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Barriers to OGD use an visualization #CeDEM16

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The aim of the research was to rise the role and the importance of open governement data vizualisations - its promise, potential, ecosystems, political intermediaries, as well as barriers. Actions suggested to increase the use of data and visualisation include the offering and support not only for data but also it’s processing, statistical analysis and visualisation. It was pointed out that there is furhter research in standardisation for visualisation processes with the aim to provide intermediaries with professional visualization at lower prices is an important aspect.

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Barriers to OGD use an visualization #CeDEM16

  1. 1. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Barriers to OGD use an visualization The case of intermediaries in Switzerland ▶ E-Government Institute
  2. 2. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Identify barriers to OGD use Aim and context of the research
  3. 3. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences The promise of OGD open data + fancy portal = use data + easy to use visualization tools = visualizations everywhere What we see ▶ No massive use of data can be observed, therefore cost of data and access to it is not the only barrier ▶ The number of visualization as preferred way to communicate key messages drawn from datasets is slowly increasing, but a massive visual turn cannot be observed
  4. 4. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Potential barriers to OGD In literature we have found several categories of potential barriers: ▶ Governance issues ▶ Cost issues ▶ Legal issues ▶ Data/Metadata issues ▶ Access issues ▶ Skills issues Actions suggested to increase use and visualisation include the offering and support not only for data but also it’s processing, statistical analysis and visualisation.
  5. 5. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Strategic ecosystem thinking includes: ▶ Identifying the different actors in the ecosystem ▶ Understanding the transactions and their specific value to the participants ▶ Looking at the ressources needed by the different actors ▶ Finding indicators for the health of the ecosystem Ecosystem approach to the issue
  6. 6. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences We have loooked at political parties, associations and NGOs, media in Switzerland ▶ literature based ▶ All actors who are bridging the gap between data producers and data consumers ▶ Actors with knowledge, skills and ressources to make sense out of OGD ▶ context based ▶ Strong role of associations and NGOs due to a formalised consultation process ▶ Need for clear communication in the context of direct democratic rights Focus on political intermediaries
  7. 7. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ How do the political intermediaries perceive the role and importance of OGD visualization? ▶ What are the barriers to wider use of OGD by political intermediaries? ▶ How can the production data visualization by political intermediaries improved in terms of frequency and quality? Research questions
  8. 8. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Interviews and process simulation Methodology of the study
  9. 9. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences ▶ Interdisciplinary team of e-government scholars and visual communication researcher ▶ Three steps in the process ▶ establish quality criteria for OGD visualization ▶ Semi-structured interviews with intermediaries ▶ Visualisation process simulation ▶ 3 interviews each with 3 groups of intermediaries Intedisciplinary multi-method approach
  10. 10. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Context Formal Criteria Narration Quality Intention and Means intention and key message target audience characteristic of the data actors involved as  data supplier  visualization designer  publisher of the visualization channels of distribution tools used type of graphic used colour climate: consistency typography: readability, emotional involvement theme used: adequacy in regards to the data and intention hierarchy of the elements: size, colour, position and movement layout grid: elements used, flow of information overall impression: calm or nervous overall consistency of the design elements effectiveness of user prompt (interactivity, instruction, user navigation) adequacy of the narration structure (linearity, character of the narration: functional vs. emotional) over-all educational value of the narration main take-away for potential audience impression for a potential audience: novelty, scandal, blame, … general style: factual, reliable, irritating, etc. overall adequacy to context Quality criteria for OGD Visualisations
  11. 11. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Skills, ressources and text orientation Key findings
  12. 12. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Main barriers in media http://www.nzz.ch/schweiz/die-wahren-interessen-der-lobbyisten-1.18255372 ▶ value assesment based on traditional quality criteria of news stories ▶ high investments needed for visualisation ▶ skills are slowly developing (depending on company size)
  13. 13. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Main barriers in political parties https://apps.opendatacity.de/vds/ ▶ lack of ressources and skills in central party offices ▶ singular experimental initiatives among members of the parliament which are seen as too costly ▶ parties have currently a strong preference towards language based communication but are closely following the development of visualisation use in the media
  14. 14. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Main barriers in associations and NGOs http://www.baumeister.ch/fileadmin/media/3_Politik_und_Kommunikation/Zahle n_und_Fakten/zahlen-und-fakten_2014_d.pdf ▶ lack of ressources and skills ▶ strong preference towards written communication ▶ burdensome process for data collection ▶ spreadsheet application are used as tools thus limiting the quality of visualizations
  15. 15. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Process simulation ▶ visualisation task executed with different tools and with different level of expertise ▶ high barriers for effective data gathering and processing confirmed ▶ lack of context information as an additional burden
  16. 16. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences How can the barriers to OGD use be lowered? Conclusions and further research
  17. 17. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Further research topics on possible gov activities data.gov.in ▶ Supportive actions in data provisioning ▶ Portal functions for visualization in order to facilitate data exploration and foster a visual approach ▶ Support in political- administrative system ▶ Support offers to MPs by parliamentary services ▶ data provisioning together with governemt communication ▶ Add data visualisation as indicator for use and impact of OGD to current monitoring
  18. 18. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Further research topics on private services ▶ Research in possible standardisation for visualisation processes with the aim to provide intermediaries with professional visualization at lower prices ▶ Market driven provisioning of training in visualization
  19. 19. Berner Fachhochschule | Haute école spécialisée bernoise | Bern University of Applied Sciences Thank you for your attention! jerome.brugger@bfh.ch

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