SlideShare ist ein Scribd-Unternehmen logo
1 von 3
Downloaden Sie, um offline zu lesen
“I HAVE NO IDEA HOW TO USE THE KEYBOARD”: CHRONOTOPES OF THE
                              DIGITAL DIVIDE
Luísa Aires, Universidade Aberta, Cristina Ponte, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, José Azevedo, Universidade do
                                                Porto, Portugal


This paper intends to analyse a set of empirical dimensions of the digital divide, based on the narratives of 17
individuals with low levels of schooling. Taking as references the constructs of techno-capital, techno-
competencies and techno-dispositions (ROJAS et al., 2010), linked to Bourdieu’s social theory, and that of
chronotope developed within the framework of the historical-cultural theory, a model of analysis is put forward,
focusing on experiences related to the digital divide in which historical-cultural, axiological, educational,
generational and gender dimensions emerge.

The analysis of the narratives by individuals with low levels of schooling leads us to similar issues arising from the
digital exclusion of older people, especially women. This reality emphasises the role of Public Pedagogy in
promoting literacy and digital inclusion (SANDLIN, O’MALLEY & BURDICK, 2011).


    Introduction
The expansion, dissemination and development of skills for the use of digital technologies is characterised by
great optimism, rupture and discrimination, according to social and age groups, levels of schooling or
geographical areas of reference, among others. This asymmetry is not limited to disparities in the use of
technology skills; it is associated with the paradoxes of a fragmented globalisation, of identities of resistance, of a
multiculturality often instrumentalised by superficial social policies that tend to ignore contextual and historical-
cultural specificities.

These paradoxes coexist with the rationales of a new participatory culture that facilitates a distributed cultural
construct, in which everyone has an active role in the culture being produced. This new rationale integrates the
potential benefits and opportunities for (re)defining literacy - by their remoteness from the purely individual and its
closeness to a social and group dimension, by the change of attitudes towards intellectual property, the
development of skills in the labour market, or a broader notion of citizenship (JENKINS et al).

Taking into account the digital divide and digital literacy in the processes of social participation, we propose an
approach to these constructs within the systems of locally situated cultural practices (SCRIBNER & COLE, 1981;
REDER & DAVILA, 2005; WARSCHAWER, 2002). Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to reflect on the
spatio-temporal dimensions of the digital divide present in the narratives of individuals with low levels of schooling,
in particular on the family and school experiences with technologies. A first level of the research explores the
narratives of the individuals based on the concepts of techno-capital, techno-skills and techno-dispositions
(ROJAS; STRAUBHAAR et al., 2010; Aires et al., 2011); in a second level, we deepen the analysis based on a
historical-cultural approach of chronotopes (LEMKE, 1995, BAKHTIN, 1981; HANNAN, 2011). From this spatial-
temporal matrix, we reach the relationships between contexts and meanings that form the memories of individuals
on their experiences with technologies within their family and school (BAKHTIN, 1981; HANNAN, 2011).


    Method
    The methodological approach used in this study is of an interpretative nature. The sample consists of 17
    individuals with low levels of schooling - 16 have attended the 1st cycle of basic school, and 1 attended the 2 nd
    year of schooling. Of these, 13 are women and 4 are men, and the average age is 59.3 years.

This sample represents a group of individuals with lower levels of schooling, from the two members of each of the
64 families that participated in the project ”Inclusion and digital participation. A comparative study of the use of
digital media by different social groups in Portugal and the United States“, coordinated by Ponte, Azevedo e
Straubhaar (2009-2011). We have chosen the “educational level” as the key criterion for selecting the sample
because, as in previous research works, we believe that this has a significant value in the interpretation of the

                                                                                                                     1
processes of digital inclusion and of diversity of problems associated with, as is the case of the digital divide
(REZA, 1998, in ROJAS et al., 2010. We used the semi-structured interview.


    Analysis

    First level of analysis
    The analysis of oral information collected in the interviews was done in two related levels. In the first level of
    analysis, we used content analysis (BARDIN, 1977), and identified the three major categories of analysis:
    Family Experiences, School Experiences and Skills and Uses of Technologies (AIRES, MELRO, CORREIA,
    PONTE & AZEVEDO, 2011)]. In family experiences, the farming activity of parents and grandparents, and
    early entry into the labour market by respondents are the key dominant features. The school experiences are
    marked by low family expectations about school, economic problems and low level of schooling of parents. In
    the uses of technology, the television and mobile phone are the dominant devices and the Internet is
    associated to the lack of use skills. In this phase of analysis, gender (women) and age (average: 59 years)
    emerge as the decisive explanatory factors. It should also be noted that whereas in women the techno-skills
    are slim, in contrast, techno-expectations are high and are projected in the younger generations (sons and
    grandchildren).

