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A Review of Introducing Game
Elements to e-Participation
E-Democracy and E-Participation Session
Sarah-Kristin Thiel
Techn...
… and many more
Status of e-Participation
 Low impact (?)
 Despite many diverse efforts in e-participation, the overall (political)
enga...
Challenges of e-Participation
418.05.2016
Activation Engaging dialogue
Long-term
participation
Challenges of e-Participation
518.05.2016
Activation Engaging dialogue
Long-term
participation
? Motivation ?
Challenges of e-Participation
618.05.2016
Activation Engaging dialogue
Long-term
participation
? Motivation ?
Hypothesis
“...
Gamification
Definition, distinction, game elements
Gamification
 Definition
 “use of game design elements in non-game contexts” (Deterding et al, 2011)
 Goal
 Encourage ...
Examples of game elements
918.05.2016
Classifier Game elements
Achievement e.g., badges, points
Status e.g., levels
Expres...
Gamified Participation
Definition, points of discussion, examples
Gamified Participation
 Definition
 The use of game-inspired elements in public engagement tools with the objective
to i...
Gamified Participation
Critique
 Not a bridge-builder for all citizens
 Some might be alienated by incorporated game asp...
Gamified Participation
Definition, points of discussion, examples
Examples of commercial systems
http://hunchbuzz.com/
1418/05/2016
http://hunchbuzz.com/
1518/05/2016
Game aspects: Challenge, Incentives, Competition
18/05/2016
https://communityplanit.org/
18/05/2016
https://communityplanit.org/
Game aspects: Challenge, Incentives, Point system
http://www.nextsuisse.ch/
1818/05/2016
http://www.nextsuisse.ch/
1918/05/2016
Game aspects: Expression
Challenge
Incentives
Point system
Competition
Expression
Challenge
Incentives
Point system
Competition
Expression
Challeng...
Gamified Participation
Definition, points of discussion, examples
Academic examples
Love your city! (Stembert et al., 2013)
 Mobile interactive platform to propose and shape plans utilizing virtual reality...
B3- Design your marketplace! (Poplin, 2014)
 Reflects a real-world case (Hamburg, Germany)
 Category: serious game
 Aim...
Täsä (Thiel & Lehner, 2015)
 mobile participation platform
 Based on the participatory sourcing approach
 Allows citize...
Conclusion
 Existing approaches focus on reward-based gamification (i.e. badges,
leaderboards, achievements) thus buildin...
http://www.incognito.com/blog/the-carrot-and-stick-approach-to-ott-content/
AIT Austrian Institute of Technology
your ingenious partner
Sarah-Kristin Thiel
sarah-kristin.thiel@ait.ac.at
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#CeDem16: Review of gamified eparticipation - Thiel

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What is the status and the challange of of eParticipation? It seems the engagement rate has not been increased and the challanges are to activate and engage the people to long-term participation. Gamification can encourage and increase the usage of different systems. Different groups can be attracted through gamification, like young or less interested people. But do we want to gamifiy democracy? The critique is, that it is not a bridge builder for everybody. The clue is to have different strategies e.g. challanges, incentives and point systems to increase eParticipation. Even if game aspects are not "reaching" everybody they can serve as additional motivatians.

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#CeDem16: Review of gamified eparticipation - Thiel

