seemingly hardwired into the brain’. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>In second sentence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vague vocabulary, such as ‘way’, ‘say’ and ‘a lot’ – lack of precision. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directly addressing the reader, ‘you’ – conversational style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple sentence structure. </li></ul></ul>16/Nov/2008, Sun KSV MPhil - D.P.Barad
  13. 13. Levels of formality in academic and non-academic writing <ul><li>After distinguishing some features of academic and non-academic writing, let us now recognize levels of formality </li></ul>16/Nov/2008, Sun KSV MPhil - D.P.Barad Academic Non-Academic Reader Academics Family & friends Content Serious thought conversational Style Complex sentences showing considerable variety in construction Mostly simple and compound sentences joined by conjunctions such as and or but Organization Clear and well planned Less likely to be as clear and as organized Grammar Likely to be error free May not always use complete sentences Vocabulary Technical and academic language used accurately Use of short forms, idioms and slang
  14. 14. Read the following sentences and tick A(academic) or N(non-academic) 16/Nov/2008, Sun KSV MPhil - D.P.Barad Sentences A N Notes I couldn’t finish the interview on time. The initial tests were completed and the results analyzed by June 2008. I’d like to start by drawing your attention to previous research in this area. In the 1990s, some researchers started to point out the problems with this theory. He agreed with me that this procedure didn’t make much sense. We’ll repeat the test sometime next year. While it is still too early to draw firm conclusions from the data, preliminary analysis suggests the following trends are present. In addition, the research attempts to answer two further related questions.
  15. 15. 16/Nov/2008, Sun KSV MPhil - D.P.Barad Check your answers: compare and evaluate Sentences A N Notes I couldn’t finish … N Use of “I”; and short form, ‘couldn’t’ The initial tests … A Use of passive voice; ‘were completed; use of precise vocab, ‘initial’ I’d like to start … N Use of ‘I’ and ‘Your’; short form ‘I’d’ In the 1990s, some… N In an academic work we would expect some bibliographic references after ‘some researchers’ He agreed with me … N Use of ‘me’; short forms; vague vocab, ‘much sense’ We’ll repeat … N Use of short form; ‘We’ll; vague While it is still too early… A Complex sentence In addition, the research… A Use of connector, ‘In addition’; impersonal style i.e. ‘the research attempts’ rather than ‘I’ or ‘we’