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Ppt on vit e and k

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It talks about discovery,chemistry, dietary sources, absorption transport and storage,functions and some applications, etc. of Vitamin E and Vitamin K

It talks about discovery,chemistry, dietary sources, absorption transport and storage,functions and some applications, etc. of Vitamin E and Vitamin K

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Ppt on vit e and k

  1. 1. VITAMIN E AND K By V.S. Deepika
  2. 2. HISTORY VITAMIN E VITAMIN K Evans and his associates Dam (1934) (1936) - Essential for - chicks fed purified normal reproduction diets - Named as tocopherol - Hemorrhagic conditions - Greek tocos = child birth, - Alfa Alfa and decayed fish meal phero = to bear, - Essential for blood clotting ol = alcohol. German = Koagulation ANTI-STERLITY VITAMIN COAGULATION VITAMIN
  3. 3. CHEMISTRY VIT - E VIT - K α-tocopherol 4 – tocopherols + 4 – tocotrienols 6 hydroxy chromane ( tocol ) ring antioxidant property naphthoquinone derivatives Isoprenoid ( 3 units ) side chain Isoprenoid - K1 and K2
  4. 4. DIETARY SOURCES VIT – E VIT – K Veg oils – rich sources Tomatoes, cauliflower Wheat germ oil 120mg/100gm DGLV good sources bacterial syn - ½ body’s requriement Meat, milk, butter, eggs, and dairy prdts – invisible fat- also present
  5. 5. ABSORPTION, TRANSPORT & STORAGE Vitamin E & K small intestine Liver Tissues STORAGE Vit-E adipose tissue , liver and muscle Vit – K Liver and other tissues fat Bile salts Vit – E&K + VLDL + LDL
  6. 6. FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATIONS VITAMIN – E • Membrane antioxidant • Vit - E supplemention for CVD patients Cambridge Heart Antioxidant study - dec. mortality due to M.I Tocotrienols – inhibit platelet aggregation – thrombus formation hv cholesterol lowering effect • Prevents peroxidation of PUFA • Sparing effect on Vitamin – A Clinical study – Inter relationship bet Vit – E and Vit – A by Jagadeesan .V and Vinodini Reddy
  7. 7. VITAMIN - K • Blood clotting • Bone mineralization Osteocalcin – Vit – K dependent protein – req for bone mineralization and turn over. • Used to counteract the blood thinners Coumadin , Warfarin, Heparin etc. Prothrombin Factor VII, IX, X
  8. 8. RECOMMENDATION • In 1988 , Expert group constituted by ICMR – included recommendation for Vit – E and K – to maintain good health. • Very limited data available – as def. donot produce recognizable specific clinical symptoms & often not encountered . • α tocopherol req. – protective antioxidant property on EFA so suggested req / intake is 𝒐.𝟖𝒎𝒈 𝒐𝒇 𝑽𝒊𝒕 𝑬 𝟏 𝒈𝒓𝒂𝒎 𝒐𝒇 𝑷𝑼𝑭𝑨 𝒐𝒓 𝑬𝑭𝑨 8 – 10 mg tocopherol per day suggested RDA of 55µg of Vit K / day = ½ req
  9. 9. DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS As they occur widely in veg oils and plant foods – dietary def. are not normally encountered Oedema and Hemolytic anaemia – infants fed with formulas low in Vit – E. Inadequate intake of Vit – K by mother – cause Haemorrhagic disease of new born – recover by Administration of Vit – K.
  10. 10. NOTES : Vitamins are classified into 2 groups, based upon their solubility. They are fat soluble vitamins – A, D, E, and K water soluble vitamins – B complex and vitamin C VITAMIN - E Evans and his associates in 1936 isolated compounds of vitamin E activity which were essential for normal reproduction in animals and named them as tocopherol ( tocos=child birth, phero=to bear, and ol=alcohol). Hence it is also known as anti - sterility vitamin. CHEMISTRY 8 Compounds are been discovered to have vitamin E activity hence they are called vitamers of vitamin E. Among them 4 are tocopherols and the other 4 are tocotrienols.Among all the 8 compounds α-tocopherol is most active. All the 8 compounds are derivatives of 6 hydroxy chromane ( tocol ring ) with isoprenoid (3 units) side chain. The antioxidant property is due to chromane ring.
  11. 11. DIETARY SOURCES Many vegetable oils are rich sources of vitamin E . Richest source of vitamin E is Wheat germ oil. It is also present in meat, milk, butter and eggs. ABSORPTION TRANSPORT AND STORAGE Just like any other fat soluble vitamin, vitamin E is also absorbed along with fat in the small intestine. Bile salts are necessary for the absorption. Then from there they are transported to liver and vitamin E get incorporated into lipoproteins (VLDL and LDL) and transported to other tissues. It is stored mainly in adipose tissue and to some extent in liver and muscle. The normal plasma level of tocopherol is less than 1 mg / dl. FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATIONS • It is a membrane antioxidant – vitamin e is essential for membrane structure and integrity of the cell. It protects the cells from oxidative damage by scavenging free radicals. Example : vitamin e protects red blood cells from haemolysis by oxidative agents.  Vitamin e supplementation is found beneficial to cardio vascular disease (CVD) patients. Supported by report of Cambridge Heart Antioxidant study which states that when some clinicians gave vitamin E supplementation to CVD patients, it reduced the mortality in patients with myocardial infaraction ( Heart attack)
