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His 121 chapter 6 7 a new nation

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His 121 chapter 6 7 a new nation

  1. 1. Chapters 6 & 7 A New Nation  Ch 6 Shaping a Federal Union  CH 7 The Federalist Era
  2. 2. The Articles of Confederation and the Constitution of the United States Chapter 6
  3. 3. Unfinished painting by Benjamin West. British delegation refused to pose. Treaty of Paris (Ratified by both sides April 9, 1784)
  4. 4. Important Points of Treaty of Paris  British acknowledged United States to be sovereign nation, free and independent  British Crown relinquishes all claims to government, property and territorial rights  Established boundaries between the United States and British North America  Granted fishing rights to the Grand Banks  Lawful debts paid to creditors on both sides  Congress of the Confederation “earnestly request” restitution for seized property  United States will not seize property of Loyalists  Release of prisoners of war  U.S. and Great Britain given perpetual access to the Mississippi River  Territories captured by U.S. returned to Great Britain without compensation
  5. 5. Strengths of the Articles of Confederation  Supported the concept of “republicanism” which meant that the American Republic would never be governed by kings or queens or nobility but by “We the People”  Question for today: Does the influence of money in unlimited political campaign contributions as a corporate 1st Amendment right create a nobility of wealth and significantly alters the political concept of “republicanism”?  Confderation government concluded the Treaty of Paris ending the Revolutionary War and forcing Great Britain to acknowledge American sovereignty.  Established principles of land distribution and territorial government that qould guide westward expansion for the next 75 years.
  6. 6. Northwest Ordinance of 1787  New western territories could become states and would be treated as equals and not colonies  3 stage process for becoming a state:  Congress to appoint a territorial governor snf oyhrt officials to create a legal code, keep the peace and administer justice  When the population of the territory reached 5,000 adult males, a legislature would be elected  When territory population reached 60,00 “free inhabitants” it could create a state consitution and apply to Congress for admission to the Union as a state.  1803: Ohio was first state admitted under the plan  Slavery would be illegal in the western region although slaves who were already there would remain slaves
  7. 7. Weaknesses of Articles of Confederation  Congress had no power to tax  No executive power to enforce laws enacted by Congress  Congress had no authority to engage in meaningful diplomacy  Trade with West Indies  Spanish closed Port of New Orleans  Congress could not enforce uniform tax or trade policies among the individual states  Tariffs differed from state to state  Some states paid their debts others did not  Some states printed a lot of paper money, others did not
  8. 8. Foreign Tensions  Confrontations with Great Britain and Spain  Both kept trading posts on American soil in violation of Treaty of Paris  Britain demanded that U.S. repay loyalists for property confiscated during Revolutionary War  Southern border of U.S. was disputed by Spain  Port of New Orleans  Trade along the Mississippi River  Indian raids using arms provided by Spanish governor of Florida  Spain declared that all land west of the Appalachians belonged to the Indians
  9. 9. Shay’s Rebellion
  10. 10. Shay’s Rebellion  Daniel Shays a Revolutionary War veteran of Lexington, Concord, Bunker Hill, Saratoga  Shays was wounded in action and never paid wages  Hauled into court after the war for non-payment of debts  John Hancock and Massachusetts war debt  Issuance of more currency devalued the money and enabled the debtor to pay off debt at a lower price.  Rebels attempted to shut down courts engaging in actions to collect debts and foreclose on farms  Western (rural Massachusetts) vs. Eastern Massachusetts)  Private militias and federal armories (January 25, 1787  Cannon fire  4 dead; 20 wounded
  11. 11. Adopting the Constitution  The Constitutional Convention  Called for purpose of “Revising” the Articles of Confederation  Delegates in attendance from 12 of 13 states (Rhode Island refused)  29 delegates (often replaced with new men) May 25, 1787 – September 17, 1787  George Washington Presided over the convention  The emergence of James Madison  U.S. Constitution is the longest running functioning written constitution in the world.  Differing political philosophies and plans  The Virginia Plan: (James Madison) scrap the Articles of Confederation and start over using a Federal model of government  The New Jersey Plan: keep the Articles of Confederation in a one house Congress that had power to levy taxes and regulate interstate commerce, name a chief executive and appoint a Supreme Court
  12. 12. Adopting the Constitution  The Great Compromise (aka Connecticut Compromise): create new legislative structure with bi-cameral (2 house) legislature: House of Representatives (# of representatives based on population) and Senate (each state having 2 Senators)  Principles incorporated into the Constitution over concerns about who should have power and how it would be used and controlled  Separation of powers: each branch given a separate sphere of authority and responsibility to counter-balance the other branches  Nature of the presidency: accountable to the people by standing for election every 4 years; could not unilaterally declare war or make peace; could be ipeached by House of representatives for bribery; treason; “high crimes and misdemeanors” and removed from office by vote of 2/3 of Senate to convict  Nature of the judicial branch: Interpret the laws passed by Congress and ensure that every citizen received equal justice under the law; final authority in interpreting the Constitution; federal law prevails over state law if the two conflict; Supreme Court Justices appointed for life and have authority over lower federal courts  Nature of the Legislature: House members elected every two years; Senate elected by state legislatures every 4 years; Senate was to be conservative and deliberate body that could check the power of the House or the President
