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Eye muscles and ocular movements, laws of ocular motility

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Dr. Abdikarem Mohamoud Mohamed

Veröffentlicht in: Gesundheit & Medizin

Eye muscles and ocular movements, laws of ocular motility

  1. 1. Eye Muscles and Ocular Movements, Laws of ocular Motility Dr. Abdikariim Mohamoud MoahmedDr. Abdikariim Mohamoud Moahmed University Of HargeisaUniversity Of Hargeisa Hargeisa. SomalilandHargeisa. Somaliland
  2. 2. OutlineOutline  Extraocularmusles(EOM):Extraocularmusles(EOM):  Action of the RECTI.Action of the RECTI.  Types of Eye MovementsTypes of Eye Movements  UniocularUniocular  BionocularBionocular  Synergists, Antagonists, Contralateral antagonist, Yoke muscleSynergists, Antagonists, Contralateral antagonist, Yoke muscle  Diagnostic positions of gazeDiagnostic positions of gaze  cardinal positionscardinal positions  Laws of ocular motilityLaws of ocular motility  Hering’s lawHering’s law  Sherrington law of reciprocal innervationSherrington law of reciprocal innervation
  3. 3. Extraocularmusles(EOM)Extraocularmusles(EOM)  They areThey are sixsix in numberin number Four recti:Four recti:  Superior rectusSuperior rectus  Inferior rectusInferior rectus  Medial rectusMedial rectus  Lateral rectusLateral rectus Two oblique musclesTwo oblique muscles:-:-  Superior obliqueSuperior oblique  Inferior obliqueInferior oblique
  4. 4. Action of the RECTIAction of the RECTI Medial & lateral recti liein thesamehorizontal plane Around avertical axis Medial rectus - adduction Lateral rectus- abduction
  5. 5. Action of the RECTIAction of the RECTI SuperiorrectusSuperiorrectus Around thetransverseaxis– rotatestheeyeball upwardsAround thetransverseaxis– rotatestheeyeball upwards –– Elevation(Elevation(PRIMARYACTION)PRIMARYACTION) Around thevertical axis–Around thevertical axis– Adduction ( tertiary)Adduction ( tertiary) Around theanteroposterior axis–Around theanteroposterior axis– Intortion (secondary)Intortion (secondary)
  6. 6. Action of the RECTIAction of the RECTI  InferiorrectusInferiorrectus  Around thetransverseaxis– rotatestheAround thetransverseaxis– rotatesthe eyeball downwards–eyeball downwards– DepressionDepression (PRIMARY(PRIMARY ACTION)ACTION)  Around thevertical axis–Around thevertical axis– AdductionAdduction  Around theanteroposterior axis-Around theanteroposterior axis- ExtortionExtortion
  7. 7. Action of the RECTIAction of the RECTI • SuperiorobliqueSuperioroblique  Around theAround the anteroposterior axisanteroposterior axis ––Intorsion(Intorsion(primaryprimary action)action)  Around the verticalAround the vertical axisaxis AbductionAbduction  Around theAround the transverse eaxis–transverse eaxis– DepressionDepression
  8. 8. Action of the RECTIAction of the RECTI  InferiorobliqueInferioroblique  ExtortionExtortion Around theAround the anteroposterior axisanteroposterior axis ((primary action)primary action)  Around the vertical axisAround the vertical axis AbductionAbduction  Around thetransverseAround thetransverse eaxiseaxis ElevationElevation
  9. 9. Action of the RECTIAction of the RECTI  Both recti have same tertiary action bcz theyBoth recti have same tertiary action bcz they inserted anterior to centre of rotationinserted anterior to centre of rotation  pull ant.portion of globe medially so it causespull ant.portion of globe medially so it causes adductionadduction
  10. 10. Action of the RECTIAction of the RECTI  Both obliques have same tertiary actionBoth obliques have same tertiary action because inserted behind the center of rotation,because inserted behind the center of rotation,  pull post. pole of globe mediallypull post. pole of globe medially  when they contract ant.portion of eye so itwhen they contract ant.portion of eye so it causes abductioncauses abduction
  11. 11. Actions of EOMActions of EOM ACTION PRIMARY SECONDARY TERTIARY MR ADDUCTION ------ --------- LR ABDUCTION ------ --------- SR ELEVATION INTORSION ADDUCTION IR DEPRESSION EXTORSION ADDUCTION SO INTORSION DEPRESSION ABDUCTION IO EXTORSION ELEVATION ABDUCTION
  12. 12. Action of extraocular musclesAction of extraocular muscles Rotation aroundRotation around centerof rotationcenterof rotation 3 types of rotation:3 types of rotation: 1.1.Rotation aroundRotation around vertical axisvertical axis Z—Z—sideside to side.to side. 2.2. Rotation aroundRotation around horizontal axis X–horizontal axis X– up&downup&down 3.3. Rotation around fickRotation around fick antero posterior Yantero posterior Y axis–axis– torsiontorsion
  13. 13. movementsmovements Abduction Elevation Depression Adduction Intorsion Extorsion Elevation &Depression – Around the transverse axis Adduction &Abduction – Around the vertical axis Intortion &Extortion – Around the anteroposterioraxis
