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The Future of Information Architecture

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The Future of Information Architecture

  1. 1. The Future of Information Architecture Christina Wodtke
  2. 2. Christina Wodtke <ul><li>Boxes and Arrows </li></ul><ul><li>Book </li></ul><ul><li>Asilomar </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant </li></ul><ul><li>www.aifia.org www.eleganthack.com www.boxesandarows.com www.blueprintsfortheweb.com </li></ul>
  3. 3. Information Architecture is <ul><li>Architecture in information spaces. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Understanding IA <ul><li>Why has IA survived the crash? </li></ul><ul><li>What value does it have? </li></ul><ul><li>How can it thrive? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s next? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Who cares? <ul><li>Once there were people with cows </li></ul><ul><li>And people without cows </li></ul><ul><li>The people with no cows were hungry </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>They took to the road </li></ul><ul><li>And met at the market </li></ul><ul><li>And the people with no cows bought cows </li></ul><ul><li>The people with cows had fewer cows, but money for other things </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Now there are people with information </li></ul><ul><li>And people with no information </li></ul><ul><li>The road is the computer </li></ul><ul><li>And the market is the web </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>But the market is really big </li></ul><ul><li>And the people can’t find each other </li></ul><ul><li>So we have ignorant people </li></ul><ul><li>And people with no money </li></ul><ul><li>The cows are okay with this </li></ul><ul><li>Business is not. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Goal <ul><li>The players </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users, seeking information (cowless) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Businesses with information (with cows) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediaries such as search engines and directories, profiting on the exchange (marketplaces) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The goal is to get the users seeking the data to the businesses offering the data </li></ul>
  10. 10. Missing information is dangerous <ul><li>In the news, US government’s information management problems </li></ul>
  11. 11. Missing information is expensive <ul><li>“ The Fortune 1000 stands to waste at least $2.5 billion per year due to an inability to locate and retrieve information .” </li></ul><ul><li>“ While the costs of not finding information are enormous , they are hidden within the enterprise, and…are rarely perceived as having an impact on the bottom line.” </li></ul><ul><li>The High Cost of Not Finding Information </li></ul><ul><li>An IDC White Paper, July 2001. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Missing information kills <ul><li>“ Like all primary care physicians, Dr. Bob Goldszer must stay on top of approximately 10,000 different diseases and syndromes, 3,000 medications, 1,100 laboratory tests, and many of the 400,000 articles added each year to the biomedical literature. That's no easy task. And it is, quite literally, a matter of life and death. The Institute of Medicine's 1999 report, To Err Is Human, suggests that more than a million injuries and 90,000 deaths are attributable to medical errors annually . Something like 5% of hospital patients have adverse reactions to drugs, another study reports, and of those, 43% are serious, life threatening, or fatal. Many knowledge workers have problems similar to Dr. Goldszer's (though they're usually less life threatening). No matter what the field, many people simply can't keep up with all they need to know .” </li></ul><ul><li>--Harvard Business Review, Jul 1, 2002 </li></ul>
  13. 13. Missing information <ul><li>Lost sales - </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive support - </li></ul><ul><li>Duplicated effort - </li></ul><ul><li>Lost trust - </li></ul><ul><li>Lost lives? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Classification has Consequences <ul><li>A physician who doesn’t see a new cure </li></ul><ul><li>A poor student who can’t find financial aid </li></ul><ul><li>A store where a product isn’t found </li></ul>
  15. 15. IA has consequences <ul><ul><li>Tagging with metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing with CV’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating navigation systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimizing search </li></ul></ul>Information Architecture manages information to make it findable
  16. 16. <ul><li>And IA can build brands. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Branding in 10 seconds create fullfilled by Brian Collins’ Model of Brand brand promises brand experiences Brand managers
  18. 18. Brand and the User Experience Hugh Dubberly’s Model of Brand Creating a good customer experience is the essence of good branding
  19. 19. IA Realizes Brand
  20. 20. Product Quality = Brand Loyalty <ul><li>I get asked a lot why Apple's customers are so loyal . It's not because they belong to the Church of Mac! That's ridiculous. It's because when you buy our products, and three months later you get stuck on something, you quickly figure out [how to get past it]. And you think, &quot;Wow, someone over there at Apple actually thought of this!&quot; And then three months later you try to do something you hadn't tried before, and it works, and you think &quot;Hey, they thought of that, too.&quot; And then six months later it happens again. There's almost no product in the world that you have that experience with, but you have it with a Mac . </li></ul><ul><li>And you have it with an iPod . </li></ul>
  21. 22. Benabar n’est pas jazz?
  22. 23. What is this?
  23. 24. What are these?
  24. 25. They are all birds (ornithologist)
  25. 26. The Cassowary is not a bird! (the Karam)
  26. 27. From “Why the Cassowary is not a bird”, R. Bulmer, Man , Vol. 2, Issue 1, (Mar. 1967)
  27. 28. From “Why the Cassowary is not a bird”, R. Bulmer, Man , Vol. 2, Issue 1, (Mar. 1967)
