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A PLAYER TYPE
FRAMEWORK FOR
GAMIFICATION
DESIGN
Andrzej Marczewski’s Core Principles
of Gamification Series
Player Types are not a new concept in the
field of games or gamification, however
there are a lack of such models designed...
In BriefA quick outline of the
basics
• Socialisers are motivated by Relatedness. They want to
interact with others and create social connections.
• Free Spirit...
Intrinsic User Types
Deeper into the
Intrinsically Motivated
User Types
• Socialisers (as in the original Player Type) are the ones who want to
interact with others. They like to be connected to...
Player (Extrinsic)
User Sub-Types
Deeper into the
Extrinsically Motivated
User Sub-Types
Essentially the Player is motivated by rewards, plain and simple. They will do
similar things to the intrinsically motivat...
Disruptor
User Sub-Types
Deeper into the
Disruptor User Sub-
Types
Disruptors disrupt or change a system in some way. This may be by acting on
users or on the system itself. As with the Pla...
The Dodecad of
User Types
Putting it all together
The Dodecad is a visual summary of
the 12 user types. Some have found
it very useful for understanding the
full picture, s...
Using the User Types
Strategies to make use
of the User Types in
your designs
This is my personal favourite way of
using the user types. The basic idea
is to put yourself in a different
position to vi...
Design Gamification for Types
An alternative is to come at designing for gamification types from another direction. Define...
Survey the Populous
A final option is to survey your intended target audience to find out what types they are. Then you ca...
Get in Touch
Gamified.uk
@daverage
andrzej@gamified.uk
If you found this interesting and want to know more, get in
touch.
...
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Gamification Player / User Types HEXAD

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A presentation going into the details surrounding the gamification player and user types HEXAD from Andrzej Marczewski at Gamified UK.

This is aimed at game and gamification designers as a tool for helping design better solutions that focus on the wants and needs of the users.

The original artical can be found at http://www.gamified.uk/user-types/

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Gamification Player / User Types HEXAD

