“To intervene is to enter
into an ongoing system of
relationships, to come
between or among persons,
groups, or objects for the
purpose of helping them.”
(July 16, 1923 – November 16, 2013)
Interventions are sets of structured activities
in which selected organizational units engage in a
series of tasks which will lead to organizational
The intervention is the procedure the OD
consultant uses, after diagnosing an organizational
situation and providing feedback to management,
to address an organization problem or positive
5. CRITERIA FOR
1. The Extent to Which it (the Intervention)
fits the needs of the organization.
2. The degree to which it is based on causal
knowledge of intended outcomes.
3. The extent to which the OD intervention
transfers change-management competence to
6. 2 Factors that Impact the Success of
1. Factors relating to Change Situation
These relate to the environment of the
organization and include the physical and human
A. Readiness for Change
B. Capability to Change
C. Cultural Context
D. Capabilities of the
7. 2. Factors Related to the Target of Change
2 Factors that Impact the Success of
These relate to the specific targets at which OD
interventions are targeted. The targets of change can
be different issues of the organization and at
A. Organizational Issues
B. Organizational Levels
11. GROUPS TEAMS
1. A number of persons 1. A form of group
2. Usually reporting to a
2. Has some
greater degree than
3. Having some face-to-face
3. And a higher degree
4. Persons have some degree
of interdependence in
carrying out tasks for the
purpose of achieving
13. TEAM INTERVENTION
The purpose of this team is to help
employees/members of the team that are
struggling in some way.
This usually refers to
performance but can include
emotional / behavioral / social
14. DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEAMS
1. Cross-Functional Teams
Comprised of individuals with functional home
base but they meet regularly to solve ongoing
challenges requiring input from a number of
2. Effective Teams
Effective teams are relaxed, comfortable and
3. High Performance Teams
Have strong personal commitment to each other
commitment to other’s growth and success.
16. These activities focus on task issues such
as the way things are done, the skills and
resources needed to accomplish tasks, the
quality of relationship among the team
members or between members and the leader,
and how well the team gets its job done.
Interventions focus on:
1. Formal Groups
2. Special Groups
17. 4 MAIN AREAS OF
2. Task Accomplishments
3. Team Relationships
4. Team and Organization Processes
18. Its purpose is to conduct a general critique of the
performance of the group and to uncover and identify
problems on which they will work on.
THE FORMAL GROUP DIAGNOSTIC MEETING
“Where we are going” and “how we are going.”
After sharing the data throughout the group, next
steps are: discussing the issues, grouping the issues in
terms of themes, and getting a preliminary look at the
next action steps.
19. Primary emphasis is on processes such as
communications, leader and member roles in
groups, problem solving and decision making,
group norms and group growth, leadership and
authority, and intergroup cooperation and
It places greater emphasis on diagnosing and
understanding process events
20. STEPS IN TEAM INTERVENTION
Step 1 - Identify At-Risk Population
It must be determined which members are “at-risk”.
The lowest 10% in each level will be the target group.
Step 2 - Initial Intervention Team Meeting
Review data with all personnel in attendance.
Brainstorm interventions. Other interventions may
have been agreed upon during the initial Intervention Team
Step 3 - Interventions Begin
Step 4 - Second Intervention Team Meeting
Step 5 - Request for Further Testing
21. 1. Clarify Direction
2. Inspiring Performance
3. Building Relationships and Trust
4. Conflict Management
5. Relating to the External World
23. • The focus of this is on improving
• OD methods provide ways of
increasing intergroup co-operation and
• Blake, Shepherd and Mouton have
developed activities applicable to
stressed situations in the forms of steps.
25. WALTON’S APPROACH TO
THIRD PARTY PEACEMAKING
Walton has presented a statement of
theory and practice for third-party
peacemaking interventions that is
important in its own right and important
in its own right and important for its role
in organization development.
26. FOUR ELEMENTS OF
WALTON’S MODEL FOR
DIAGNOSIS OF CONFLICT
1. The conflict issues.
2. Precipitating circumstances.
3. Conflict relevant acts.
4. The consequences of the
27. SOURCES OF CONFLICTS
SUBSTANTIVE ISSUES EMOTIONAL ISSUES
over policies and practices,
competitive bids for the
same resources and
differing conceptions of
roles and role
feelings between the
anger, distrust, scorn,
Require problem -solving
and bargaining behaviors
between the principals.
