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JAX DevOps 2019: "Creating an Effective Developer Experience for Cloud-native Apps"

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In a productive cloud native development workflow, individual teams can build and ship software independently from each other. But with a rapidly evolving cloud-native landscape, creating an effective developer workflow using a platform based on something like Kubernetes can be challenging. You are all creating software to support the delivery of value to your customers and to the business, and therefore, the developer experience from idea generation to running (and observing) in production must be fast, reliable, and provide good feedback. During this talk, Daniel will share with you several lessons learned from real world consulting experience working with teams deploying to Kubernetes.

Key takeaways include: Why an efficient development workflow is so important; a series of questions to ask in order to understand if you should attempt to build a PaaS on top of Kubernetes (everyone needs a platform, but how much should be built versus integrated versus bought?); a brief overview of developer experience tooling for Kubernetes, and how this domain could evolve in the future; the role of Kubernetes, Envoy, Prometheus, and other popular cloud-native tools in your workflow; and key considerations in implementing a cloud-native workflow.

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JAX DevOps 2019: "Creating an Effective Developer Experience for Cloud-native Apps"

  1. 1. Creating an Effective Developer Experience for Cloud-Native Apps Daniel Bryant @danielbryantuk | @datawireio
  2. 2. “Developer Experience”
  3. 3. @danielbryantuk Independent Technical Consultant, Product Architect at Datawire Previously: Academic, software developer (from startups to gov), architect, consultant, CTO, trainer, conference tourist… Leading change through technology and teams
  4. 4. DevEx 101
  5. 5. Developer Experience (DevEx) is about... “...reducing engineering friction between creating a hypothesis, to delivering an observable experiment (or business value) in production” - Adrian Trenaman (SVP Engineering, HBC) https://www.infoq.com/news/2017/07/remove-friction-dev-ex
  6. 6. DevEx isn’t new, but it is important ● Lead time ● Deployment frequency ● Mean time to restore (MTTR) ● Change fail percentage ● Rapid provisioning ● Basic monitoring ● Rapid app deployment https://martinfowler.com/bliki/MicroservicePrerequisites.html
  7. 7. DevEx: Three Components
  8. 8. DevEx, Workflow, Platforms
  9. 9. The Ideal Workflow
  10. 10. “Progressive Delivery” https://redmonk.com/jgovernor/2018/08/06/towards-progressive-delivery/ https://launchdarkly.com/blog/progressive-delivery-a-history-condensed/
  11. 11. https://speakerdeck.com/stilkov/microservices-patterns-and-antipatterns-1
  12. 12. Decentralised Biz/Product Teams; Centralised Specialists and Platform Team Z: Prototyping Team A: Mission- Critical Team T: Production Phase
  13. 13. https://twitter.com/kelseyhightower/status/851935087532945409
  14. 14. https://www.infoq.com/news/2017/06/paved-paas-netflix https://www.infoq.com/news/2018/07/shopify-kubernetes-paas
  15. 15. Should I Build a PaaS on k8s?
  16. 16. Fundamental questions Do you understand your domain? Is your problem domain complex? Do you have product/market fit? Question Is your solution event-driven (and simple)? Should you be adding value elsewhere?
  17. 17. SOLID K8s: Open for Extension... ● Kubernetes becoming de facto CoaaS (the new cloud broker?) ○ Lots of hosted options ● Know the extension points ○ Custom Resources & Controllers ○ Operators ○ CloudBuddies ● Extension enables custom workflow ○ “Kubernetes Custom Resource, Controller and Operator Development Tools”
  18. 18. https://github.com/weaveworks/flux
  19. 19. How quick do you need feedback? Question https://mitchdenny.com/the-inner-loop/ https://bit.ly/2RXfokz
  20. 20. Automate Inner Dev Loop https://blog.hasura.io/draft-vs-gitkube-vs-helm-vs- ksonnet-vs-metaparticle-vs-skaffold-f5aa9561f948 https://codeengineered.com/blog/2018/kubernet es-helm-related-tools/
  21. 21. ● Draft ○ Automates “inner loop” build-push-deploy ○ Utilises Helm ● Gitkube ○ Automates build-push-deploy ○ Provides heroku / CF like experience ● Skaffold ○ Automates build-push-deploy ○ Watches source code ○ Provides “dev” and “run” (CD) modes ● Tilt ○ Automates “inner loop” build-test-deploy ● Garden ○ Automates local build-push-test-deploy Automate Inner Dev Loop ● Helm (*) ○ Package manager for k8s ○ Deploy and manage (ready-made) charts ● Ksonnet ○ Define k8s manifests in jsonnet ○ Create composable config/services ● Telepresence (*) ○ Enables local-to-prod development (*) CNCF projects