    Although this first phase of analysis was important for the initial approach to the digital divide in older people
    and women with low levels of schooling, we felt it did not exhaust the wealth of information collected through
    the interviews. For that reason, we decided to complement this phase with a new perspective of analysis
    more focused on discourse dynamics rather than on contents, choosing the chronotope as the unit of
    analysis.

    Second level of analysis
Based on the concept of chronotope, special emphasis is given to the spatial-temporal dimension of the
individuals’ memories. With this strategy, we recover macro elements of social and educational policies that have
marked the experiences, in particular childhood, youth and the entry into adulthood by respondents.

In this second level of analysis we identified 4 chronotopes: 1) Rural families in the Estado Novo. 2- School and
women/ school and the elderly; 3) Discovery of audiovisual; 4) The Digital World belongs to the “younger
generation”.

In the first chronotope, rural families in the Estado Novo, the discourses refer to a moral context associated to the
Judaeo-Christian cultural tradition, in particular to values such as respect, honesty, of no killing and no stealing.
Large family households with low incomes and the subordinate role of women associated to farming work,
illiteracy and early labour characterise the families of the respondents.

The second chronotope, school and women, school and seniors, integrates the memories of women and of the
elderly on school. Their experiences are linked to family history of illiteracy and of low school expectations, of
school dropout. We also find high expectation of school in relation to younger generations.

    For this group of respondents, radio and, in particular, the introduction of television, are important milestones
    in their relationship with the world. The chronotope discovery of audiovisual is characterised by the late
    access to television, the networks of neighbours in accessing the television, in the current pervasiveness of
    television, in particular the high consumption of recreational and information programmes.

    Finally, the fourth chronotope, the digital world belongs to the younger generation, is characterized by the
    paradox view of this group of respondents about digital technologies, in particular the Internet. Whereas, on
    the one hand, the 13 women in the sample state that they do not know how to use the Internet, on the other
    hand, they regard it as having social and educational value, stressing that it is an important channel of
    communication for the younger people and, therefore, conditions must be provided in the family to facilitate its
    access. Although not all respondents indicate it, the majority emphasise its informative value and the risks
    associated to it. The lack of interest in learning how to use the Internet is associated with the recognition of its
    low value in their professional activities.

                                                                                                                      2
Final Remarks
The research on the phenomena associated with the digital divide brings us to a broader framework of social
exclusion. The narratives of individuals with low levels of schooling who participated in this study, on technologies
in a family context, bring us to historical-cultural issues that mark their life paths. The spatial-temporal
contextualisation of the respondents’ memories leads us to a conservative axiological and political context that
dominated the childhood, youth and entry into adulthood of respondents.

Women with low levels of schooling draw close to digital illiteracy, in close connection with the professional
activities of the respondents and the role they play within their families. In contrast, the younger generations are
part of cultural, educational and family constellations that invest more in education and technology to provide them
with higher educational and technological literacy levels.

In short, the multiple dimensions of the digital divide that emerge in the study are of a historical-cultural,
axiological, educational, generational and gender type. Intervention in this field is, therefore, not linear, nor does it
submit to rationales of intervention of a narrow spectrum. On the contrary, research and intervention on this issue
calls for the use of a broad spectrum of strategies, in network, and emphasise the importance of a public
pedagogy with particular emphasis on processes and places of informal education (SANDLIN, O’MALLEY &
BURDICK, 2011).


    References
AIRES, L.; MELRO, A,; CORREIA, J.; PONTE, C., AZEVEDO, J. (2011). “Inclusão Digital: A apropriação dos media
digitais em grupos com baixos níveis de escolarização”. Revista e-curriculum, Volume 7, Issue 2, p.1-23. Available:
http://revistas.pucsp.br/index.php/curriculum/article/view/6776.
    BARDIN, L. (1977). Análise de Conteúdo. Lisboa:: Edições 70.
    CASTELLS, M. (2001). La Galaxia Internet. Barcelona: Areté,
COLE, M. (1996). Cultural Psychology. A once and future discipline. U.S.A.: Harvard University Press,
COLL, C.; MONEREO, C. (2008).Psicologia de la educación virtual. Madrid: Morata,
DE LUCAS, J. (2003). Globalización e Identidades. Barcelona: Cataluña Hoy,
DE PABLOS, J. (coord.) (2009).Tecnología Educativa. La formación del profesorado en la era de Internet. Málaga:
Ediciones Aljibe.
HANNAN, M. (2011). “Analysis of the collaborative activities in software development processes from the
perspective of chronotopes”, Computers in Human Behavior, vol.27, Issue 1, p.248-267.
JENKINS, H. Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. Available:
http://digitallearning.macfound.org/atf/cf/%7B7E45C7E0-A3E0-4B89-AC9C-E807E1B0AE4E
%7D/JENKINS_WHITE_PAPER.PDF; accessed: 05.05.2010.
LEMKE, J. (1995). Textual Politics. London: Tailor and Francis.
PONTE, C.; AZEVEDO, J.; STRAUBHAAR, J. (2009-2011). Projecto Inclusão Digital e Participação Digital.
Trajectórias de uso de meios digitais por grupos sociais desfavorecidos, em Portugal e nos Estados Unidos.
Financiamento: FCT.
ROJAS, V., STRAUBHAAR, J., SPENCE, J., ROYCHOWDHURY, D., OKUR, O., PINON, J., FUENTES-BAUTISTA,
M. (2010). “Communities, cultural capital and digital inclusion: ten years of tracking techno- dispositions” . Austin
Technopolis. University of Texas. Austin
SANDLIN, J. A., O'MALLEY, M. P., BURDICK, J. (2011). “Mapping the complexity of public pedagogy scholarship:
1894-2010”, Review of Educational Research, 81(3):338-375.
SCRIBNER, S.; COLE, M.(1981). The Psychology of Literacy. London: Harvard University Press.
WARSCHAWER, M. (2002). “Reconceptualizing digital divide”. First Monday. Vol. 7, nº 7-1 Julho 2002. Available:
http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/967/#author; accessed: 01.11.2009.