  28. 29. Who Cares? <ul><li>Ornithologists </li></ul><ul><li>The Karam </li></ul><ul><li>Information Architects </li></ul>
  29. 30. Dewey Decimal System <ul><li>200-299 – Religion Categories </li></ul><ul><li>40+ categories related to Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>1 for Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>1 for Islam (& related) </li></ul>
  30. 31. Who Cares? <ul><li>Religious Scholars </li></ul><ul><li>Librarians </li></ul><ul><li>Information Architects </li></ul><ul><li>Jews and Muslims </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Classification reflects social and cultural organization </li></ul><ul><li>Information Architect must understand this context </li></ul><ul><li>We can change how people think via classification and labeling </li></ul>
  32. 33. Frames <ul><li>Voter revolt </li></ul><ul><li>Tax Relief </li></ul><ul><li>War on terror </li></ul><ul><li>Free Market </li></ul><ul><li>Poison free </li></ul>George Lakoff, author of “Don’t Think of an Elephant
  33. 34. Business reframes
  34. 35. <ul><li>Design Look 46.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Information Design/Structure 28.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Information Focus 25.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Company Motive 15.5% </li></ul><ul><li>Information Usefulness 14.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Information Accuracy 14.3% </li></ul><ul><li>Name Recognition & Reputation 14.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising 13.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Information Bias 11.6% </li></ul><ul><li>Writing Tone 9.0% </li></ul><ul><li>Identity of Site Operator 8.8% </li></ul><ul><li>Site Functionality 8.6% </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Service 6.4% </li></ul><ul><li>Past Experience with Site 4.6% </li></ul><ul><li>Information Clarity 3.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Performance on Test by User 3.6% </li></ul><ul><li>Readability 3.6% </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliations 3.4% </li></ul>“ While information structure is often associated with usability , the comments here show how information structure has implications for credibility . Sites that were easy to navigate were seen as being more credible.”
  35. 36. Trust me
  36. 37. Trust me
  37. 38. Big trend #1 <ul><li>Search: the magic box </li></ul>
  38. 39. Speed of People Searching <ul><li>People take only a second to search </li></ul><ul><li>People want to take only a second </li></ul>
  39. 40. Fast, Fast, Fast
  40. 41. Query block?
  41. 42. Articulation Problems <ul><li>Average Search 2.5 words </li></ul><ul><li>30% of searches are 1 word searches </li></ul><ul><li>Another third at 2 word searches– often single concept search “New York” </li></ul><ul><li>This trend is not changing </li></ul>From E-Sex to E-Commerce: Web Search Changes -- Amanda Spink, Pennsylvania State University, Bernard J. Jansen, US Army War College, Dietmar Wolfram, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Tefko Saracevic, Rutgers University
  42. 43. Mind-reading expected <ul><li>And increasingly delivered </li></ul>
  43. 44. Human disambiguation How do you use editorial to best effect? Humans don’t scale.
  44. 45. Zipf curve (for search) Most common searches (head) Least common searches (tail) Obama Jennifer Lopez Britney Spears Zipf Curve Peter Morville Information Architecture
  45. 46. Best Bets <ul><li>Analyze the head </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze content </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize the knowledge </li></ul>
  46. 47. Answers
  47. 48. Trend #2 <ul><li>Organizing Search </li></ul>
  48. 49. Clusty: organizing
  49. 50. A9: classifying
  50. 51. Trend #3 <ul><li>Folksonomies </li></ul>
  51. 52. Del.icio.us: Folksonomy ascendant
  52. 53. Flickr: Metadata is fun
  53. 54. Trend #4 <ul><li>Pagelessness </li></ul>
  54. 55. The page
  55. 56. RIA
  56. 57. Where is your data going?
  57. 58. How can people find…anything? On a stove!
  58. 59. Trend #5 <ul><li>Visualization </li></ul>
  59. 60. When was it above 20ºC during this month? Source: Karl Fast www.livingskies.com 15 17 19 15 22 10 15 15 10 11 15 20 12 18 14 23 12 15 18 12 17 13 11 21 10 29 12 17 29 12 Mon Sun
  60. 61. Now when was it above 20? 15 17 19 15 22 10 15 15 10 11 15 20 12 18 14 23 12 15 18 12 17 13 11 21 10 29 12 17 22 12 Mon Sun Source: Karl Fast www.livingskies.com
  61. 62. Now add some interaction controls 15 17 19 15 22 10 15 15 10 11 15 20 12 18 14 23 12 15 18 12 17 13 11 21 10 29 12 30 22 12 20 29 0 35 Mon Sun Source: Karl Fast www.livingskies.com
  62. 63. Newsmap: Understanding
  63. 64. Kartoo: no dang sense
  64. 65. Grokker: interact and understand
  65. 66. Trend #6 <ul><li>Person-based Organization </li></ul>
  66. 67. A9 is chasing
  67. 68. Yahoo is chasing
  68. 69. Social Networking- with a purpose
  69. 70. Trend #7 <ul><li>IA as Bossman </li></ul>
  70. 71. “ We will never make progress as long we are resources and not leaders. Resources don't discuss the business plan, the marketing strategy. Resources don't help decide what the product or service will be in the first place. Resources are called in when the leaders think they are needed. They do their job and then get out of the way. ” - Don Norman A quote
  71. 72. Moving Up in Influence Manager New Employee Employee Director & Up Needs Help for everything Self-Sufficient, Contributes Individually Contributes via others Contributes via influencing organizations From “Novations” by Gene W. Dalton
  72. 73. Director of Design Vice-president of Web Services Director of Product Vice-president of Design Management Consultant CEO Who are you next?
  73. 74. The Next IA <ul><li>Will be invisible, like search </li></ul><ul><li>Or visible, like Newsmap </li></ul><ul><li>And it will be human- for, by and with humans. </li></ul><ul><li>It will help business. </li></ul><ul><li>And you will make it happen. </li></ul>
  74. 75. Books and Things Information Architecture: Blueprints for the web What the CEO wants you to know Information Architecture for the World Wide Web Boxes and Arrows Aifia.org Eleganthack.com IAslash.org IAwiki.net

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