  13. 13. We the People?  Difference between “citizen” and “person”?  Native Americans not considered federal or state citizens unless they paid taxes and tribes treated as “separate nations”  Slaves  The status of enslaved people was highly controversial. The Southern states demanded that enslaved people were not given the status of “person” or “citizen” but that they should be counted as 3/5 of a person for population purposes. To satisfy the objections of anti-slavery delegates, the Constitution distinguishes between “free persons” and “all other persons”.  Delegates from the Northern states argued that since enslaved people had no status under the Constitution, they should not be counted in the population.  Promoters of the new Constitution like James Madison (himself a slaveholder) agreed to the 3/5ths compromise rather than risk a walk out by Southern delegates—many of whom were already hesitant about the Federal system for giving too much power to the Federal Government and the fact that the Constitution did not identify specific individual rights of citizens  Women: considered irrelevant by the delegates and never mentioned “women”
  14. 14. We the People?  The framework for government ruled by “We the People” rather than a King, Queen or groups of nobility further promoted the ideal of equality and inalienable rights identified in the Declaration of Independence. The status of citizen and the right to participate in self government as well as the individual rights of citizens enshrined in the Bill of Rights was a goal that would one day be attained by those originally excluded from the Constitution.  Importance of Amendment process:  Recognizing that as time went on, the original document might need to be amended as circumstances required, the delegates provided a framework for amending the Constitution in Article 5
  15. 15. The Fight for Ratification  Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists  Federalists led by Alexander Hamilton and John Jay of New York and James Madison of Virginia.  Arguments for ratification  The Federalist Papers 85 essays written in support of the new constitution and defended the principle of a strong national government  Anti-Federalists led by Patrick Henry and George Mason of Virginia and other delegates from New York, Massachusetts and Maryland  Arguments against ratification  Argued that the potential for the federal government to become tyrannical was too great under the proposed Constitution and that the Constitution did not identify or preserve individual rights  By June of 1788 nine states had ratified the Constitution and the Confederation Congress selected New York as the temporary national capital and fixed the date for the first national elections in 1788- 89.
  16. 16. The Bill of Rights  In order to secure ratification, James Madison promised that the first order of business for the new legislature would be to propose a Bill of Rights to secure individual rights from the power of the state. He was true to his word.  September 1789 Congress approved 12 amendments and by 1791 3/4th of the state had approved 10 amendments.  1st Amendment original  US was first government to prohibit the government from endorsing or supporting any one religion or from interfering with the choices of religion made by individuals.
  17. 17. The Federalist Era Chapter 7
  18. 18. Political Parties  Debates over ratification of the Constitution led to the rise of the first political parties:  Federalists  Democratic Republicans or Jeffersonian Republicans  Reflected different visions of American life  Federalists were urban dwellers in cities who promoted trade, banking, finance, and manufacturing as the most essential elements of the future economy  Led by Alexander Hamilton ( a protégé of George Washington)  Democratic Republicans led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison wanted America to remain a nation of small farmers and few cities  Jefferson believed that farming reinforced self reliance and individualism while factory work made a man dependent on wage labor and subject to political manipulation
  19. 19. Hamilton’s Vision  Raising revenue ◦ Exchange war bonds for interest bearing bonds ◦ Bonds accepted at face value  Rewarded speculators  Economic policy: Tariffs ◦ Encouraging manufactures ◦ The emergence of sectional differences  Establishing the public credit ◦ A national bank  10 million in capital  4/5ths supplied by private investors  1/5th supplied by government  5 directors named by private investors  5 directors named by government  National currency back by government bonds  Source of capital loans  Safe Place to keep government funds
  20. 20. The Republican Alternative  Republicans or Democratic Republicans Opposed to monarchy Strict construction of Constitution If it’s not spelled-out in the Constitution, the Federal government can’t do it.  No National Bank
  21. 21. George Washington Elected  George Washington became 1st President  John Adams with the 2nd highest vote count became Vice President  Washington put both Hamilton and Jefferson in his cabinet despite their opposing views  Washington had a larger staff on his plantation in Virginia than he did as President
  22. 22. Crises Foreign and Domestic  Citizen Genet  French Revolution 1789  King Louis XVI executed in 1793  Britain, Spain, Austria, Prussia allied against France  US treaty with France following Revolutionary War (perpetual allies)  Citizen Genet hired Spanish privateers to harass British shipping off Florida coast  Washington revoked his Diplomatic privilege and was sending him back to France when Jacobins seized power from the National Assembly  Genet requested and was granted asylum
  23. 23.  John Jay: US Supreme Court Chief Justice  Crisis with Britain during French Revolution  1793 Britain began confiscating any ship carrying French goods or sailing for French Port in the Caribbean  Impressment of American seamen  1794 British arming Indians on frontier along Ohio River valley  British seized forts along Great Lakes  Democratic Republicans support for embargo on British goods  Jay’s Treaty (1794)  Accepted British definition of neutral rights  Tar, pitch and products for warships could not be shipped to enemy ports by neutral ships  Trade prohibited in peacetime could not be opened in wartime  Britain: most favored nation trading status  French privateers cannot be outfitted in American Ports  Forgive reparations for African slaves who escaped during Revolutionary War  British concessions  Evacuation of British forts in Great Lakes by 1796  Reparations for seized American ships and cargo  Trade with British West Indies Crises Foreign and Domestic
  24. 24. Jay Treaty Slogan by Democratic Republicans Jay Treaty may have been a bad bargain but historians agree that it was a success in 2 respects: Postponed war with Britain Chose dominant power of 19th Century as commercial ally  Damn John Jay!  Damn everyone that won't damn John Jay!  Damn every one that won't put lights in his window and sit up all night damning John Jay!
