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Artificial Intelligence: An Introduction

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Artificial Intelligence: An Introduction

  1. 1. Artificial Intelligence: An Introduction Savio Victor
  2. 2. What is Ai?
  3. 3. A machine that mimics cognitive functions. It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines. In computer science AI research is defined as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of success at some goal.
  4. 4. Cognition?
  5. 5. History
  6. 6. The Turing Test Proposed By Alan Turing in 1950 The Logic Theorist Often considered as the first AI Program. It solved 38 of the first 52 theorems in Principia Mathematica. Written by Allen Newell, Herbert A. Simon and Cliff Shaw. Arthur Samuel Writes a self learning program for the game of checkers.
  7. 7. Expert Systems AI program that simulated the knowledge and analytical skills of human experts. Ai Labs Set up at places like Stanford and MIT. Ai Winters During 1974 and 1987
  8. 8. What has made AI possible now? 1.Data 2.Computing Power
  9. 9. Lets brush Through Some Terms
  10. 10. Machine Learning Gives the computers the ability to develop algorithms on their own without being explicitly programmed. Learn from a lot of data.
  11. 11. Types of Learning Supervised Learning Unsupervised Learning Semi-supervised Learning Reinforcement Learning
  12. 12. Artificial Neural Networks Inspired from the Biological Neural Networks in animal brains
  13. 13. Deep Neural Nets
  14. 14. Natural Language Processing (NLP) A field of computer science, artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. Lets people and machines talk to each other “naturally.” All systems that work together to handle end-to-end interactions between machines and humans in the preferred language of the human.
  15. 15. NLP processes turn text into structured data. Eg: A sentence like “I need a train to Kannur on December 8’th” must be parsed and given structure: need:train {intent} / Kannur{city}/ Dec 8’th{date} / sentiment: 0.5723 (neutral)
  16. 16. Natural Language Understanding It’s a specific type of NLP NLU involves genuinely understanding what the text says NLU is used by conversational agents including Alexa, Siri and Google Assistant.
  17. 17. Natural Language Generation NLG is what happens when computers write language. It turns structured data into text.
  18. 18. NLP is computers reading language. NLG is computers writing language. NLU is computers understanding language.
  19. 19. Applications Sentiment Analysis Text Summarisation QA Systems Chatbots
  20. 20. Computer Vision Interdisciplinary field It deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos. Eg : Object Recognition
  21. 21. Calibers of AI
  22. 22. Weak AI Also referred to as Artificial Narrow Intelligence. AI that specializes in one area No genuine intelligence, no self-awareness.
  23. 23. Deep Blue Vs Garry Kasparov
  24. 24. IBM Watson It is a question answering computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language. In 2011 Watson beat human competitors and won $1 million on Jeopardy. Named after IBM’s first CEO Thomas Watson.
  25. 25. AlphaGo AlphaGo is a computer program that plays the board game Go, developed by Google’ DeepMind. Go is an ancient Chinese game. In March 2016, it beat Lee Sedol a 9 dan professional in a five-game match. AlphaGo Beat Lee 4-1.
  26. 26. AlphaGo learnt the game of Go by analyzing thousands of games between human players. Later, it improved its skills by playing against itself millions of time. AlphaGo Zero : Released By DeepMind 2 months back in October. It started with nothing more than the rules of the game and learned entirely from playing games against itself starting with completely random moves.
  27. 27. Speech Recognition Google’s system has attained an accuracy of 95%
  28. 28. Google Translate Translates over 100 languages
  29. 29. Other Examples Google Search RankBrain Introduced in 2015. Facebook NewsFeed And Friend Suggestions. Amazon Product Recommendations.
  30. 30. Computers can 1. Learn 2. See 3. Listen and Speak
  31. 31. Strong AI Also referred to as Artificial General Intelligence or Human Level AI It can perform any intellectual task that a human being can.
  32. 32. “A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly, and learn from experience.” - Professor Linda Gottfredson
  33. 33. Tests for Confirming AGI The Turing Test (Turing) The Coffee Test (Wozniak) The Robot College Student Test (Goertzel) The Employment Test (Nilsson)
  34. 34. Where is AGI going to come from? When is AGI going to come?
  35. 35. After AGI has been achieved, what is going to happen next?
  36. 36. Rapid Recursive Self Improvement : A runaway reaction of self-improvement cycles, with each new and more intelligent generation appearing more and more rapidly. Leading to An Intelligent Explosion. A Technological Singularity! AGI will reach what is known as Artificial Super Intelligence surpassing human intelligence.
  37. 37. “An intellect that is much smarter than the best human brains in practically every field, including scientific creativity, general wisdom and social skills” - Nick Bostrom, Leading AI Thinker And Oxford Philosopher
  38. 38. Google’s TensorFlow An open-source software library for Machine Learning.
  39. 39. Makoto Koike Problem: Sort cucumbers into 9 categories by size, shape, color and other attributes. Solution: Makoto used TensorFlow to apply deep learning.
  40. 40. Conclusion
  41. 41. Overview 1. What Is AI, Machine Learning & Deep Learning? 2. Weak AI & Strong AI 3. What has made AI Possible now? 4. Where Is the field of AI heading to?
  42. 42. AI is the new Electricity
  43. 43. Safe And Friendly AI
  44. 44. Not This!
  45. 45. It is Software 2.0
  46. 46. “Artificial Intelligence, deep learning, machine learning — whatever you’re doing if you don’t understand it — learn it. Because otherwise you’re going to be a dinosaur within 3 years.” - Mark Cuban
  47. 47. SunSpring : A Sci-Fi Short Film