2. Need Electric and Hybrid vehicles
Over dependence on petrol/diesel
Rising petrol/diesel prices
Pollution and the resultant global warming
Noise in conventional vehicles
Need for alternate power sources
Need for Eco friendly vehicles
EV, HEV - The solution?
3. Electric vehicles
An Electric vehicle is an automobile that is propelled by
one or more electric motors, using electrical energy stored
in energy storage device.
The primary components are motor, controller, power
source, and transmission.
No Gas Required
Pay back period
High Initial Cost- Many times that of conventional vehicles
Short Driving Range- Range anxiety
Recharging takes much longer time than refueling gasoline-
lack of charging infrastructure
Battery pack takes space and weight of the vehicle which
otherwise is available to the people
7. Concept of hybridization
Multiple sources of power
Making ICE work in most efficient range
Sizing of motor and ICE lower compared to conventional
vehicles and EV
8. Hybrid Vehicles
The term hybrid vehicles in general usage refer to vehicles with
two or three different type of sources delivering power to the
wheels for propulsion.
The most common hybrid vehicles have an IC engine and one
or more electric machines for vehicle propulsion.
The IC engine can be used to generate electric energy ‘on
board’ to power the machines.
Based on the path of energy flow
Mechanical power transmission path (MPTP)
Electrical power transmission path (EPTP)
Combination of MPTP and EPTP
Based on architecture
11. Mechanical power transmission path (MPTP)
The primary powertrain components in a conventional ICE
vehicle are engine and transmission. The energy flow in a
vehicle starts from source of energy and ends at wheels with
the delivery of propulsion power known as power
Power transmission path in conventional IC engine
12. Electrical power transmission path (EPTP)
In electric vehicle power transmission is almost electrical
except for coupling devices between electric propulsion motor
and wheels. The coupling device can simply be a gear to match
electric machine speeds to vehicle speeds.
Power transmission path in an electric vehicle
13. Combination of MPTP and EPTP
The propulsion power is transmitted to wheels through either
MPTP or EPTP or combination of both.
The MPTP is associated with an IC engine and transmission,
whereas EPTP consists of energy storage system, a generator,
propulsion motor and transmission.
15. Series HEV
A series hybrid is one in which only one energy converter can
provide propulsion power.
Only electric motor provides all propulsion power to wheels.
A downsized IC engine drives a generator, which supplements
batteries and can charge them when it fall below certain charge
The drawback is size of traction motor, which as to be rated for
max. power requirement of vehicle.
Flexibility of location of engine-generator set
Simplicity of Drive train
Suitable for short trips with stop and go traffic
It needs IC engine, generator and motor
Motor must be designed for maximum sustained power that vehicle require
such as climbing a high gradient
All drivetrain components need to be sized for maximum power for long
distance, high speed driving
18. Parallel HEV
A parallel hybrid is one in which more than one energy
conversion device can deliver propulsion power to the wheels.
The IC engine and electric motor are configured in parallel
with a mechanical coupling.
The power requirements of electric motor is lower than that of
It needs only IC engine and motor/generator
A smaller engine and motor can be used to get same
performance, until batteries are depleted
The control complexity increases, since power flow has to be
regulated and blended from two parallel sources
The power blending from IC engine and motor needs a
complex mechanical device
21. Series-Parallel HEV
It combines the benefits of series and parallel architecture with
charge sustaining capability.
The power-split device divides the output from the engine into
mechanical and electrical transmission paths.
Even IC engine is also used to charge the battery.
They are capable of providing continuous high output power
compared to series or parallel powertrain.
25. Torque characteristics
The torque characteristic of a motor is shown along with torque
characteristics of IC engine.
For electric motor, a high torque is available at starting, which
is the rated torque of motor.
The peak or rated power from a motor is obtained at base speed
(w b) when motor characteristics enter the constant power
region from constant torque region once voltage limit of power
supply is reached.
The motor rated speed (w rated) is at end of the constant power
region. The IC engine peak power and torque occur at the same
Time of battery changing is long
Batteries are heavy (100kg extra weight consumes 2L/100km more)
Batteries are expensive
Low performance in hot or cold temperatures also may damage the
Very sensitive to overcharge/undercharge(Battery life reduces
Contain toxic heavy metals, disposal issue
30. Advantages of a Hybrid Car
Less dependence on fossil fuels
Regenerative braking system
Built from lighter materials
31. Disadvantages of a Hybrid car
Higher maintenance cost
Using the concept of Hybridization of cars results in better
efficiency and also saves a lot of fuel in today’s fuel
A hybrid gives a solution to all the problems to some extent.
One can surely conclude that this concept will follow with even
better efficiency & conservation rate