28. WALTON’S OUTLINE FOR
(PROCESS OF ADDRESSING CONFLICT)
1. Mutual positive motivation.
2. Balance of power.
3. Synchronization of
29. 4. Differentiation and integration of
different phases of the intervention must
be well paced.
5. Conditions that promote openness
should be created.
6. Reliable communicative signals.
7. Optimum tension in the situation.
30. ORGANIZATION MIRROR
• It is a technique designed
to work unites feedback in
how other elements of
organization view them.
• Set of activities in which host group
receives feedback about how it is
perceived and regarded from reps across
• Used in situations where two or more
entities are likely to incur unnecessary
and/or cost overruns.
• A variation of team
building and strategic
36. PROCESS OF
1. Climate Setting 45 – 60 mins
2. Information Collecting 60 mins
3. Information Sharing 60 mins
4. Priority setting and group
5. Immediate follow-up by top
60 – 180 mins
6. Progress Review
120 mins (four-six
37. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
The concept is described by Schendel and
Hofers It is defined as the development and
implementation of the organization’s grand
design or overall strategy for relating to its
current and future environmental demands.
39. STREAM ANALYSIS
• Developed by Jerry Porras is a valuable
model for thinking about change and for
• Displaying the problems of an
organization, examining the interconnections
between the problems, identifying core
problems and graphically tracking the
corrective actions taken to solve the
40. STEPS OF STREAM ANALYSIS
1. Categorizing the important features of
organizational work setting in to four
a. Organizational arrangements
b. Social factors
d. Physical Setting
41. 2. Diagnosing the problems and barriers to
3. Classifying the problems into four streams.
4. Identifying the core
problems by noting the
between the problems.
STEPS OF STREAM ANALYSIS
42. SURVEY FEEDBACK
It’s a process of systematically collecting data
about the system and feeding back the data for
individuals and groups at all levels of the
organization to analyze, interpret meanings and
design corrective action
43. 2 COMPONENTS OF SURVEY
1. Climate or attitude survey
2. Feedback workshop
44. GRID ORGANIZATONAL
• It’s a six phase program lasting about
three to five years, an organization can move
systematically from the stage of examining
managerial behavior and style to the
development and implementation of an ideal
strategic corporate model.
• It enables individuals and groups to assess
their own strengths and weaknesses.
45. PHASES IN GRID
Phase 1: The Managerial Grid
Phase 2: Teamwork Development
Phase 3: Intergroup Development
Phase 5: Implementing the Ideal Strategic
Phase 4: Developing an Ideal Strategic
Phase 6: Systematic Critique
47. • This class of interventions includes changes
in how the overall work of an organization is
divided into units, who reports to whom,
methods of control, the arrangement of
• It is called as techno structural interventions.
equipment and people,
work flow arrangements
and changes in
48. 6 TYPES OF
1. Structural Design
is largely associated with
experiments attempted to
create better fit among the
technology, structure and
social interactions of a
particular production unit.
49. PREMISES OF
1. Effective work system must jointly optimize
the relationship between their social and
2. Such system must effectively manage the
boundary separating and relating them to the
50. 2. SELF-MANAGED TEAMS
A self-managed team has total
responsibility for its defined remit. That
remit might be a specific project. A self-
managed team thrives on
interacting skill sets, on
shared motivation and
51. 3. WORK REDESIGN
Hackman and Oldham – theoretical model
of what job characteristics lead to the
psychological states that produce what they call
“HIGH INTERNAL WORK MOTIVATION”
FIVE CORE JOB CHARACTERISTICS
1. Skill Variety
2. Task Identity
3. Task Significance
5. Feedback from Job
52. 4. QUALITY OF WORK LIFE (QWL)
An attempt to restructure multiple
dimensions of the organization and to
institute a mechanism, which introduces and
sustains changes over time.
53. QWL FEATURES
1. Voluntary involvement on the part of employees
2. Union agreement with process and participation.
3. Assurance of no loss of job
4. Training for team problem solving
5. Use of quality circles
6. Participation in forecasting, work planning
7. Regular plant and team meetings.
8. Encouragement for skill development.
9. Job rotations.
54. 5. REENGINEERING
The fundamental rethinking
and radical redesign of
business processes to achieve
dramatic improvements in
measures of performance,
such as cost, quality, service,
55. 6. LARGE SCALE CHANGE
AND HIGH PERFORMANCE
When a number of OD
and other interventions are
combined to create major
changes in the total culture
of an organization, the term
large scale is used.
57. TEAM INTERVENTION
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INTER-GROUP AND THIRD PARTY INTERVENTIONS
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