Principle of context
Educational management has been considered as one
interesting subject particularly by the educators who
are aware of the need for knowledge management.
But when one talks of knowledge management, it
becomes necessary to analyze the meaning of the
word knowledge in different perspectives.
Fleming (1996) points to a number of observation
s related to context development. He stresses the
A collection of data is not information
A collection of information is not knowledge
A collection of knowledge is not wisdom
A collection of wisdom is not truth
Along this line, how does one develop a context?
What is the meaning of context? Simply defined,
context refers to words just before or after a certain
word sentence that helps make clear what it means.
The idea that a reader gets from a sentence simply
provides information, knowledge and wisdom which
are simply collections; which means without a
particular meaning attached to the piece of
information or detail through a system of established
associations, there can be no meaning attributed to it
there is therefore no context, there is little or no
meaning at all. A single word such as “run” can be
interpreted based from whatever previous contexts it
has been used so that varied meanings can be
attached to it. It could be a “run” in the stocking, a
“run” in the 100 kilometer oval, or a three-month
“run” of a show at local theatre.
Similarly, a collection of data ceases to be
information in the absence of established relations
among them. The associations in turn, provide
meaning that consequently affords understanding on
the part of one who perceives the data, and who
employs his ability to discern all existing associations.
It goes to show that information will need the
understanding of relations / associations within the
data. Only then can one establish a distinct pattern
with the created context which will in turn result to
knowledge. Knowledge of the established patterns
will contribute to the reliability and understanding of
the patterns. Most likely, reliable patterns will go
through a cycle of repetitive use.
On one hand, wisdom is achieved when there is
understanding of the principle underlying the patterns
which represent knowledge.
Fleming further summarizes such observation by
a. Information relates to description, definition, or
(what, who, when, where);
b. Knowledge comprises strategy, practice, method,
c. Wisdom embodies principle, insight, moral, or
Applied to learning, the principles of context mean
that instruction can be effective if learning takes place
through situation and circumstances that provide
setting materials for the process of learning to go on.
According to Leus (2005), the principle of context are
categorized to six levels.
a. Level 1 – Context consist of the textbook only
No problem-solving experience
Lacks dynamic appeal
Limited verbal responses to verbal stimuli
Sets instruction through the use of textbook only. It is
predominantly verbal in that responses are limited only to
questions from the text. This kind of learning situation is
characterized by the absence of problem-solving experience
for the learners. Instruction revolves around
interpretation/analysis of the content of the subject matter
b. Level 2 – Context consist of textbook together with a
Wider in context
More readings of expository
Advocates more extensive reading
It is here where instruction from the text is expanded
to include supplementary materials for enrichment
purposes. Discussion is no longer confined to lessons from
the basic text but broadened to include establishment of
connections/ relations from outside readings. This level
provides opportunities for more extensive readings.
c. Level 3 – Context consist of non-academic and current
which materials (magazine articles, newspaper clippings)
Concrete, specific, actual, and immediate
Reality vs. theories
Leads to extensive discussion
This consist of materials in the form of non-academic
and current which includes magazine articles and
newspaper clippings. It provides a situation for extensive
discussion. There is a likelihood of improvements in
learning from increased knowledge of theories and their
application to reality. As learning theorist would argue,
much of their knowledge of learning come from settings
that are unlike classrooms and that is the world outside –
where learners face up to concrete, specific, actual, and
d. Level 4 – Context consist of multi-sensory aids
Effective when used as aid in learning
Related to contemplated learning
Ineffective if learner is passive
Context consist of the use of multi-sensory aids as an
aid to effective instruction. Learners react to situations or
learning activities that appeal to their senses (tactile,
kinesis) in which case the learning process should include
structuring of the classroom environment to provide
e. Level 5 – Context consist of demonstration and
presentation by the experts
Learning beyond classroom setting
Context is applied through demonstration and
presentation by experts. From meaningful verbal learning,
knowledge is substantiated by lessons from experts or
authorities. From the efforts to set materials indicated in
the above-mentioned levels about teaching, it can be
assumed that effective instruction can be produced by a
variety of combinations and characteristics and conditions
rather than by one unique combination.
f. Level 6 – Field experiences: personal, social, community
Concrete, abundant, dynamic, readily apprehended
setting for learnig
Goes beyond verbalization
Concrete an firsthand experiences
Context related to the use of field experiences which
may be personal and social. Even experiences in the
community are considered. This is a setting that goes
beyond verbalization but focuses on firsthand experiences.
In the process, learners are able to reflect on experiences
and explore on possibilities about an instructional
environment apart from the classroom. After all,
instructions can be tailored to the needs of individual
learners, thus, allowing teachers to minimize the mass
classroom experience altogether.
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