2. Project Management
proj· ect (noun) - refers to a specific plan or design; a
man· age· ment (noun) - is the act or art of
managing: the conducting or supervising of something;
judicious use of means to accomplish an end.
man· age (verb) - to handle or direct with a degree
of skill; to work upon or try to alter for a purpose; to achieve
4. Project Management
Project: “A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to
create a unique product, service, or result.”
Project Management: “the application of knowledge, skills,
tools and techniques to project activities to meet project
The body of knowledge concerned with principles,
techniques, and tools used in planning, control, monitoring,
and review of projects.
PMP, Project Management Professional: “the profession’s
most globally recognized and respected credential”
6. Program Management
Program: “a group of related projects managed in a
coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available
from managing them individually.”
Program Management: “the centralized management of a
program to achieve the program’s strategic benefits and
Process of managing multiple related projects at once.
Where project management is often used to describe one project,
program management involves multiple projects that are all
related and working toward the same goal or result.
7. Program Management or
Programme Management Process
is the process of managing several related projects,
often with the intention of improving an
Key elements of the project management
framework, include project stakeholders, the project
management knowledge areas, common tools and
techniques, and project success factors.
8. Project characteristic
Beginning and End
Agreed, well defined outputs and outcomes
Balance between time, cost and quality
Interrelated tasks grouped into phases
Temporary, often multidisciplinary project team
brought together for the project
Might entail involvement of people from other units or
10. Roles and Function
The primary role of a development manager is to
maintain the harmonious relationship between
human, resource and environment. He/she should
not sacrifice this delicate philosophy for profit.
Recent incidents on environmental pollution that
have caused debilitating sickness and death to
thousands of people and other living things have
been blamed on managers.
As a researcher, the development manger is
expected to oversee the research activities involved
in carrying out the project. The immediate
responsibility of a development manger is to
manage the conduct of the feasibility or baseline
study needed in planning a project.
As a planner, the development manager is
expected to directly manage the operationalization
of the project document. This means identifying the
key indicators for each key factor found in the
objectives, outputs, activities and inputs presented in
the project document. This also requires determining
the target beneficiaries at all levels.
The development manager is expected to recruit new
staff with the desired skill, or to assign existing qualified
staff to certain project activities. At the same time, the
development manger should organize the staff into work
teams and to see to it that the other resources or inputs
for the implementation process are ready for mobilization.
Besides, a development manger should motivate the
project staff to work and to experience self-fulfillment, a
key to project commitment.
The development manager should be able to
clearly direct project staff in following the plan.
He/she should also coordinate with partner
organizations in carrying out promptly their respective
plans. When needed, he/she should delegate
appropriate activities to competent staff.
The development manager should be able to direct
the M&E staff in carrying out tasked efficiently and
effectively. The same manger should be able to
show the staff that he/she makes use of hard data for
policy-making, planning, and decision-making.
He/she should also document the valuable
17. Project management technically covers the
following steps found in the
management of programmes.
① Project formulation
② Project review and approval
③ Project implementation
④ Project monitoring, evaluation
18. ① Project formulation
The first step in formulating a project is to define the
broad outcomes that are expected to be
completed by the time the project ends.
These outcomes should be aspirational but also
realistic. They should also be clear and concise.
Once identified, the specific outputs and activities to
achieve the outcomes must be defined.
19. ① Project formulation
The outputs and activities are the details of how the
outcomes will be achieved. The project document
should also include indicators – both baseline and
aspirational – to allow for the monitoring and
evaluation of the project and to measure results.
The document should include a clear description of
how the project will be implemented, including
management arrangements, costs, strategy and
20. ① Project formulation
The project should plan for annual work plans that
define the activities that will take on an annual basis
to advance the achievement of the overall
Many projects employ full time technical staff that
has experience and expertise to implement such
projects and to build the capacity of staff.
21. ② Project Review and
Just as tracking and monitoring are critical to
controlling a project, so too is reviewing. One of the
major causes of a project getting off track is the lack
of attention to:
Formal and consistent project reviews
Setting up and using informal assessment
22. ② Project Review and
The focus of project reviews is to ensure that
information is being shared and communicated.
Where tracking and monitoring focused on the
process of measuring actual project performance to
the baseline, reviewing focuses on sharing that data
and other related information with the project team
and stakeholders throughout the project.