  14. 14. Types of Eye MovementsTypes of Eye Movements 1.1. Uniocular Eye MovemntsUniocular Eye Movemnts  Duction(Uniocular Eye Movements)Duction(Uniocular Eye Movements) 1.1. Binocular Eye MovementsBinocular Eye Movements  Version:Version: (Binocular Conjugate Eye(Binocular Conjugate Eye Movements).Movements).  Vergence:(Binocular Disjugate eyeVergence:(Binocular Disjugate eye movements).movements).
  15. 15. Uniocular movementsUniocular movements  Ductions – only one eye is open, the otherDuctions – only one eye is open, the other covered/closed tested by asking the pt. to follow acovered/closed tested by asking the pt. to follow a target in each direction of gaze.target in each direction of gaze.  Types of ductions:-Types of ductions:- 1.1. AdductionAdduction 2.2. AbductionAbduction 3.3. SupraductionSupraduction 4.4. InfraductionInfraduction 5.5. IncycloductionIncycloduction 6.6. excycloductionexcycloduction
  16. 16. Binocular movementsBinocular movements  VersionsVersions:-both eyes open, attempting to fixate:-both eyes open, attempting to fixate a target &moving in same direction.a target &moving in same direction.  Binocular ,simultaneous, conjugateBinocular ,simultaneous, conjugate movements in same direction.movements in same direction.  Abduction of one eye accompanied byAbduction of one eye accompanied by adduction of other eye is calledadduction of other eye is called conjugateconjugate movementsmovements..
  17. 17. Binocular movementsBinocular movements Types of versionsTypes of versions:-:-  Dextroversion & laevo versionDextroversion & laevo version  Elevation & depressionElevation & depression  Dextro elevation & dextro depressionDextro elevation & dextro depression  Laevo elevation & laevo depressionLaevo elevation & laevo depression
  18. 18. Binocular movementsBinocular movements VergencesVergences:binocular,simultaneous,disjugate/disj:binocular,simultaneous,disjugate/disj unctive movements (opp.direction)unctive movements (opp.direction) Convergence– simultaneous adductionConvergence– simultaneous adduction Divergence– outward movement fromDivergence– outward movement from convergent positionconvergent position
  19. 19. Diagnostic positions of gazeDiagnostic positions of gaze:-:-99  1 Primary position of gaze:-assumed by eyes when fixating a1 Primary position of gaze:-assumed by eyes when fixating a distant object with head erect.distant object with head erect.  4 secondary4 secondary 1.1. up,up, 2.2. down,down, 3.3. Right,Right, 4.4. Left,Left,  4 tertiary positions4 tertiary positions 1.1. Dextroelevation,Dextroelevation, 2.2. Dextrodepression,Dextrodepression, 3.3. LevoelevationLevoelevation 4.4. LevodepressionLevodepression
  20. 20. cardinal positions:-6cardinal positions:-6  6 cardinal positions :- to test 12 EOM in their6 cardinal positions :- to test 12 EOM in their main field of actionmain field of action 1.1. DextroversionDextroversion 2.2. Laevo versionLaevo version 3.3. Dextro elevationDextro elevation 4.4. Leavo elevationLeavo elevation 5.5. Dextro depressionDextro depression 6.6. Laevo depressionLaevo depression
  21. 21. Synergists, Antagonists, ContralateralSynergists, Antagonists, Contralateral antagonist, Yoke muscleantagonist, Yoke muscle  SynergistsSynergists:-ref.to muscles having same action:-ref.to muscles having same action in same eye.in same eye.  Ex:-sup.rectus & inf.oblique----elevatorsEx:-sup.rectus & inf.oblique----elevators inf.rectus&sup.oblique-----depressorsinf.rectus&sup.oblique-----depressors  AntagonistsAntagonists:-having opp.action in same eye:-having opp.action in same eye Ex:-sup.&inf. Recti ,sup.&inf.obliqueEx:-sup.&inf. Recti ,sup.&inf.oblique  Contralateral antagonistContralateral antagonist:-pair of muscle (one:-pair of muscle (one from each eye)having an opposite action.from each eye)having an opposite action. Ex:-in dextroversion RLR & LLREx:-in dextroversion RLR & LLR
  22. 22.  YokeYoke muscle(contralateralmuscle(contralateral synergistssynergists):-):-  Ref. to musclesRef. to muscles which are primarywhich are primary muscles (one frommuscles (one from each eye) thateach eye) that accomplish(contract)accomplish(contract) a given version.a given version.  Ex :-in dextroversionEx :-in dextroversion RLR &LMRRLR &LMR
  23. 23. Laws of ocular motilityLaws of ocular motility 1.1. Hering’s law of equal innervationHering’s law of equal innervation:- during:- during any conjugate movement equal &any conjugate movement equal & simultaneous innervation flows to yokesimultaneous innervation flows to yoke musclesmuscles
  24. 24. Laws of ocular motilityLaws of ocular motility 2.2. Sherrington law of reciprocal innervationSherrington law of reciprocal innervation :-:-  increase innervation to an EOM isincrease innervation to an EOM is accompanied by reciprocal decrease inaccompanied by reciprocal decrease in innervation to its antagonist.innervation to its antagonist.  Ex:-RMR & RLREx:-RMR & RLR

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