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Supporting Cognition in the Face of Political
Data and Discourse
A Mental Models Perspective on Designing Information
Visu...
Information Visualization (InfoVis)
“the use of computer-supported, interactive, visual
representations of abstract data t...
http://www.mapd.com/demos/political-donations/
Example: MapD
Mental Models (MM)
[7] N. Jones, H. Ross, T. Lynam, P. Perez, and A. Leitch, A, “Mental models: An interdisciplinary synth...
An example
P. N. Johnson-Laird, “Mental models in cognitive science,” Cognitive Sci., vol. 4, no. 1, 1980, pp. 71-115.
Con...
Comprehension of
discourse or narratives
Situation Model 1
Situation Model 2
Situation Model 3
time
place
protagonist
caus...
Learnings from mental model
research
• Mental models are constructed iteratively
• Complex information is linked by specif...
!
!!
!!
large object collections
with multiple
dimensions of metadata
dates of
origin
places
of origin
types of
artifacts
...
Situation Model 1
Situation Model 2
Situation Model 3
Global Model
?
Source: http://www.sexandquantumphysics.com/2011/07/paradigms-shift/
cognitive insights
(basic patterns)
cognitive collages mental models
+ connections
+ coherence
microcognitive (local) sens...
Coherence technique 1
Incremental elaboration of existing MMs trough
narrative user guidance
http://www.bloomberg.com/grap...
Coherence technique 2
Incremental elaboration of existing MMs trough
traceable changes
http://2010games.nytimes.com/medals...
Coherence technique 3: Facilitate initial learning via
advance organizers
Coherence technique 4: Parallel integration of MM with
multiple juxtaposed views + coordinated interaction methods
pubviz:...
Summary
• Novel view on the visualisation of „complex things“ inspired
by cognitive science
• The coherence of mental mode...
Thank you!
guenther.schreder
florian.windhager
eva.mayr
michael.smuc
@donau-uni.ac.at
backup-slides
nice links to coherence techniques
narrative viz
http://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2015-whats-warming-the-world/
http://ww...
Supporting Cognition in the Face of Political Data and Discourse #CeDEM16
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Supporting Cognition in the Face of Political Data and Discourse #CeDEM16

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During the presentation of the paper examples for information visualizations were shown. How users react to information and data - how they react and interact with it and make sense of abstract data through the use of visual interfaces, or so called mental models. These </span>mental models are an emerging topic for research on the comprehension and designing process in information visualization. <span>Different design features can accomplish this in the field of political communication and its complex data.

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Supporting Cognition in the Face of Political Data and Discourse #CeDEM16

  1. 1. Supporting Cognition in the Face of Political Data and Discourse A Mental Models Perspective on Designing Information Visualization Systems
  2. 2. Information Visualization (InfoVis) “the use of computer-supported, interactive, visual representations of abstract data to amplify cognition” [1, p. 8] “help us speed our understanding and action in a world of increasing information volumes” [2, p. 542] [1] S. Card, J. Mackinlay, and B. Shneiderman, Readings in information visualization: Using vision to think. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann, 1999. [2] S. Card, “Information visualization”, in The human-computer interaction handbook: Fundamentals, evolving technologies, and emerging applications, A. Sears and J.A. Jacko, Eds. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2008, pp. 509-544.
  3. 3. http://www.mapd.com/demos/political-donations/ Example: MapD
  4. 4. Mental Models (MM) [7] N. Jones, H. Ross, T. Lynam, P. Perez, and A. Leitch, A, “Mental models: An interdisciplinary synthesis of theory and methods,” Ecology & Soc., vol. 16, no. 1, 2011, p. 46. [8] B. Tversky, “Cognitive maps, cognitive collages, and spatial mental models,” in Spatial Information Theory. A Theoretical Basis for GIS, A. U. Frank and I. Campari, Eds. Berlin: Springer, 1993, pp. 14-24. [16] J.J. van Merriënboer, and P. A. Kirschner, P. A., Ten steps to complex learning: A systematic approach to four-component instructional design, 2nd ed. New York: Routledge, 2012.  dynamic cognitive representations  enable to “describe, explain and predict a system's purpose, form, function, and state” [7, p. 46] Cognitive Collage Mental Model “…a quagmire of charming, but irrelevant pieces of information…” [16, p. 161] “…capture the categorical spatial relations among elements coherently, allowing perspective-taking, reorientation, and spatial inferences…” [8, p. 15].
  5. 5. An example P. N. Johnson-Laird, “Mental models in cognitive science,” Cognitive Sci., vol. 4, no. 1, 1980, pp. 71-115. Construct mental model step by step build two separate mental models and then combine them - or - store the information in propositional form  more cognitive effort
  6. 6. Comprehension of discourse or narratives Situation Model 1 Situation Model 2 Situation Model 3 time place protagonist cause goal Global Model
  7. 7. Learnings from mental model research • Mental models are constructed iteratively • Complex information is linked by specific cues to construct integrated mental models  eases understanding
  8. 8. ! !! !! large object collections with multiple dimensions of metadata dates of origin places of origin types of artifacts creatorsinfluences styles etc.
  9. 9. Situation Model 1 Situation Model 2 Situation Model 3 Global Model ?
  10. 10. Source: http://www.sexandquantumphysics.com/2011/07/paradigms-shift/
  11. 11. cognitive insights (basic patterns) cognitive collages mental models + connections + coherence microcognitive (local) sensemaking macrocognitive (global) sensemaking
  12. 12. Coherence technique 1 Incremental elaboration of existing MMs trough narrative user guidance http://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2015-whats-warming-the-world/
  13. 13. Coherence technique 2 Incremental elaboration of existing MMs trough traceable changes http://2010games.nytimes.com/medals/map.html
  14. 14. Coherence technique 3: Facilitate initial learning via advance organizers
  15. 15. Coherence technique 4: Parallel integration of MM with multiple juxtaposed views + coordinated interaction methods pubviz: http://www.smuc.at/pubviz/
  16. 16. Summary • Novel view on the visualisation of „complex things“ inspired by cognitive science • The coherence of mental models is an emerging topic for research on the comprehension process in InfoVis • Open questions which coherence factors have an impact and how to measure them
  17. 17. Thank you! guenther.schreder florian.windhager eva.mayr michael.smuc @donau-uni.ac.at
  18. 18. backup-slides
  19. 19. nice links to coherence techniques narrative viz http://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/2015-whats-warming-the-world/ http://www.angelamorelli.com/water/ https://www.shipmap.org/ seamless transitions http://ig.ft.com/features/baseline/surface-tension-in-tennis/ http://2010games.nytimes.com/medals/map.html coordinated views http://www.mapd.com/demos/political-donations/ http://www.smuc.at/pubviz/ and coord. interaction http://mbostock.github.io/d3/talk/20111116/iris-splom.html

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