                                                                                                                       3

Weitere ähnliche Inhalte

Andere mochten auch

Mecanismos de construção de género na inclusão e participação digital: O caso...
Mecanismos de construção de género na inclusão e participação digital: O caso...Mecanismos de construção de género na inclusão e participação digital: O caso...
Mecanismos de construção de género na inclusão e participação digital: O caso...Daniel Meirinho
 
Editorial da revista Media & Jornalismo
Editorial da revista Media & JornalismoEditorial da revista Media & Jornalismo
Editorial da revista Media & JornalismoDaniel Meirinho
 
Pr eu kids_online17out2011-1
Pr eu kids_online17out2011-1Pr eu kids_online17out2011-1
Pr eu kids_online17out2011-1Daniel Meirinho
 
The Changing Face of Public Access Use in USA and Portugal
The Changing Face of Public Access Use in USA and Portugal The Changing Face of Public Access Use in USA and Portugal
The Changing Face of Public Access Use in USA and Portugal Daniel Meirinho
 
Sumário - Crianças e Internet em Portugal - Acessos, Usos, Riscos, Mediações
Sumário - Crianças e Internet em Portugal - Acessos, Usos, Riscos, Mediações Sumário - Crianças e Internet em Portugal - Acessos, Usos, Riscos, Mediações
Sumário - Crianças e Internet em Portugal - Acessos, Usos, Riscos, Mediações Daniel Meirinho
 
Editorial da Revista Media & Jornalismo
Editorial da Revista Media & JornalismoEditorial da Revista Media & Jornalismo
Editorial da Revista Media & JornalismoDaniel Meirinho
 
Informação e participação
Informação e participaçãoInformação e participação
Informação e participaçãoDaniel Meirinho
 
Abstracts of Media & Jornalismo Journal
Abstracts of Media & Jornalismo JournalAbstracts of Media & Jornalismo Journal
Abstracts of Media & Jornalismo JournalDaniel Meirinho
 
Cost gendering audiences final
Cost gendering audiences finalCost gendering audiences final
Cost gendering audiences finalDaniel Meirinho
 
Dialogue and Joint Development and Action
Dialogue and Joint Development and ActionDialogue and Joint Development and Action
Dialogue and Joint Development and ActionDaniel Meirinho
 
Workshop video participativo
Workshop video participativoWorkshop video participativo
Workshop video participativoDaniel Meirinho
 
Fotovoz photovoice rt
Fotovoz photovoice rtFotovoz photovoice rt
Fotovoz photovoice rtrogeliotapia
 

Andere mochten auch (20)

Mecanismos de construção de género na inclusão e participação digital: O caso...
Mecanismos de construção de género na inclusão e participação digital: O caso...Mecanismos de construção de género na inclusão e participação digital: O caso...
Mecanismos de construção de género na inclusão e participação digital: O caso...
 
Conferência
Conferência Conferência
Conferência
 
Programa
ProgramaPrograma
Programa
 
Editorial em Ingles
Editorial em InglesEditorial em Ingles
Editorial em Ingles
 
Editorial da revista Media & Jornalismo
Editorial da revista Media & JornalismoEditorial da revista Media & Jornalismo
Editorial da revista Media & Jornalismo
 
Pr eu kids_online17out2011-1
Pr eu kids_online17out2011-1Pr eu kids_online17out2011-1
Pr eu kids_online17out2011-1
 
The Changing Face of Public Access Use in USA and Portugal
The Changing Face of Public Access Use in USA and Portugal The Changing Face of Public Access Use in USA and Portugal
The Changing Face of Public Access Use in USA and Portugal
 