  22. 22. Develop and test services locally, or within the cluster (or both)? ● Working locally has many advantages ○ Reduce ops cost of multi-cluster ● However, some systems are simply too large to run locally (for integration tests) ● Local/remote container dev tools like Telepresence and Squash allow hybrid Question
  23. 23. “Bring the cloud to you” “Put you in the cloud”
  24. 24. How do want to verify your system? ● Pre-prod testing in complex systems ● Canary testing is very powerful https://medium.com/@copyconstruct/testing-microservices- the-sane-way-9bb31d158c16 Question
  25. 25. Envoy for Managing L7 Traffic ● “Service-mesh all the things”? ● Allows fine-grained release ● Many control planes (for Envoy) ○ Ambassador ○ Gloo ○ Istio ○ Consul Connect https://www.infoq.com/articles/ambassador-api-gateway-kubernetes
  26. 26. Canary UX
  27. 27. https://github.com/weaveworks/flagger
  28. 28. Canary gotchas (and mitigations) ● Observability is a prerequisite ○ Service Level Indicators (SLIs) ○ Service Level Objectives (SLOs) ○ Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) ● Needs high volume of diverse (representative) traffic ● Take care with side effects ● Focus on “golden signals” ○ Latency, traffic, errors, saturation ○ Okay to initially “eyeball” data ○ Create actionable alerts ● Load test (with flag header) ● Run synthetic transactions ● Service virtualisation (Hoverfly)
  29. 29. Observability UX
  30. 30. Do you want to implement “guard rails” for your development teams? ● Larger teams often want to provide comprehensive guard rails ● Startups and SMEs may instead value team independence ● Hybrid? Offer platform, but allow service teams freedom and responsibility https://blog.openshift.com/multiple-deployment-methods-openshift/ Question
  31. 31. Build vs buy https://www.infoq.com/news/2019/03/airbnb-kubernetes-workflow https://docs.openshift.com/container-platform/3.9/dev_guide/openshift_pipeline.html
  32. 32. Security guard rails
  33. 33. Getting Started: Where to Focus
  34. 34. Decentralised Biz/Product Teams; Centralised Specialists and Platform Team Z: Prototyping Team A: Mission- Critical Team T: Production Phase
  35. 35. Some thoughts on where to focus... Prototype Production Mission Critical Dev and test Local / hybrid Hybrid / local / staged Local / (hybrid) staged Release Canary (synthetic shadow) Canary / pre-prod test Pre-prod test / Canary Guide rails “YOLO” Limited Strong Where to focus? Inner development loop & CI/CD Observability and scaffolding (codifying best practices) Observability, debugging and “recreatability” (environment & data)
  36. 36. Conclusion
  37. 37. In Summary The developer experience is primarily about minimising the friction between having an idea, to dev/test, to release, to delivering observable business value How you construct your ‘platform’ impacts the developer experience greatly You must intentionally curate the experience of: local development, continuous delivery, release control, observability, debuggability, and more...
  38. 38. Thanks for Listening! Questions, comments, thoughts… db@datawire.io @danielbryantuk More info: getambassador.io | telepresence.io | Canary Releasing
  39. 39. Bonus
  40. 40. Do you have a strong opinion on code repository structure? ● Monorepo: ○ Coordination of integration and testing across services is generally easier, ○ Service dependency management easier ● Multi-repo: ○ Clearer ownership ○ Can promote loose coupling ○ Refactoring and code-level standardization can be challenging http://blog.shippable.com/our-journey-to-microservices-and-a-mono-repository
  41. 41. https://blog.gardeviance.org/2015/03/on-pioneers-settlers-town-planners-and.html
  42. 42. Workflow Tooling and Techniques
  43. 43. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MGeUUmdtdKA
  44. 44. Skaffold
  45. 45. Telepresence
  46. 46. Pattern: Self-Service Init and Deploy
  47. 47. Pattern: CI/CD Enforces Policy ● Make is easy to do the right thing ○ Self-service pipeline creations ○ Bake-in hooks/slots for platform functionality ○ Sensible policy defaults ● Testing of NFRs is vital ○ Security ○ Performance ○ Quality https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hJkhPP2OLA8
  48. 48. Pattern: Observability > Testing ● Essential part of the platform and developer workflow/experience ○ Monitoring, logging and tracing ○ Bake-in hooks to scaffolding ● Global && service-to-service dashboards ● “Observability and Avoiding Alert Overload from Microservices at the Financial Times”
  49. 49. UX, it matters...