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Symbolic Interactionism

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Symbolic Interactionism

  1. 1. SYMBOLICINTERACTIONISMContemporary Sociological TheoryDanielle Dirks, Ph.D.
  2. 2. OBJECTIVESIntroduce Symbolic InteractionismUnderstand usefulness to understandingsocial life
  3. 3. Sociology of Knowledge Symbolic Phenomenological Interactionism Sociology Labeling Existential Ethno-Dramaturgy Theory Sociology methodology
  4. 4. DEFINITION“A micro-level theory in which sharedmeanings, orientations, and assumptions formthe basic motivation behind people’s.” Conley (2008):29
  5. 5. ORIGINSReaction toStructural Functionalism“Variable Sociology”“Scientificism”
  6. 6. GOALSFocus on“Micro” aspects of social lifeFace to face interactionsLived experience
  7. 7. QUESTIONSHow do we view ourselves?How do we respond to our surroundings?
  8. 8. QUESTIONSHow is meaning constructed?How are identities constructed?Both = How world is constructed
  9. 9. GOALSFocus onInterpretationSocial meaningBehaviorRelationships
  10. 10. TENETS1) Humans act based on meanings
  11. 11. TENETS1) Humans act based on meanings2) Meanings created through socialinteraction
  12. 12. TENETS1) Humans act based on meanings2) Meanings created through socialinteraction3) Meanings continuously shift throughinterpretation
  13. 13. THEORISTS1 1 2 3 1 Charles Cooley 2 George Herbert Mead 3 Herbert Blumer 4 Erving Goffman* 5 Arlie Russell Hochschild4 5
  14. 14. How do we develop “selves”?
  15. 15. OUR FOCUSCooley’s “Looking Glass Self”Mead’s “I and Me”Social Construction of RealitySI Research
  16. 16. COOLEY“Looking Glass Self”
  17. 17. COOLEYSelf emerges through an interactive socialprocess
  18. 18. COOLEYThree Aspects of Identity1) How actors imagine they appear2) How actors believe others judge them3) How actors develop feelings of shame
  19. 19. Examples of when we have viewed ourselves through the eyes of others?
  20. 20. But, is this conscious or unconscious? What would Goffman say?
  21. 21. What are some of the consequences of an unfavorable self-concept?
  22. 22. OUR FOCUSCooley’s “Looking Glass Self”Mead’s “I and Me”Social Construction of RealitySI Research
  23. 23. How do we develop “selves”?
  24. 24. MEAD“I and Me”
  25. 25. MEAD“I”“Agentic”Independent of situations
  26. 26. MEAD“Me”Socialized partSituated and responsiveComposed of messages we receive fromothers and mirrors of self
  27. 27. MEADOtherSomeone/something outside of ourselves
  28. 28. MEADGeneralized Other -- Our view of the viewsof society
  29. 29. MEAD“I and Me”Self = I (subject) + Me (object)
  30. 30. EXAMPLES?
  31. 31. The MySpace Shot:Is this the I or the Me?
  32. 32. Who are we online? Is this our “core” self?
  33. 33. What do our online identities reveal?Try: personas.media.mit.edu/personasWeb
  34. 34. What does it mean to have an identity constructed as “illegal”?
  35. 35. What does it mean to have a “stigmatized” identity?
  36. 36. OUR FOCUSCooley’s “Looking Glass Self”Mead’s “I and Me”Social Construction of RealitySI Research
  37. 37. SOCIALCONSTRUCTIONOF REALITY“Reality is socially constructed...”“Sociology of knowledge must analyze theprocesses in which this occurs.” Berger & Luckman (1967):1
  38. 38. SOCIALCONSTRUCTIONOF REALITYRealityTaken for grantedAppears inevitable
  39. 39. SOCIALCONSTRUCTIONOF REALITYReality = “quality pertaining to phenomenawe recognize as having a being independentof our own volition”
  40. 40. SOCIALCONSTRUCTIONOF REALITYKnowledge = “the certainty thatphenomena are real and that they possessspecific characteristics”
  41. 41. SOCIALCONSTRUCTIONOF REALITY“An institutionalized entity or artifact...‘invented’ or ‘constructed’ byparticipants in a particular culture or societythat exists because people agree tobehave as if it exists...” Conley (2008):
  42. 42. SOCIALCONSTRUCTIONOF REALITYChallenges to KnowledgeReality is not determined by situationsNot inevitable
  43. 43. EXAMPLES?When can you vote?When can you drink legally?Is relationship violence a problem?
  44. 44. EXAMPLES?Who is “black”?Who is “white”?Who is “other”?
  45. 45. EXAMPLES?How is the world socially constructed?What “evidence” counts in ourunderstanding of social world?
  46. 46. OUR FOCUSCooley’s “Looking Glass Self”Mead’s “I and Me”Social Construction of RealitySI Research
  47. 47. SI RESEARCHA few examples...Deviance ResearchLabeling TheorySociology of EmotionsQualitatively Oriented
  48. 48. SI: “Deviant” Subcultures
  49. 49. SI: Labeling Theory and Becoming “Deviant”
  50. 50. SI: Emotional Labor and Service Work
  51. 51. CRITICISMSWhere’s the “data”?Focus on structure?SI more framework than theory
  52. 52. EXAMPLES?How could you use SI in your own researchprojects?
  53. 53. QUESTIONS?
  54. 54. Thank You!
  55. 55. Thank You!Danielle Dirks, Ph.D.Department of SociologyOccidental Collegedirks@oxy.edudanielledirks.com@danielledirks

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