  25. 25.  Federal Tax on Liquor (1791)  Western Territories: Cheaper to ship liquor than grain or corn  Bushel of corn worth $.25= 2.5 gallons of liquor worth $2.50  Farmers saw tax as a scheme by Hamilton to enrich urban speculators by “picking the pockets of farmers.”  1794 in PA “Whiskey Boys”  burned stills of farmers who paid the tax  Threatened federal revenue officers  Robbed the mails  Interrupted court proceedings  Threatened to assault Pittsburgh Whiskey Rebellion
  26. 26. Washington Proclamation  Called out 12,000 men in militias from Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania and New Jersey  General Henry Lee commanded 13,000 men  Whiskey Boys vanished  20 men captured  2 convicted of treason  Both pardoned by Washington  Simpleton  Insane
  27. 27. America, 8th Edition Copyright © 2010 W.W. Norton & Company Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795
  28. 28. Settlement of New Land  Land policy  Cost of land Parcels  Land Act of 1796: Townships-- 640 acre sections @ $2/acre  Land Act of 1804: Minimum unit 160 acre sections @ $1.64/acre  Daniel Boone and the Wilderness Road  1769 discovery of “Warrior’s Path” foot path through the Cumberland Gap (over the Appalacian Mountains)  1771 Boone and 30 woodsmen cut a larger road called “Wilderness Road” 300,000 settlers used the Wilderness Road over the next 25 years.
  29. 29. Transfer of Power  Washington’s farewell  Avoid political parties  Avoid the entanglements of Europe  The election of 1796  Federalist Candidates  John Adams (President)  Thomas Pinckney (Vice President)  Democratic Republicans  Thomas Jefferson (President)  Aaron Burr (Vice President)
  30. 30. Transfer of Power  Washington’s farewell  Avoid political parties  Avoid the entanglements of Europe  The election of 1796  Federalist Candidates  John Adams (President)  Thomas Pinckney (Vice President)  Democratic Republicans  Thomas Jefferson (President)  Aaron Burr (Vice President)
  31. 31. Thomas Pinckney Aaron Burr
  32. 32. Campaign of 1796  Democratic Republicans called John Adams “his rotundity”  Federalists called Jefferson “a French loving atheist”  French ambassador public appeal for Jefferson  Foreign interference in US election  Adam’s elected: 70 electoral votes to 68 electoral votes
  33. 33. X Y Z Affair
  34. 34.  Europe: Napoleonic War  Caribbean: Jay Treaty required US to intercept ships bound for French ports  French intercepted American shipping 300 times and broke diplomatic relations with Americans by 1797  American delegation to Paris:  Thomas Pinckney; John Marshall, Eldridge Gerry  X,Y,Z (French Diplomats) negotiations could only begin if Americans paid $250,000.  “Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute!”  Logan Act (1799) private citizens may not negotiate with foreign governments without authorization Undeclared War with France
  35. 35.  American Navy 1797: The Constitution, The United States, The Constellation  1797 Congress authorized an army of 10,000 men to serve 3 years each  George Washington called from retirement to command ◦ Washington demanded that Hamilton be 2nd in command  Convention of 1800 ◦ Suspension of quasi-naval war with France ◦ Suspension of Perpetual Alliance of 1778 American Military
  36. 36.  Federalists vs. Democratic Republicans  Adams vs. Jefferson  James Callender: Muckraker & sex scandals  Maria Reynolds & Alexander Hamilton  The Prospect Before Us  Jailed for Sedition under Alien and Sedition Acts  Pardoned by Jefferson but refused position as Postmaster General  Published letters between Callender and Jefferson that proved Jefferson funded Callender’s pamphlets against Federalists  Jefferson supporters accused Callender of abandoning his wife to die of a venereal disease  Callender broke story of Thomas Jefferson & Sally Hemings Election of 1800

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