Sumário - Crianças e Internet em Portugal - Acessos, Usos, Riscos, Mediações
Sumário - Crianças e Internet em Portugal - Acessos, Usos, Riscos, Mediações Sumário - Crianças e Internet em Portugal - Acessos, Usos, Riscos, Mediações
Sumário - Crianças e Internet em Portugal - Acessos, Usos, Riscos, Mediações
 
Editorial da Revista Media & Jornalismo
Editorial da Revista Media & JornalismoEditorial da Revista Media & Jornalismo
Editorial da Revista Media & Jornalismo
 
Informação e participação
Informação e participaçãoInformação e participação
Informação e participação
 
Indice
IndiceIndice
Indice
 
Programa 2013
Programa 2013Programa 2013
Programa 2013
 
Abstracts of Media & Jornalismo Journal
Abstracts of Media & Jornalismo JournalAbstracts of Media & Jornalismo Journal
Abstracts of Media & Jornalismo Journal
 
Presente
PresentePresente
Presente
 
Press release pt final
Press release   pt finalPress release   pt final
Press release pt final
 
Indice
IndiceIndice
Indice
 
Cost gendering audiences final
Cost gendering audiences finalCost gendering audiences final
Cost gendering audiences final
 
Dialogue and Joint Development and Action
Dialogue and Joint Development and ActionDialogue and Joint Development and Action
Dialogue and Joint Development and Action
 
Workshop video participativo
Workshop video participativoWorkshop video participativo
Workshop video participativo
 
Fotovoz photovoice rt
Fotovoz photovoice rtFotovoz photovoice rt
Fotovoz photovoice rt
 

Ähnlich wie I have no idea how to use the keyboard 03 april

Ponte et al Conference Paper
Ponte et al Conference PaperPonte et al Conference Paper
Ponte et al Conference PaperInclusaoDigital
 
Ponte et al Conference Paper
Ponte et al Conference Paper Ponte et al Conference Paper
Ponte et al Conference Paper InclusaoDigital
 
Ponte et al Conference Paper
Ponte et al Conference PaperPonte et al Conference Paper
Ponte et al Conference PaperInclusaoDigital
 
A Quasi-Experimental Analysis Of The Adult Learning Effect On Problem-Solving...
A Quasi-Experimental Analysis Of The Adult Learning Effect On Problem-Solving...A Quasi-Experimental Analysis Of The Adult Learning Effect On Problem-Solving...
A Quasi-Experimental Analysis Of The Adult Learning Effect On Problem-Solving...Martha Brown
 
Juventud y Redes Sociales: Motivaciones y usos frecuentes
Juventud y Redes Sociales: Motivaciones y usos frecuentesJuventud y Redes Sociales: Motivaciones y usos frecuentes
Juventud y Redes Sociales: Motivaciones y usos frecuentesMaría Janeth Ríos C.
 
Exploring Open Approaches towards Digital Literacy
Exploring Open Approaches towards Digital Literacy Exploring Open Approaches towards Digital Literacy
Exploring Open Approaches towards Digital Literacy DEFToer3
 
Teaching & Learning With ICT_KATRIN_CORE READING
Teaching & Learning With ICT_KATRIN_CORE READING Teaching & Learning With ICT_KATRIN_CORE READING
Teaching & Learning With ICT_KATRIN_CORE READING KatharinaDike
 
Does the new digital generation of learners exist?
Does the new digital generation of learners exist?Does the new digital generation of learners exist?
Does the new digital generation of learners exist?sukarnouny
 
Early Adopters to Participatory Professional Development
Early Adopters to Participatory Professional DevelopmentEarly Adopters to Participatory Professional Development
Early Adopters to Participatory Professional DevelopmentVanessa Vartabedian
 
Age influence in gender stereotypes related to Internet use in young people: ...
Age influence in gender stereotypes related to Internet use in young people: ...Age influence in gender stereotypes related to Internet use in young people: ...
Age influence in gender stereotypes related to Internet use in young people: ...Grial - University of Salamanca
 
Examining Internet Use Among Low-Income Students
Examining Internet Use Among Low-Income StudentsExamining Internet Use Among Low-Income Students
Examining Internet Use Among Low-Income StudentsJason Seliskar
 
Including the Excluded Can ICTs empower poor communities? Towards an alternat...
Including the Excluded Can ICTs empower poor communities? Towards an alternat...Including the Excluded Can ICTs empower poor communities? Towards an alternat...
Including the Excluded Can ICTs empower poor communities? Towards an alternat...Soren Gigler
 
Digital literacy literature review
Digital literacy literature reviewDigital literacy literature review
Digital literacy literature reviewDEFToer3
 
BARRIERS FOR FEMALES TO PURSUE STEM CAREERS AND STUDIES AT HIGHER EDUCATION I...
BARRIERS FOR FEMALES TO PURSUE STEM CAREERS AND STUDIES AT HIGHER EDUCATION I...BARRIERS FOR FEMALES TO PURSUE STEM CAREERS AND STUDIES AT HIGHER EDUCATION I...
BARRIERS FOR FEMALES TO PURSUE STEM CAREERS AND STUDIES AT HIGHER EDUCATION I...IJCSES Journal
 