  1. 1. A PLAYER TYPE FRAMEWORK FOR GAMIFICATION DESIGN Andrzej Marczewski’s Core Principles of Gamification Series
  2. 2. Player Types are not a new concept in the field of games or gamification, however there are a lack of such models designed specifically for gamification. In my model, the Gamification User Types HEXAD, I propose six types of users (at a basic level); four intrinsically motivated types and two others. Achiever, Socialiser, Philanthropist and Free Spirit. They are motivated by Relatedness, Autonomy, Mastery and Purpose - RAMP. The other two types, whose motivations are a little less black and white are Disruptor and Player.
  3. 3. In BriefA quick outline of the basics
  4. 4. • Socialisers are motivated by Relatedness. They want to interact with others and create social connections. • Free Spirits are motivated by Autonomy and self- expression. They want to create and explore. • Achievers are motivated by Mastery. They are looking to learn new things and improve themselves. They want challenges to overcome. • Philanthropists are motivated by Purpose and Meaning. This group are altruistic, wanting to give to other people and enrich the lives of others in some way with no expectation of reward. • Players are motivated by Rewards. They will do what is needed of them to collect rewards from a system. They are in it for themselves. • Disruptors are motivated by Change. In general, they want to disrupt your system, either directly or through other users to force positive or negative change. Players are happy to "play" your game, where points and rewards are up for grabs. Disruptors want nothing to do with it and the others need a bit more to keep them interested. This looks a bit like this
  5. 5. Intrinsic User Types Deeper into the Intrinsically Motivated User Types
  6. 6. • Socialisers (as in the original Player Type) are the ones who want to interact with others. They like to be connected to others. They are interested in parts of the system that help them do this. These are the ones will evangelise your internal social networks. Most motivated by the social connections aspects of relatedness. • Free Spirits like to have agency. They have two basic subtypes, Creators and Explorers. Explorers don’t want to be restricted in how they go through their personal journey, to explore the system. They are also likely to f ind the most holes in a system. Creators want to build new things.They will have the fanciest avatars and create the most personal content. They seek self-expression and autonomy. • Achievers are the ones who want to be the best at things or, at least, be achieving things within the system. They want to get 100% on the internal learning system. They do this for themselves and are probably not that bothered with then showing off to others about it. (This differs from the original definition, but I could not think of a better word!!). Will compete with others, but as a way to become better than others. The system provides the platform, other "players" are just things to be overcome and mastered. May also be motivated by status as a representation of their personal achievement They need a system that will enrich them and lead them towards mastery. • Philanthropists want to feel that they are part of something bigger. They want to give to others but expect nothing in return. These are the ones who will answer endless questions on forums, just because they like to feel they are helping. They want a system that allows them to enrich others and feel a sense of altruism and purpose.
  7. 7. Player (Extrinsic) User Sub-Types Deeper into the Extrinsically Motivated User Sub-Types
  8. 8. Essentially the Player is motivated by rewards, plain and simple. They will do similar things to the intrinsically motivated group, but only if there is a reward at the end of it! • Self-Seeker: This group of users will act in a similar way to Philanthropists. They will answer people's questions, share knowledge and be helpful – but for a cost. If there is no reward, don’t expect them to get involved! They can be useful, however, if they are being asked to get involved for rewards, expect quantity over quality! • Consumer: Consumers will do what is needed to get rewards. If that requires them to learn new skills or take on challenges (like an Achiever), then they will do it. However, if they can get rewards for just doing what they were already doing – even better. Think of them as the ones who will enter competitions just for the prize or who shop at one store just for the loyalty programme. • Networker: Where a Socialiser connects to others because they are looking for relatedness, Networkers are looking for useful contacts that they can gain from. They follow the big influencers on social networks, not because they are interested in them, but because they hope it will get them noticed, increase their influence and lead to a reward. • Exploiter: Like Free Spirits, these guys are looking for the boundaries of the system, where they can go and what they can do. However, for them, it is a way to find new ways to rewards. If they find a loop-hole, don’t expect them to report it unless they feel others are earning more than them exploiting it!
  9. 9. Disruptor User Sub-Types Deeper into the Disruptor User Sub- Types
  10. 10. Disruptors disrupt or change a system in some way. This may be by acting on users or on the system itself. As with the Player type, the Disruptor type is a group rather than a single type. • Griefer: This is our killer. I have chosen to use Bartle’s description from his 8 types because this is the pure arsehole type. They want to negatively affect other users, just because they can. It may be to prove a point about the fact they don’t like the system, it may just be for fun. They have no place in most gamified systems, so you need to find ways to either change their minds – or get rid of them. • Destroyer: This type of user wants to break the actual system directly. This may be by hacking or finding loopholes in the rules that allow them to ruin the experience for others. Their reasons again may be because they dislike the system or it may just be because they find it fun to hack and break things. If you can’t convince them to at least convert to an Improver, then you have to get rid of them. • Influencer: These users will try to change the way a system works by exerting influence over other users. This is not to say they are a negative type, far from it. If they feel the system needs to change and you actually allow them a voice to help change it, they could become massive advocates. Make use of them or lose them – worse still the could end up switching to a Griefer! • Innovator: Innovators will interact with the system with the best intentions in mind. They may hack it or find loopholes, but their aim is to change the system for the better. They are similar to the Free Spirit type, in reality, they want to have the chance to explore the system, find problems and try to fix them. Take care of these users as they can help you massively. Mistreat them and they may well become Destroyers.
  11. 11. The Dodecad of User Types Putting it all together
  12. 12. The Dodecad is a visual summary of the 12 user types. Some have found it very useful for understanding the full picture, so you may as well! If you look at the chart, closer to 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock are the Player user types. 9 o’clock and 3 o’clock are the Disruptors and the rest are the Intrinsic types.
  13. 13. Using the User Types Strategies to make use of the User Types in your designs
  14. 14. This is my personal favourite way of using the user types. The basic idea is to put yourself in a different position to view a problem from a different perspective. Jesse Schell created an amazing deck of lenses to go with his seminal game design bible The Art of Game Design. Each one challenges you to ask certain questions about your game to try and get a new perspective on it. Find out more in my other SlideShare on Gamification Design Lenses! Design Gamification for Types
  15. 15. Design Gamification for Types An alternative is to come at designing for gamification types from another direction. Define the problem your gamification is trying to solve. Next work out what kind of user types are most likely to be able to help solve it – and build the system to encourage and support them. For instance, if you are looking for innovation in your company and you want to get people to submit new ideas, what types of people are most likely to give up their time to do this? Well, initially it would make sense that Philanthropists would be up for the challenge. Their “joy” comes from helping others and adding to the greater meaning of life the universe and everything. This being the case, you need to create an environment that allows them to give their ideas, but also to advise others and support them with their ideas. You may also want to consider Free Spirits. They are creative and could be the ones who have explored areas where there can be the most innovation. This means you would create a system that encourages and supports their involvement. You give them tools to think creatively and develop their ideas. That is not to say you ignore the other types. You can create social networking opportunities for Socialisers or add voting systems with points and badges for the Players, but remember they are not the ones who will be helping you directly solve your problem – the need for innovation. Also, remember that different motivations appeal to people in varying degrees and combinations. Although they may be a socialiser, they can still have traits that a Philanthropist may have. This approach will help you build a system that solves your problem. Yes, users may evolve their type during usage, but the system will still encourage others to come along and use it. In addition, designed well, you can keep the evolved users on board in other capacities.
  16. 16. Survey the Populous A final option is to survey your intended target audience to find out what types they are. Then you can design a system that focuses mostly on those types. Although surveying is a reasonable thing to do, it does have a couple of drawbacks. It assumes the questions are relevant. It requires people to self-report with honesty, something that we intend to do, but at times, we do not recognize that cognitive biases can prevent this from happening. The final and most important drawback is the nature of people themselves. You see, the survey provides snapshot information on the type for a potential user before they interact with the system and out of context. As we have seen, over time it has been found that the user types can change. The user type you are when you first start using a system may not stay the same. Therefore, surveying and building your system based on initial types may actually be counter-productive. This is the approach if you are looking for a short-term campaign; you just need to work out what your potential users want over the immediate term.
  17. 17. Get in Touch Gamified.uk @daverage andrzej@gamified.uk If you found this interesting and want to know more, get in touch. Check out my book, Even Ninja Monkeys Like to Play on Amazon or my Website for even more content on player types, motivation and gamification!

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