Utilization of Lakadbulan into Juice added with Different Flavors
1. Polytechnic University of the Philippines
College of Science
Department of Food Technology
Fundamentals of Research
“Utilization of Lakadbulan into Juice Added with Different Flavors”
Carpizo, Ronalyn B.
Cruz, Marie Claudine M.
Fajardo, Innah Grace L.
Gotanco, Gillian Meredith C.
Prof. Susan P. Arevalo
December 8, 2014
2. CHAPTER I
Lakadbulan (Blumera balsamifera) which literally means lakad-buwan or moonwalk is a
plant that is widely known in the country for its wide variation of health benefits. Lakadbulan or
commonly known in tagalog as Sambong, grows abundantly in tropical countries like the
Philippines, India, Africa and also in the eastern Himalayas. Almost all of the parts of this plant
are used for medicinal purposes. Its leaves and roots are effective for kidney stones, in cleaning
and disinfecting wounds, fever, and rheumatism. Lakadbulan is also made into tea and juices that
can soothe dysmenorrhea, tummy aches, and diarrhea.
Lakadbulan leaves and roots are often made into teas and juices by pounding then
extraction or boiling to get its juice then drank directly. In wounds, leaves are pounded then
placed in the wound so that the leaf would suck in the bacteria that are in the wound.
Today, many women suffer irregularities in their menstruation giving them
inconvenience and in the future might cause bigger problems like myoma and for people who
suffer in other diseases. Lakadbulan can help solve these arising problems but it is also time
consuming in harvesting the herb and processing them and it also tastes bitter like that of the
oregano so people are discouraged to take them even with its health benefits, so this research
aims to develop a new kind of product that can help people especially women with menstrual
problems to avail easily a ready-to-drink lakadbulan juice with different varieties of flavors but
still have the medicinal properties of lakadbulan.
Utilizing lakadbulad into juice with different flavors (apple, calamansi, chocolate, and
melon) will be acceptable to the consumers in the market.
To utilize Lakadbulan into juice and include variety of flavors.
To regulate the formulation for Lakadbulan juice.
To innovate a delectable juice with variety of flavors.
To develop a beverage that provides health benefits.
To conduct flavor acceptability test.
To conduct statistical analysis.
Utilizing lakadbulad into juice with different flavors (apple, calamansi, chocolate, and
melon) will be acceptable to the consumers in the market.
Significance of the Study
Aside from water, consumers are fond of drinking juice. But the juice they drink usually
contains unhealthy chemicals that can cause diseases like Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) and
kidney stones. This reason gave way to food industries to utilize herbal plants into healthy
In relevance to this, this study tends to make a kind of juice made from lakadbulan added
with different healthy and natural flavors that consumers will like, since lakadbulan has
unpleasant taste and odor. Giving pleasant flavor to lakadbulan juice will make not only adults
but also children to consume it. Apart from having a delicious refreshing drink, people will also
have a healthy and natural beverage.
4. Scope and Limitation
This study will look at the utilization of lakadbulan into juice added with different
flavors. The main ingredients that will be used for the juice is the lakad bulan. The flavors
chosen to be added are mainly apple, calamansi, chocolate, and melon. It will involve all the
consumers that will be testing the product during its sensory evaluation. This study is estimated
to be conducted on April 2015.
Due to limitations, no attempt will be made to cover the development of the packaging
materials to be used in this product.
Fig.1 Conceptual framework for utilizing lakadbulan into juice added with different flavors.
5. CHAPTER II
Review of Related Literature
Lakadbulan (Blumea balsamifera) is a plant wild in tropical countries like the
Philippines, India, Africa and the eastern Himalayas. It is called in many names here in the
Philippines and around the world: Alibum, Alimon, Lalakdan, Sambong, Dalapot, Sob-sob,
Gabuen, Blumea camphor, and Ngai camphor. According from the StuartXchange website, a
lakadbulan plant is softly hairy, half woody, strongly aromatic shrub, 1-4 meters (m) high. It has
simple, alternate, broadly elongated leaves, 7-20 cm long, with toothed margin and appendage or
divided base. Loose yellow flower head scattered along much-branched leafy panicles. Two
types of discoid flowers: peripheral ones tiny, more numerous, with tubular corolla; central
flowers few, large with campanulate corolla. Anther cells tailed at the base. Fruit (achene) dry, 1-
seeded, 10-ribbed, and hairy at the top.
Lakadbulan plant is famous for its health benefits. Lakadbulan is considered
anthelmintic, antidiarrheal, antigastralgic, antispasmodic, astringent, carminative, emmenagogue,
expectorant, stomachic, and vulnerary. Its leaves and roots are used to cure wounds and cuts. It is
also effective for kidney stones, rheumatism, diarrhea, tummy aches, colds, and hypertension. It
is also effective for lowering fever. It is also effective for dysmenorrhoea; lakadbulan melts the
large clump of blood in the womb so it can be released easily. Lakadbulan leaves are sometimes
pounded or boiled to get the extract then drank directly some people make them into teas and
juices to make it more convenient for them to drink.