Ähnlich wie I have no idea how to use the keyboard 03 april (20)

Ponte et al Conference Paper
Ponte et al Conference PaperPonte et al Conference Paper
Ponte et al Conference Paper
 
Ponte et al Conference Paper
Ponte et al Conference Paper Ponte et al Conference Paper
Ponte et al Conference Paper
 
Ponte et al Conference Paper
Ponte et al Conference PaperPonte et al Conference Paper
Ponte et al Conference Paper
 
Ponte et al IAMCR 2011
Ponte et al IAMCR 2011Ponte et al IAMCR 2011
Ponte et al IAMCR 2011
 
A Quasi-Experimental Analysis Of The Adult Learning Effect On Problem-Solving...
A Quasi-Experimental Analysis Of The Adult Learning Effect On Problem-Solving...A Quasi-Experimental Analysis Of The Adult Learning Effect On Problem-Solving...
A Quasi-Experimental Analysis Of The Adult Learning Effect On Problem-Solving...
 
Explore Locally Excel Digitally
Explore Locally Excel DigitallyExplore Locally Excel Digitally
Explore Locally Excel Digitally
 
Juventud y Redes Sociales: Motivaciones y usos frecuentes
Juventud y Redes Sociales: Motivaciones y usos frecuentesJuventud y Redes Sociales: Motivaciones y usos frecuentes
Juventud y Redes Sociales: Motivaciones y usos frecuentes
 
Exploring Open Approaches towards Digital Literacy
Exploring Open Approaches towards Digital Literacy Exploring Open Approaches towards Digital Literacy
Exploring Open Approaches towards Digital Literacy
 
Teaching & Learning With ICT_KATRIN_CORE READING
Teaching & Learning With ICT_KATRIN_CORE READING Teaching & Learning With ICT_KATRIN_CORE READING
Teaching & Learning With ICT_KATRIN_CORE READING
 
DSH Evaluation 2008
DSH Evaluation 2008DSH Evaluation 2008
DSH Evaluation 2008
 
Does the new digital generation of learners exist?
Does the new digital generation of learners exist?Does the new digital generation of learners exist?
Does the new digital generation of learners exist?
 
Early Adopters to Participatory Professional Development
Early Adopters to Participatory Professional DevelopmentEarly Adopters to Participatory Professional Development
Early Adopters to Participatory Professional Development
 
Age influence in gender stereotypes related to Internet use in young people: ...
Age influence in gender stereotypes related to Internet use in young people: ...Age influence in gender stereotypes related to Internet use in young people: ...
Age influence in gender stereotypes related to Internet use in young people: ...
 
Examining Internet Use Among Low-Income Students
Examining Internet Use Among Low-Income StudentsExamining Internet Use Among Low-Income Students
Examining Internet Use Among Low-Income Students
 
Including the Excluded Can ICTs empower poor communities? Towards an alternat...
Including the Excluded Can ICTs empower poor communities? Towards an alternat...Including the Excluded Can ICTs empower poor communities? Towards an alternat...
Including the Excluded Can ICTs empower poor communities? Towards an alternat...
 
Digital literacy literature review
Digital literacy literature reviewDigital literacy literature review
Digital literacy literature review
 
Shall We Play?
Shall We Play?Shall We Play?
Shall We Play?
 
CM258 - Class 3
CM258 - Class 3CM258 - Class 3
CM258 - Class 3
 
STAVOVI RODITELJA
STAVOVI RODITELJASTAVOVI RODITELJA
STAVOVI RODITELJA
 
BARRIERS FOR FEMALES TO PURSUE STEM CAREERS AND STUDIES AT HIGHER EDUCATION I...
BARRIERS FOR FEMALES TO PURSUE STEM CAREERS AND STUDIES AT HIGHER EDUCATION I...BARRIERS FOR FEMALES TO PURSUE STEM CAREERS AND STUDIES AT HIGHER EDUCATION I...
BARRIERS FOR FEMALES TO PURSUE STEM CAREERS AND STUDIES AT HIGHER EDUCATION I...
 

