Models of teaching emerged out of the search by
Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil(1972) to find a
variety of approaches and strategies of teaching to
match the various learning styles.
They find a solution to the dilemma of different
learning styles , with the purpose of all round
development of a child.
They researched on variety of strategies developed
by different learning theories and designed a
number of models of teaching.
3. MEANING AND CONCEPT
Acc to Joyce and Weil
• Teaching models are just instructional designs. They
describe the process of specifying and producing
particular environmental situations which cause the
student to interact in such a way that specific change
occurs in his behaviour.
• Teaching model is a pattern or plan which can be used
to shape a curriculum or course, to select instructional
materials and to guide a teacher’s actions.
• A model of teaching consists of guidelines for
designing educational activities and environments. It
specifies ways of teaching and learning that are
intended to achieve certain kinds of goals.
4. CHARACTERISTICS OF MOT
Realisation of objectives
Specification of environment
5. FUNCTIONS OF MOT
Three major functions in teaching learning process
1) designing of curriculum or courses of study.
2) development and selection of instructional
3) guiding the teachers’ activities in the teaching
6. FAMILY OF MODELS
• These models help learners to seek and master information, organise it,
build and test hypothesis
• Concerned with intellectual skills and acquisition of knowledge by students
• Egs. Inductive thinking, concept attainment, advance organizer
• Stresses on personal development of individual
• More concerned with human feelings and emotions
• Egs. Non directive teaching, classroom meeting models
• Emphasize the development of capabilities for interpersonal relationships.
• Development of social skills
• Egs. Group investigation, laboratory methods, role playing
• Shaping behaviour by manipulating, stimulus, response and reinforcement.
• Egs. Self control, stress reduction, direct training model
7. ADVANTAGES OF TEACHING MODELS
Achievement of specific objectives
Teaching and learning relationship
Formulation of theories of teaching
8. FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF
Joyce and Weil designed a procedure for implementation of
any instructional model.
1) FOCUS – central aspect of teaching model, objective of
2) SYNTAX- model in action, sequence of steps
3) SOCIAL SYSTEM- relationship between student and
4) PRINCIPLES OF REACTION- reaction of the teacher to
students response. By this teacher tune in to the student
and select an appropriate response to what the student
5) SUPPORT SYSTEM- refers to additional requirements
beyond usual capacities and technical facilities necessary
to implement model.
6) APPLICATION- learner is able to apply the learnt things in
Model emerged out of the study of thinking process
of human beings
The model is used to teach concepts to students
Assumption is that human being has a capacity to
discriminate and to categorize things into groups.
11. WHAT IS A CONCEPT?
It is a thought/an opinion/a mental image of the
thing formed by generalization from particulars,
also, an idea of what a thing in general is to be.
Deccecco(1968) defines concept as a class of
stimuli which have common characteristics.
“Concepts are the ideas of abstractions that are
formed as a result of categorizing data from a
number of observations”
Egs. Book, house, plant, adjective, park etc.
12. ELEMENTS OF A CONCEPT
NAME(of the Concept)- term given eg. Lake, village, fruits,
dog. items which form groups together in a single category
may differ from another in certain respects.
EXAMPLES(Positive & Negative) – positive example
demonstrate what the concept is and negative examples what
it is not.
ATTRIBUTES( Essential and non essential) – characteristic
features of a concept. It is any discrete feature of an event
that is susceptable some distinct feature is used as means of
inferring the identify of something.
ATTRIBUTE VALUES- explain the attribute further. Attribute
has a range of values. For egs. Colour. Some attributes don’t
have range of attribute value.
RULE- it is a definition or statement specifying the essential
attributes of a concept. For eg triangle is a concept. The rule-a
triangle is a closed figure with three sides.
13. BASIC ASUMPTIONS OF CAM
1) Capacity of concept formation- discriminate and categorise
2) Reducing complexities
3) Elements of a concept – N,E,A,AV,R
4) Same strategies – all concepts are product of same
5) Reception, selection and unorganised model –
*reception- teacher presents egs. (positive and negative),
label as ‘yes’ or ‘no’, one by one, form hypothesis and
* selection – teacher presents egs. ,labelling not done,
student select one and inquires whether ‘yes’ or ‘no’,
greater responsibility on learner(thinking)
* unorganised- group discussion, attain concepts from
14. ELEMENTS OF CAM
1) FOCUS- develop inductive reasoning
presentation of data- teacher introduces about
b) analysis of hypothesis
* formation of hypothesis
* teachers reaction
* rejection and confirmation of hypothesis
* more examples
c) closure- unorganized data
15. 3) Principle of reaction- teacher reacts to responses,
for wrong answer aware students, encourage
4) Social system- control o teacher, reasonable
freedom, proper interaction
5) Support system- blackboard, flash cards, flannel
board for egs.
6) Application – various disciplines, language and
16. MERITS OF CAM
1) Development of reasoning
2) Development of imagination
3) Intellectual development
5) Analytical abilities
6) Active participation
7) Self study habit
8) Individual attention
9) No strain