Personality is always associated with persons in a social setting. It changes with the person & the society. For example – When a baby is born, it does not really have a distinct personality of its own. Most of them look similar & behave similarly, but as it grows, emerges a new person. The reason is, as it grows up, the surrounding factors shape up the personality. The word personality is derived from the Greek word “Persona” means Mask. So the study of personality can be understood as the study of invisible “masks” that people wear. Determinants of Personality: Biological factors Cultural factors Family factors Social factors Situational factors Theories of Personality: psychoanalytical theory Socio-psychological Extroverts & Introverts Type theory Self theory Trait theory Social learning Johari Window Transactional Analysis Psycho-Analytical Theory is also known as Intra-psychic theory & developed by Freud. According to Freud the components of personality are Id, Ego, Superego. ID – Id is completely unconscious & inaccessible. It operates according to the pleasure principle & avoids pain. It can not act by itself. It can only wish, imagine &demand. Id consists of Life Instinct (hunger, thirst etc. ) & Death Instinct ( aggressive & destructive ). Super Ego is our conscience, based on values, help to differentiate should & should not of the personality. Super ego has two parts – conscience & ego ideal. Conscience – It consists of all the behaviors for which we have been punished & about which we feel guilty. For example – respect to elders. If we misbehave them we feel guilty. Ego ideal – It consists of all the behaviors for which we have been praised & rewarded. For example – when we achieve success, when we win competition There is an ongoing conflict between the id & super ego. EGO serves to manage the conflict & maintain a balance between both. The ego is the logical, rational, realistic part of the personality. Ego gains energy from id & gains moral from super ego & makes itself practical. Id – unconscious state. Super ego – very conscious state Ego – preconscious state. Socio-Psychological Theory is the happy blending of both society & individual & introduced by Horney. Individual gets every thing from society & society shapes personality of human beings. Human personality can be judged through some basic inter personal aspects, such as – complaint, aggressive & detached. Complaint – Complaint people are dependent on other people & move toward others. Aggressive – Aggressive people are motivated by the need for power & move against others. Detached – Detached people think that they are self-sufficient & move away from others. Jung states that there are two types of people – Extroverts & Introverts. Extroverts – are optimistic with broad vision, open minded, out going, sociable & kind. Introverts – are pessimistic with narrow vision, closed minded, inward directed, less sociable & little kind.