Mehr von Daniel Meirinho

Diálogo Construção Coletiva e Ação para a adequação das políticas públicas de...
Diálogo Construção Coletiva e Ação para a adequação das políticas públicas de...Diálogo Construção Coletiva e Ação para a adequação das políticas públicas de...
Diálogo Construção Coletiva e Ação para a adequação das políticas públicas de...Daniel Meirinho
 
Fotografia participativa
Fotografia participativaFotografia participativa
Fotografia participativaDaniel Meirinho
 
O fosso digital de género: novas configurações e novos desafios
O fosso digital de género: novas configurações e novos desafiosO fosso digital de género: novas configurações e novos desafios
O fosso digital de género: novas configurações e novos desafiosDaniel Meirinho
 
Mecanismos de construção de género na inclusão e participação digital: O caso...
Mecanismos de construção de género na inclusão e participação digital: O caso...Mecanismos de construção de género na inclusão e participação digital: O caso...
Mecanismos de construção de género na inclusão e participação digital: O caso...Daniel Meirinho
 
Identidade, imagem e criatividade digital
Identidade, imagem e criatividade digitalIdentidade, imagem e criatividade digital
Identidade, imagem e criatividade digitalDaniel Meirinho
 
Pp austin conferencia final 281011_cp_jas_aj
Pp austin conferencia final 281011_cp_jas_ajPp austin conferencia final 281011_cp_jas_aj
Pp austin conferencia final 281011_cp_jas_ajDaniel Meirinho
 

Mehr von Daniel Meirinho (11)

Diálogo Construção Coletiva e Ação para a adequação das políticas públicas de...
Diálogo Construção Coletiva e Ação para a adequação das políticas públicas de...Diálogo Construção Coletiva e Ação para a adequação das políticas públicas de...
Diálogo Construção Coletiva e Ação para a adequação das políticas públicas de...
 
Fotografia participativa
Fotografia participativaFotografia participativa
Fotografia participativa
 
Manual Olhares em Foco
Manual Olhares em Foco Manual Olhares em Foco
Manual Olhares em Foco
 
O fosso digital de género: novas configurações e novos desafios
O fosso digital de género: novas configurações e novos desafiosO fosso digital de género: novas configurações e novos desafios
O fosso digital de género: novas configurações e novos desafios
 
Mecanismos de construção de género na inclusão e participação digital: O caso...
Mecanismos de construção de género na inclusão e participação digital: O caso...Mecanismos de construção de género na inclusão e participação digital: O caso...
Mecanismos de construção de género na inclusão e participação digital: O caso...
 
Identidade, imagem e criatividade digital
Identidade, imagem e criatividade digitalIdentidade, imagem e criatividade digital
Identidade, imagem e criatividade digital
 
Pp austin conferencia final 281011_cp_jas_aj
Pp austin conferencia final 281011_cp_jas_ajPp austin conferencia final 281011_cp_jas_aj
Pp austin conferencia final 281011_cp_jas_aj
 
Cartaz
CartazCartaz
Cartaz
 
Indice
IndiceIndice
Indice
 
Indice
IndiceIndice
Indice
 
Indice
Indice Indice
Indice
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen

The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipKarl Donert
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineCeline George
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxryandux83rd
 
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest EntranceFarrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrancejulius27264
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressMaria Paula Aroca
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxMadhavi Dharankar
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptxmary850239
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research DiscourseAnita GoswamiGiri
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Osopher
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptxmary850239
 
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17Celine George
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Celine George
 
Sarah Lahm In Media Res Media Component
Sarah Lahm  In Media Res Media ComponentSarah Lahm  In Media Res Media Component
Sarah Lahm In Media Res Media ComponentInMediaRes1
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 

Kürzlich hochgeladen (20)

The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenshipThe role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
The role of Geography in climate education: science and active citizenship
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
 
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest EntranceFarrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
Farrington HS Streamlines Guest Entrance
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
 
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical VariableChi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
Chi-Square Test Non Parametric Test Categorical Variable
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
 
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
4.11.24 Poverty and Inequality in America.pptx
 
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
Scientific  Writing :Research  DiscourseScientific  Writing :Research  Discourse
Scientific Writing :Research Discourse
 
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database ReleaseIsrael Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
Israel Genealogy Research Assoc. April 2024 Database Release
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
 
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
How to Manage Buy 3 Get 1 Free in Odoo 17
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
 
Sarah Lahm In Media Res Media Component
Sarah Lahm  In Media Res Media ComponentSarah Lahm  In Media Res Media Component
Sarah Lahm In Media Res Media Component
 
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
31 ĐỀ THI THỬ VÀO LỚP 10 - TIẾNG ANH - FORM MỚI 2025 - 40 CÂU HỎI - BÙI VĂN V...
 