  1. 1. A Review of Introducing Game Elements to e-Participation E-Democracy and E-Participation Session Sarah-Kristin Thiel Technology Experience, Innovation Systems, AIT
  2. 2. … and many more
  3. 3. Status of e-Participation  Low impact (?)  Despite many diverse efforts in e-participation, the overall (political) engagement rate has not been inrecreased (yet)  Many possible reasons, among them:  Mistrust  Perceived low efficacy  Digital Divide  Ignorance  Lack of motivation  … 318.05.2016
  4. 4. Challenges of e-Participation 418.05.2016 Activation Engaging dialogue Long-term participation
  5. 5. Challenges of e-Participation 518.05.2016 Activation Engaging dialogue Long-term participation ? Motivation ?
  6. 6. Challenges of e-Participation 618.05.2016 Activation Engaging dialogue Long-term participation ? Motivation ? Hypothesis “Introducing game elements in e-participation platforms encourages citizens to contribute to decision-making processes.”
  7. 7. Gamification Definition, distinction, game elements
  8. 8. Gamification  Definition  “use of game design elements in non-game contexts” (Deterding et al, 2011)  Goal  Encourage a desired type of behaviour (Flatla et al, 2011)  Increase the usage of systems (Zichermann & Cunningham, 2011)  Application areas  Education  Business  Transport  Sustainability  Research  … 818.05.2016
  9. 9. Examples of game elements 918.05.2016 Classifier Game elements Achievement e.g., badges, points Status e.g., levels Expression e.g., spaces for open creativity Feedback e.g., notifications Personalization e.g., profiles, avatars Challenge e.g., missions, quests Competition e.g., leaderboards, highscore Scarcity e.g., time contraint
  10. 10. Gamified Participation Definition, points of discussion, examples
  11. 11. Gamified Participation  Definition  The use of game-inspired elements in public engagement tools with the objective to increase the level of participation  Need for gamified participation  in participatory processes only the usual suspects engage: • intrinsically interested • Higher-educated • Middle-aged  Games (or aspects of those) can encourage other groups • Young people • Less interested  Curiosity or/and game affinity as bridge-builder 1118.05.2016
  12. 12. Gamified Participation Critique  Not a bridge-builder for all citizens  Some might be alienated by incorporated game aspects  Do we put off the same amount of people that we gain?  Is it appropriate to gamify democracy?  Incentives & public participation / democracy  an Oxymoron?  Should public participation be incentivized?  Is it ethical to offer rewards (in this context)? 1218.05.2016
  13. 13. Gamified Participation Definition, points of discussion, examples Examples of commercial systems
  14. 14. http://hunchbuzz.com/ 1418/05/2016
  15. 15. http://hunchbuzz.com/ 1518/05/2016 Game aspects: Challenge, Incentives, Competition
  16. 16. 18/05/2016 https://communityplanit.org/
  17. 17. 18/05/2016 https://communityplanit.org/ Game aspects: Challenge, Incentives, Point system
  18. 18. http://www.nextsuisse.ch/ 1818/05/2016
  19. 19. http://www.nextsuisse.ch/ 1918/05/2016 Game aspects: Expression
  20. 20. Challenge Incentives Point system Competition Expression Challenge Incentives Point system Competition Expression Challenge Incentives Point system Competition Expression Challenge Incentives Point system Competition Expression based on the MDA framework by Hunicke et al.,2004 2018/05/2016 Game-related elements used
  21. 21. Gamified Participation Definition, points of discussion, examples Academic examples
  22. 22. Love your city! (Stembert et al., 2013)  Mobile interactive platform to propose and shape plans utilizing virtual reality  Aims to help establish a more direct communication between citizens and authority  Three participation paths:  addressing  co-creation  organisation  Used game-elements:  Emotions  Fading date  Heart points  Profile  Statistics - 22 -
  23. 23. B3- Design your marketplace! (Poplin, 2014)  Reflects a real-world case (Hamburg, Germany)  Category: serious game  Aims to provide a „playful“ digital environment for urban planning  Game elements used:  Marketplace configurator  Design ranking  Top designs  Little helper - 23 -  Findings:  Young participants appriciated game elements, elderly participants did not reflect on them in detail
  24. 24. Täsä (Thiel & Lehner, 2015)  mobile participation platform  Based on the participatory sourcing approach  Allows citizens to propose ideas, point out issues and discuss topics among each other and with city officials  Game elements used:  Missions  Points  Progress  Leaderboard  Reputation  Lifetime  Profile - 24 -
  25. 25. Conclusion  Existing approaches focus on reward-based gamification (i.e. badges, leaderboards, achievements) thus building on comparison and competition as motivating mechanism  No in-depth analyses of the effects of gamification on participation so far  Game elements accepted in related domains (e.g., citizen science)  Some users appreciate the inclusion of game elements  Preliminary insights  Game aspects may serve as additional (initial) motivation  Long-term effects remain to be investigated 2518.05.2016
  26. 26. http://www.incognito.com/blog/the-carrot-and-stick-approach-to-ott-content/
  27. 27. AIT Austrian Institute of Technology your ingenious partner Sarah-Kristin Thiel sarah-kristin.thiel@ait.ac.at

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