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Principle of Context

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Principle of Context

  1. 1. Principle of context Educational management has been considered as one interesting subject particularly by the educators who are aware of the need for knowledge management. But when one talks of knowledge management, it becomes necessary to analyze the meaning of the word knowledge in different perspectives. Fleming (1996) points to a number of observation s related to context development. He stresses the following: A collection of data is not information A collection of information is not knowledge A collection of knowledge is not wisdom A collection of wisdom is not truth
  2. 2. Along this line, how does one develop a context? What is the meaning of context? Simply defined, context refers to words just before or after a certain word sentence that helps make clear what it means. The idea that a reader gets from a sentence simply provides information, knowledge and wisdom which are simply collections; which means without a particular meaning attached to the piece of information or detail through a system of established associations, there can be no meaning attributed to it there is therefore no context, there is little or no meaning at all. A single word such as “run” can be interpreted based from whatever previous contexts it has been used so that varied meanings can be attached to it. It could be a “run” in the stocking, a “run” in the 100 kilometer oval, or a three-month “run” of a show at local theatre.
  3. 3. Similarly, a collection of data ceases to be information in the absence of established relations among them. The associations in turn, provide meaning that consequently affords understanding on the part of one who perceives the data, and who employs his ability to discern all existing associations. It goes to show that information will need the understanding of relations / associations within the data. Only then can one establish a distinct pattern with the created context which will in turn result to knowledge. Knowledge of the established patterns will contribute to the reliability and understanding of the patterns. Most likely, reliable patterns will go through a cycle of repetitive use. On one hand, wisdom is achieved when there is understanding of the principle underlying the patterns which represent knowledge.
  4. 4. Fleming further summarizes such observation by stressing that: a. Information relates to description, definition, or perspective (what, who, when, where); b. Knowledge comprises strategy, practice, method, or approach (how); and c. Wisdom embodies principle, insight, moral, or archetype (why) Applied to learning, the principles of context mean that instruction can be effective if learning takes place through situation and circumstances that provide setting materials for the process of learning to go on.
  5. 5. According to Leus (2005), the principle of context are categorized to six levels. a. Level 1 – Context consist of the textbook only  Predominantly verbal  No problem-solving experience  Lacks dynamic appeal  Limited verbal responses to verbal stimuli Sets instruction through the use of textbook only. It is predominantly verbal in that responses are limited only to questions from the text. This kind of learning situation is characterized by the absence of problem-solving experience for the learners. Instruction revolves around interpretation/analysis of the content of the subject matter assigned.
  6. 6. b. Level 2 – Context consist of textbook together with a collateral/supplemental materials  Wider in context  More readings of expository  Advocates more extensive reading It is here where instruction from the text is expanded to include supplementary materials for enrichment purposes. Discussion is no longer confined to lessons from the basic text but broadened to include establishment of connections/ relations from outside readings. This level provides opportunities for more extensive readings.
  7. 7. c. Level 3 – Context consist of non-academic and current which materials (magazine articles, newspaper clippings)  Concrete, specific, actual, and immediate  Reality vs. theories  Leads to extensive discussion This consist of materials in the form of non-academic and current which includes magazine articles and newspaper clippings. It provides a situation for extensive discussion. There is a likelihood of improvements in learning from increased knowledge of theories and their application to reality. As learning theorist would argue, much of their knowledge of learning come from settings that are unlike classrooms and that is the world outside – where learners face up to concrete, specific, actual, and immediate situation.
  8. 8. d. Level 4 – Context consist of multi-sensory aids  Effective when used as aid in learning  Related to contemplated learning  Ineffective if learner is passive Context consist of the use of multi-sensory aids as an aid to effective instruction. Learners react to situations or learning activities that appeal to their senses (tactile, kinesis) in which case the learning process should include structuring of the classroom environment to provide meaningful experiences.
  9. 9. e. Level 5 – Context consist of demonstration and presentation by the experts  Concrete setting  Learning beyond classroom setting Context is applied through demonstration and presentation by experts. From meaningful verbal learning, knowledge is substantiated by lessons from experts or authorities. From the efforts to set materials indicated in the above-mentioned levels about teaching, it can be assumed that effective instruction can be produced by a variety of combinations and characteristics and conditions rather than by one unique combination.
  10. 10. f. Level 6 – Field experiences: personal, social, community understanding  Concrete, abundant, dynamic, readily apprehended setting for learnig  Goes beyond verbalization  Concrete an firsthand experiences Context related to the use of field experiences which may be personal and social. Even experiences in the community are considered. This is a setting that goes beyond verbalization but focuses on firsthand experiences. In the process, learners are able to reflect on experiences and explore on possibilities about an instructional environment apart from the classroom. After all, instructions can be tailored to the needs of individual learners, thus, allowing teachers to minimize the mass classroom experience altogether.

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