I have no idea how to use the keyboard 03 april

  • 1. “I HAVE NO IDEA HOW TO USE THE KEYBOARD”: CHRONOTOPES OF THE DIGITAL DIVIDE Luísa Aires, Universidade Aberta, Cristina Ponte, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, José Azevedo, Universidade do Porto, Portugal This paper intends to analyse a set of empirical dimensions of the digital divide, based on the narratives of 17 individuals with low levels of schooling. Taking as references the constructs of techno-capital, techno- competencies and techno-dispositions (ROJAS et al., 2010), linked to Bourdieu’s social theory, and that of chronotope developed within the framework of the historical-cultural theory, a model of analysis is put forward, focusing on experiences related to the digital divide in which historical-cultural, axiological, educational, generational and gender dimensions emerge. The analysis of the narratives by individuals with low levels of schooling leads us to similar issues arising from the digital exclusion of older people, especially women. This reality emphasises the role of Public Pedagogy in promoting literacy and digital inclusion (SANDLIN, O’MALLEY & BURDICK, 2011). Introduction The expansion, dissemination and development of skills for the use of digital technologies is characterised by great optimism, rupture and discrimination, according to social and age groups, levels of schooling or geographical areas of reference, among others. This asymmetry is not limited to disparities in the use of technology skills; it is associated with the paradoxes of a fragmented globalisation, of identities of resistance, of a multiculturality often instrumentalised by superficial social policies that tend to ignore contextual and historical- cultural specificities. These paradoxes coexist with the rationales of a new participatory culture that facilitates a distributed cultural construct, in which everyone has an active role in the culture being produced. This new rationale integrates the potential benefits and opportunities for (re)defining literacy - by their remoteness from the purely individual and its closeness to a social and group dimension, by the change of attitudes towards intellectual property, the development of skills in the labour market, or a broader notion of citizenship (JENKINS et al). Taking into account the digital divide and digital literacy in the processes of social participation, we propose an approach to these constructs within the systems of locally situated cultural practices (SCRIBNER & COLE, 1981; REDER & DAVILA, 2005; WARSCHAWER, 2002). Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to reflect on the spatio-temporal dimensions of the digital divide present in the narratives of individuals with low levels of schooling, in particular on the family and school experiences with technologies. A first level of the research explores the narratives of the individuals based on the concepts of techno-capital, techno-skills and techno-dispositions (ROJAS; STRAUBHAAR et al., 2010; Aires et al., 2011); in a second level, we deepen the analysis based on a historical-cultural approach of chronotopes (LEMKE, 1995, BAKHTIN, 1981; HANNAN, 2011). From this spatial- temporal matrix, we reach the relationships between contexts and meanings that form the memories of individuals on their experiences with technologies within their family and school (BAKHTIN, 1981; HANNAN, 2011). Method The methodological approach used in this study is of an interpretative nature. The sample consists of 17 individuals with low levels of schooling - 16 have attended the 1st cycle of basic school, and 1 attended the 2 nd year of schooling. Of these, 13 are women and 4 are men, and the average age is 59.3 years. This sample represents a group of individuals with lower levels of schooling, from the two members of each of the 64 families that participated in the project ”Inclusion and digital participation. A comparative study of the use of digital media by different social groups in Portugal and the United States“, coordinated by Ponte, Azevedo e Straubhaar (2009-2011). We have chosen the “educational level” as the key criterion for selecting the sample because, as in previous research works, we believe that this has a significant value in the interpretation of the 1
  • 2. processes of digital inclusion and of diversity of problems associated with, as is the case of the digital divide (REZA, 1998, in ROJAS et al., 2010. We used the semi-structured interview. Analysis First level of analysis The analysis of oral information collected in the interviews was done in two related levels. In the first level of analysis, we used content analysis (BARDIN, 1977), and identified the three major categories of analysis: Family Experiences, School Experiences and Skills and Uses of Technologies (AIRES, MELRO, CORREIA, PONTE & AZEVEDO, 2011)]. In family experiences, the farming activity of parents and grandparents, and early entry into the labour market by respondents are the key dominant features. The school experiences are marked by low family expectations about school, economic problems and low level of schooling of parents. In the uses of technology, the television and mobile phone are the dominant devices and the Internet is associated to the lack of use skills. In this phase of analysis, gender (women) and age (average: 59 years) emerge as the decisive explanatory factors. It should also be noted that whereas in women the techno-skills are slim, in contrast, techno-expectations are high and are projected in the younger generations (sons and grandchildren). Although this first phase of analysis was important for the initial approach to the digital divide in older people and women with low levels of schooling, we felt it did not exhaust the wealth of information collected through the interviews. For that reason, we decided to complement this phase with a new perspective of analysis more focused on discourse dynamics rather than on contents, choosing the chronotope as the unit of analysis. Second level of analysis Based on the concept of chronotope, special emphasis is given to the spatial-temporal dimension