23. ② Project Review and
As in all other areas of project management, the
review process needs to be tailored to the specific
project. There is no formula for defining the type and
frequency of project reviews.
However, there are some minimum activities
that should be performed, such as:
24. Status meetings should be held and
attended by project team members
responsible for key project organization and
Executive Reviews - as needed;
Team meetings - as needed;
Independent Reviews - as needed, will depend on the size
of the project and the risk. However, each organization is
encouraged to develop its own schedules and standards
for quality reviews;
Technical Reviews - are driven by the life cycle being
used and the particular stage of the project. For example,
during system design, the reviews are concerned with the
stage of the design and detailed design reviews, possible
design walkthroughs, and peer reviews.
25. ② Project Review and
Project Quality management ensures that there is
adequate review of project deliverables at phase
Approval is a formalized process ensuring that the
appropriate levels of testing and review have been
The process of ensuring that appropriate approvals
are obtained is part of the management function
and is not strictly a technical function.
26. ② Project Review and
The approval process ensures that each project
phase and associated deliverables is successfully
completed before beginning subsequent phases.
Management gets a comprehensive view of the
current project status.
Information necessary to ensure that deliverables
satisfy the specific business needs of the state
organization is also received.
Project approval also allows management to reassess
the direction of the project, as necessary, and to
provide project-planning updates, as required.
27. ② Project Review and
There are typically three types of approval
processes. Approvals discussed in this section
occur during the execution stage and include:
Project Plan and Plan Changes, at the
beginning and after changes to the baseline;
Phase Reviews, at the end of each phase;
Deliverable Reviews, as they are completed
and at the end of the project.
28. ③ Project Implementation
Process whereby “project inputs are converted to
project outputs”. May be looked at as:
Putting in action the activities of the project,
Putting into practice what was proposed in the
project document (i.e. transforming the project
proposal into the actual project.) and
Management of the project or executing the project
29. ③ Project Implementation
Implementation usually done by implementing agency
(organization) that prepared the project and received
funding for it.
Other organizations that participate in the implementation
of the project by way of collaboration, say by according
good working relationship, extending technical advice or
seconding their staff to the project are referred to as co-
30. ③ Project Implementation
Project Implementation phase involves:
Project activation - means making arrangements to
have the project started. It involves coordination and
allocation of resources to make project operational.
Project operation - is practical management of a
project. Here, project inputs are transformed into
outputs to achieve immediate objectives.
31. ④ Monitoring and
Establishing project indicators and monitoring systems
from the start of a programme is the best way to
attain accurate measurements of the results of
Monitoring can also be relatively cost-effective if it is
integrated into technical cooperation strategies
throughout the period of project implementation.
32. ④ Monitoring and Evaluation
Effective monitoring includes the use of various tools that
can measure the impact and success of activities and
outputs as they progress.
This can include surveys of participants, exit interviews, and
informal feedback sessions with project teams and staff.
On an annual basis there should be a more formal process
of dialogue amongst project staff and leaders.
Formal and independent evaluations should take place at
the mid-point of the life of a project and at the end of the
34. Gaps in Project Management
Inadequate operationalization of the project
objectives, outputs, activities and inputs.
Lack of appropriate monitoring and evaluation
system and tools before the start of the
These two glaring gaps should be filled up by the newly
appointed project manager/national project
35. Filling Up the Gaps
Operationalize the project document by identifying the
key factors in the four basic elements (objectives, outputs,
activities and inputs) found in the project document.
Develop with the key staff the M&E system and tools for
The approach to – and the process in developing the
M&E tools are explained in chapter 8. The action
planning is carefully explained in Chapter 10.
38. 1. Study carefully the project document
and identify specifically the following:
Development and immediate objectives, as
well as the expected effects and impacts of
Outputs under each immediate objective
Activities under each output
Inputs needed for each activity
Outcomes at end of project
Strategy to achieve outcomes
39. Problems and causes that justify the project
Proposed solution which is the project itself
Benefits of the project to the organization and/on
Objectives, which cover both the development and
Preparation of workplan showing the immediate
objectives, activities, date of implementation, venue,
output, and person responsible for each activity and
2. Prepare a brief and simplified version of
the project document including the
corresponding forms and visual or audio-
visual aids in preparation for a participatory
workshop. Focus on the following:
40. At least one team leader and one staff
member of each team
Key staff of partner organization(s)
Some leaders or target beneficiaries
The participants in the workshop should constitute
the project’s major stakeholders.
