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BackgroundCrisis intervention is the core of hostage negotiationMost crises involving barricade situations occur in the home,are unplanned, and involve males who are enraged bydomestic disputes 12% involve hostages52% of all hostage takings are instigated by mentally ill oremotionally disturbed individualsViolence is rising in the workplace and acts of hostagetaking occur there
BackgroundPsychological dynamics of people who survive beingheld hostage are not unlike those of victims ofbattering, coerced prostitutes, and abused childrenIt is not uncommon for potential suicides anddomestic violence situations to end up as barricade orhostage situationsAs a result of crisis intervention theory andtechniques, more than 95% of crisis/hostage situationsare resolved peacefully
Dynamics of Hostage TakingTypes of Hostage Takers Instrumental ExpressiveThe Mentally Disturbed The Schizophrenic Personality The Bipolar Personality The Inadequate/Dependent Personality The Antisocial Personality The Borderline Personality
Dynamics of Hostage TakingOther Hostage Takers The Estranged Person The Institutionalized Individual The Wronged Person Alcohol and Substance AbuseStages and Dynamics of a Hostage Situation Alarm Crisis Accommodation Stockholm Syndrome Resolution
Intervention ModelsREACT Recognition of needed conditions Engagement builds rapport and facilitates ventilation and validation Assessment continuously evaluates the physical risks to all parties Contracting/Controlling Facilitating an agreement on how to resolve the incident Planning out how it will be resolved Helping the perpetrator with his or her ambivalence Controlling how the surrender will occur so that nothing goes wrong Gaining surrender of the hostage taker and release of the hostages Terminating/Transferring is arranging for follow-up care
Intervention ModelsS.A.F.E. Substantive issues are the initial demands made by the subject and the return demands of the negotiator. Attunement is the degree of relational trust, respect, and desire to cooperate with another party. Face is the self-image of the parties that is either threatened or honored (saving face). Emotion is the degree of emotional distress experienced by both parties.
Intervention StrategiesCommunication Techniques Cultural Factors Recognition and Assessment Controlling and Contracting TransferringContaining the Scene Inner and outer perimeters are secured around the hostage scene and a command post is established in the inner perimeterGathering Information The most important and time-sensitive information that the negotiator needs is a profile of the hostage taker Who are the hostages? What are the specifications of the hostage site?
Intervention StrategiesStabilizing the Situation Contain and stabilize the situation Calm the hostage taker and build rapport Allow the hostage taker the opportunity to ventilate feelings Use “I” statements and reflective summariesPersuading the Hostage Taker to Give Up Start by negotiating smaller issues first be clear that the hostage taker gets nothing without giving something in returnThe Crisis Worker as Consultant Controversial issue
The Role of the NegotiatorEnsure your own safety.Avoid soliciting demands the negotiator cannot or will notkeep.Listen for and remember clues regarding the perpetrator’semotional state so you can pass that information on to thenegotiator.Do not offer anything to the perpetrator of a materialnature.Minimize the seriousness of the perpetrator’s crime.Do not refer to anybody as “hostage.”Do not try to trick the hostage taker or be dishonest.
The Role of the NegotiatorNever give an absolute no or yes to a demand.Do not be creative in making suggestions or puttingthoughts in the perpetrator’s mind.If the perpetrator seems suicidal, ask about it, andadopt a suicide prevention mode.No relatives, friends, bosses, or anybody else needs tobe brought to the scene unless the negotiatordecides to do so later. If they are already at the scene,it is probably best to get them away from it.Do not offer to exchange yourself.
If You are Held HostageDo not be a hero.Follow instructions.Do not speak unless spoken to.Do not make suggestions.Try to rest and eat.Carefully weigh escape options.Request aid if needed.Be observant.Do not be argumentative.Be patient.
If You are Held HostageAvoid standing out.Treat captives with deference and respect.Do not slight the seriousness of the situation byattempting to inject humor into it.Be careful of trickery.Do not embarrass your captors.Keep your confidence and self-esteem.Keep to routines.Use fantasy, day dreaming, and future planning.When rescue comes, follow the rescuers’ directionsprecisely.
Intervention After ReleaseStockholm SyndromeAcute Stress DisorderPostincident InterviewCrisis Intervention With Hostage Survivors Initial Debriefing Subsequent Intervention ProceduresCrisis Intervention with the Hostage Negotiator