of the individuals’ memories. With this strategy, we recover macro elements of social and educational policies that have marked the experiences, in particular childhood, youth and the entry into adulthood by respondents. In this second level of analysis we identified 4 chronotopes: 1) Rural families in the Estado Novo. 2- School and women/ school and the elderly; 3) Discovery of audiovisual; 4) The Digital World belongs to the “younger generation”. In the first chronotope, rural families in the Estado Novo, the discourses refer to a moral context associated to the Judaeo-Christian cultural tradition, in particular to values such as respect, honesty, of no killing and no stealing. Large family households with low incomes and the subordinate role of women associated to farming work, illiteracy and early labour characterise the families of the respondents. The second chronotope, school and women, school and seniors, integrates the memories of women and of the elderly on school. Their experiences are linked to family history of illiteracy and of low school expectations, of school dropout. We also find high expectation of school in relation to younger generations. For this group of respondents, radio and, in particular, the introduction of television, are important milestones in their relationship with the world. The chronotope discovery of audiovisual is characterised by the late access to television, the networks of neighbours in accessing the television, in the current pervasiveness of television, in particular the high consumption of recreational and information programmes. Finally, the fourth chronotope, the digital world belongs to the younger generation, is characterized by the paradox view of this group of respondents about digital technologies, in particular the Internet. Whereas, on the one hand, the 13 women in the sample state that they do not know how to use the Internet, on the other hand, they regard it as having social and educational value, stressing that it is an important channel of communication for the younger people and, therefore, conditions must be provided in the family to facilitate its access. Although not all respondents indicate it, the majority emphasise its informative value and the risks associated to it. The lack of interest in learning how to use the Internet is associated with the recognition of its low value in their professional activities. 2
  • 3. Final Remarks The research on the phenomena associated with the digital divide brings us to a broader framework of social exclusion. The narratives of individuals with low levels of schooling who participated in this study, on technologies in a family context, bring us to historical-cultural issues that mark their life paths. The spatial-temporal contextualisation of the respondents’ memories leads us to a conservative axiological and political context that dominated the childhood, youth and entry into adulthood of respondents. Women with low levels of schooling draw close to digital illiteracy, in close connection with the professional activities of the respondents and the role they play within their families. In contrast, the younger generations are part of cultural, educational and family constellations that invest more in education and technology to provide them with higher educational and technological literacy levels. In short, the multiple dimensions of the digital divide that emerge in the study are of a historical-cultural, axiological, educational, generational and gender type. Intervention in this field is, therefore, not linear, nor does it submit to rationales of intervention of a narrow spectrum. On the contrary, research and intervention on this issue calls for the use of a broad spectrum of strategies, in network, and emphasise the importance of a public pedagogy with particular emphasis on processes and places of informal education (SANDLIN, O’MALLEY & BURDICK, 2011). References AIRES, L.; MELRO, A,; CORREIA, J.; PONTE, C., AZEVEDO, J. (2011). “Inclusão Digital: A apropriação dos media digitais em grupos com baixos níveis de escolarização”. Revista e-curriculum, Volume 7, Issue 2, p.1-23. Available: http://revistas.pucsp.br/index.php/curriculum/article/view/6776. BARDIN, L. (1977). Análise de Conteúdo. Lisboa:: Edições 70. CASTELLS, M. (2001). La Galaxia Internet. Barcelona: Areté, COLE, M. (1996). Cultural Psychology. A once and future discipline. U.S.A.: Harvard University Press, COLL, C.; MONEREO, C. (2008).Psicologia de la educación virtual. Madrid: Morata, DE LUCAS, J. (2003). Globalización e Identidades. Barcelona: Cataluña Hoy, DE PABLOS, J. (coord.) (2009).Tecnología Educativa. La formación del profesorado en la era de Internet. Málaga: Ediciones Aljibe. HANNAN, M. (2011). “Analysis of the collaborative activities in software development processes from the perspective of chronotopes”, Computers in Human Behavior, vol.27, Issue 1, p.248-267. JENKINS, H. Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century. Available: http://digitallearning.macfound.org/atf/cf/%7B7E45C7E0-A3E0-4B89-AC9C-E807E1B0AE4E %7D/JENKINS_WHITE_PAPER.PDF; accessed: 05.05.2010. LEMKE, J. (1995). Textual Politics. London: Tailor and Francis. PONTE, C.; AZEVEDO, J.; STRAUBHAAR, J. (2009-2011). Projecto Inclusão Digital e Participação Digital. Trajectórias de uso de meios digitais por grupos sociais desfavorecidos, em Portugal e nos Estados Unidos. Financiamento: FCT. ROJAS, V., STRAUBHAAR, J., SPENCE, J., ROYCHOWDHURY, D., OKUR, O., PINON, J., FUENTES-BAUTISTA, M. (2010). “Communities, cultural capital and digital inclusion: ten years of tracking techno- dispositions” . Austin Technopolis. University of Texas. Austin SANDLIN, J. A., O'MALLEY, M. P., BURDICK, J. (2011). “Mapping the complexity of public pedagogy scholarship: 1894-2010”, Review of Educational Research, 81(3):338-375. SCRIBNER, S.; COLE, M.(1981). The Psychology of Literacy. London: Harvard University Press. WARSCHAWER, M. (2002). “Reconceptualizing digital divide”. First Monday. Vol. 7, nº 7-1 Julho 2002. Available: http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/viewArticle/967/#author; accessed: 01.11.2009. 3