3. Schedule a review, operation, monitoring
and evaluation workshop, and invite about
20-25 people composed of the following:
41. Action plan
Physical and financial monitoring form
KFIQ matrix (Key Factor Indicator Questionnaire)
Focus evaluation questionnaire
4. Conduct the workshop using the
planning forms. Be sure to let the
participants produce the following
42. Directing the staff
Coordinating the partner organizations
Delegating selected activities to
5. Manage the implementation process.
This is done by:
43. 6. Provide support to staff who lag behind
and motive staff on continuing basis to
sustain their high productivity and
7. Conduct at least a monthly meeting
among key project staff and
representatives of partner organizations to
remind them about the workplan and the
44. Monitor the outputs and inputs of the various
activities by using the monitoring forms
produced in No. 4 (Action plan, Physical and financial
monitoring form, KFIQ matrix and Focus evaluation
Evaluate the effects of some activities such as
Conduct mid-term internal evaluation
Conduct both internal and external evaluation
8. Monitor and evaluate the project
45. 9. Prepare periodic reports on the results
of the monitoring and/or evaluation
10.Provide copies of report to the funding
agency, partner organizations and
team leaders of the project work
11.Use data monitoring and evaluation in
policy-making, planning, and decision-
12. Conduct annual review and
operation planning workshop.
47. Project Management
Vs. Program Management
Area Project Management Program Management
Focus Single objective Business strategy
Scope Narrow Wide-ranging, cross-functional
Benefits Determined in advance Accrue
Used to make decisions Accrue
during the programme
Deliverables Few, clearly defined Many, many initially undefined
Timescale Clearly defined Loosely defined
Change To be avoided Regarded as inevitable
Success Factors Time, budget, specification Mission, cash-flow, ROI (Return
Plan Specific, detailed, bounded High-level and evolving
Why Program Management
focuses on business
management of the
Business Case to
achieve the vision
control cost Better
of overall risks
control of the
complex range of
Formal process for
providing an effective
use of scarce
for preparing for
49. Program vs. Project Manager
Program Manager Project Manager
o Plans program-level activities and
schedule of projects
o Plans a project given the dependencies
and interfaces defined by the Program
o Defines TOR (Terms Of Reference) for
o Works within the defined TOR (Terms Of
o Starts, stops and monitors progress of
o Runs a project, reporting to the Program
o Manages program level risks and issues.
Delegates risks to projects
o Manages project risks and issues,
escalating to the Program Manager
o Sets policies and procedures for projects o Runs project according to policies and
o Resolves resource conflicts o Uses assigned resources
o Determines program standards o Delivers products to the defined standards
55. Option appraisal
Is there an identified need for this project?
- Look for good entry points
What is the main objective of this project?
What are the specific benefits of the project?
Are there potential conflicts between this project and
other current projects?
Will the project receive the support it requires?
If it is successful-will the benefits be measurable?
Do we have (even rough/estimated) delivery dates
and a budget for it?
What are the risks for failure?
56. Scoping the Project
Gives clarity of the boundaries,
objectives and success criteria of the
Consultation with relevant stakeholders
Individual/s, groups, institutions or firms
that may have a relationship with the
They may – directly or indirectly,
positively or negatively – affect or be
affected by the process and the
outcomes of the project
61. Relevant Stakeholders
Beneficiaries (impact level)
- Benefit from the implementation of the project
Target group/s (outcome level)
- Group/entity who will be immediately and
positively affected by the project
Project Partners (output level)
- Those who help to implement the project
63. Tool: Stakeholder Analysis
Who should contribute
Who is the target group?
Who are the beneficiaries?
Who are the project partners?
Where assets and barriers might be
Who might have a positive/negative impact on the project?
Actions to be taken before detailed planning
Scope related risks: Risk that the project will
not meet its specifications (quality, quantity)
Schedule related risks: The project will not
meet its deadlines
Cost related risks: Risks of exceeding the
Important, clearly defined events in the
course of a project
End of a task
End of a project phase
Represent the project progress
Should take place on a specific date
Crucial to the success of the project
77. Tool: Checklist
What is the rationale for the project?
Are the project objectives clear and unambiguous?
What actions need to be done?
When are those actions going to be done?
Who is going to do them?
What resources are required?
What is not going to be done?
Are outputs and outcome measurable?
If so what measures should be used?
Is everything feasible and realistic?