  12. 12.  Also supported as tocotrienols inhibit platelet aggregation and therefore prevent thrombus formation in arteries . They also posses cholesterol lowering effect. • Vitamin E Prevents peroxidation of PUFA in tissues – because of its antioxidant property. • Vitamin E has a sparing effect on Vitamin A – supported by Clinical study made on Inter relationship between Vit – E and Vit – A by Jagadeesan .V and Vinodini Reddy. In which administration of Vitamin-E supplements resulted in significant increase in plasma level of vit – A and E. other functions are, it preserves and maintains germinal epithelium of gonads, increases synthesis of heme, required for cellular respiration, and for proper storage of creatine in skeletal muscle etc. VITAMIN – K Dam and Schonheyder in 1934 found that chicks fed on purified diets containing all the vitamins known at that time, developed haemorrhagic conditions which were cured by alfa-alfa and delayed fish meal. Active principle was found to be fat soluble and also essential for blood coagulation. Hence termed as vitamin K ( German=Koagulation). CHEMISTRY Vitamin K exists in 3 different forms on nature. They are Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is present in plants, Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) is produced by the intestinal bacteria and also found In animals,
  13. 13. Vitamin K3 (menadione) is a synthetic form . all forms are derivatives of naphthoquinone. Isoprenoid side chain is present in vitamin K1 and K2. DIETARY SOURCES Tomatoes, alfa alfa, cauliflower and green leafy vegetables are good sources. Also present in egg yolk, meat, liver, cheese and dairy products. ABSORPTION, TRANSPORT AND STORAGE Vitamin K is taken in the diet or synthesized by the intestinal bacteria. It’s absorption in small intestine takes place along with fat (chylomicrons) and dependent on bile salts. Then in liver it get’s incorporated with LDL and it si transported. It is mainly stored in liver and to a lesser extent in other tissues. FUNCTIONS AND APPLICATIONS • Plays a role in Blood clotting mechanism – vitamin K functions as a coenzyme for vitamin K dependent carboxylase, an enzyme required for the synthesis of proteins ( prothrombin, VIIa, IXa, and Xa). Prothrombin levels are reduced in vitamin K deficiency. • Required for bone metabolism – Osteocalcin is a vitamin K dependent protein that plays a role in bone mineralization and turnover.
  14. 14. • It is used to counteract an overdose of blood thinners – as it is a analogue that can inhibit their action. DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF VITAMIN E AND K As they occur widely in vegetable oils and plant foods dietary deficiency of these 2 vitamins are not normally encountered. Deficiency and their symptoms are not normally seen in adults now a days. But some cases are reported in preterm babies/ infants. • Oedema and hemolytic anemia have been reported in infants fed with formulas low in vitamin E. This can be quickly corrected by supplementation of vitamin E to infant. • Inadequate intake of vitamin K by mother may cause haemorrhagic disease of new born. They have low prothrombin levels in blood. They recover rapidly when vitamin K is administered by injection.
  15. 15. DIETARY RECOMMENDATION In 1988, expert group constituted by ICMR included recommendation for vitamin E and K to maintain good health which were not considered earlier. Very limited data on vitamin E and K intake as well as requirements is available as deficiency do not produce recognizable specific clinical symptoms and often not encountered too. Vitamin E - α- tocopherol requirement is related to its protective antioxidant property on PUFA. So suggested intake/ requirement is 0.8 𝑚𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑣𝑖𝑡𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝐸 1 𝑔𝑚 𝑜𝑓 𝑃𝑈𝐹𝐴 𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑦 𝐸𝐹𝐴 *PUFA = Polyunsaturated fatty acids *EFA= Essential fatty acids. That comes out to be 8 to 10 mg tocopherol per day. This varies based upon the amount and type of edible oil used. Vitamin K – there is no strict RDA for vitamin K , since it can be synthesized in gut by bacteria. FAO/ WHO suggested an RDA of 55µg of vitamin K/day for adults. This meets apart of vitamin K requirement by the body and the remaining is met by the bacterial vitamin K synthesis.

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