According to Boyer, J. and Liu, H.L. (2004), apples were one of one of the individual
fruits associated with a decreased risk in lung cancer. In a case control study in Hawaii, it was
found that apple and onion intake was associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer in both
6. males and females. Both onions and apples are high in flavonoids, especially quercetin and
quercetin conjugates. Le Marchand et. Al. found an inverse association between lung cancer and
quercetin intake although the trend was not statistically significant. Interestingly, the inverse
association seen between apple and onion intake and lung cancer were stronger for squamous
cell carcinomas than for adenocarcinomas. In a Finnish study, a strong inverse association was
seen between flavonoid intake and lung cancer development. The reduced risk of lung cancer
associated with increased flavonoid consumption was especially strong in younger people and in
nonsmokers. Apples were the only specific foods that were inversely related to lung cancer risk.
Since apples were the main source of flavonoids in the Finnish population, it was concluded that
the flavonoids from apples were most likely responsible for the decreased risk in lung cancer.
Their journal also indicated that a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease has been
associated with apple consumption. The Women's Health Study surveyed nearly 40,000 women
with a 6.9-year follow-up, and examined the association between flavonoids and cardiovascular
disease. Women ingesting the highest amounts of flavonoids had a 35% reduction in risk of
cardiovascular events. Flavonoid intake was not associated with risk of stroke, myocardial
infarction, or cardiovascular disease death. Quercetin did not have any association with
cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction or stroke. Women ingesting
apples had a 13–22% decrease in cardiovascular disease risk.
Not only cancer and cardiovascular problems were reduced but also apple consumption
has been inversely linked with asthma and has also been positively associated with general
pulmonary health. In a recent study involving 1600 adults in Australia, apple and pear intake was
associated with a decreased risk of asthma and a decrease in bronchial hypersensitivity.
Previously it had been found that apple intake, as well as selenium intake, was associated with
less asthma in adults in the United Kingdom. This study surveyed nearly 600 individuals with
asthma and 900 individuals without asthma about their diet and lifestyle. Total fruit and
vegetable intake was weakly associated with asthma, and apple intake showed a stronger inverse
relationship with asthma. This latter effect was most clear in subjects who consumed at least two
apples per week. In a study of over 13,000 adults in the Netherlands, it was found that apples
might beneficially affect lung function. Apple and pear intake was positively associated with
pulmonary function and negatively associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
7. Catechin intake was also associated with pulmonary function and negatively associated with
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but there was no association between tea, the main
source of catechins, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Apple consumption remained
positively correlated with lung function after taking into account possible confounders such as
smoking, body mass index, social class, and exercise.
Furthermore in the study of Boyer, J. and Liu, H.L. (2004), not only may apples help
decrease the risk of heart disease, cancer, and asthma, but apple consumption may also be
associated with a lower risk for diabetes. In the previously discussed Finnish study of 10,000
people, a reduced risk of Type II diabetes was associated with apple consumption. Higher
quercetin intake, a major component of apple peels, was also associated with a decreased risk in
type II diabetes. Myrectin and berry intake were also associated with a decreased risk in type II
diabetes, but onion, orange, grapefruit and white cabbage intake were not associated with a
lowered risk. Apple and pear intake has also been associated with weight loss in middle aged
overweight women in Brazil. Approximately 400 hypercholestemic, but nonsmoking, women
were randomized to one of three supplement groups: oat cookies, apples or pears, and each
subject consumed one of each supplement three times per day for twelve weeks. The participants
who consumed either of the fruits had a significant weight loss after 12 weeks of 1.21 kg,
whereas those consuming the oat cookies did not have a significant weight loss. Those
consuming fruit also had a significantly lower blood glucose level when compared to those
consuming the oat cookies.
Calamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa) is a shrub or small tree growing to 3–6
metres (9.8–20 ft). The fruit of the calamondin resembles a small, round lime, usually 25- 35mm
in diameter, but sometimes up to 45mm. The centre pulp and juice is the orange colour of a
tangerine with a very thin orange peel when ripe Citrofortunella microcarpa, the calamondin or
calamansi, is a fruit tree in the family Rutaceae native Asia. Other English language common
names include calamonding, calamandarin, golden lime, Panama orange, Chinese orange, acid
orange. Its cultivation has spread throughout Southeast Asia, India, Hawaii, the West Indies, and
Central and North America. The plant is characterized by wing-like appendages on the leaf stalks
8. and white or purplish flowers. Its fruit has either a spongy or leathery rind with a juicy pulp that
is divided into sections. The fruit is indigenous and widely cultivated in the Philippines,
Malaysia and neighbouring northern parts of Indonesia. It is available year-round in the
Philippines and is usually seen in its unripened green state (Potonia).
Calamansi is said to be a good source of vitamin C and has been processed into syrups, juices,
concentrates, and purees. Its juice is used as flavoring or as an additive in various food
preparations to enhance iron absorption. It can also be a
preserve ingredient for sweet pickles or marmalade. Its trees have an average life span of five
years. Peak season of calamansi is during the months of June to October and lean months from
November to May (balinkbayan.gov.net).
Dark chocolate contains no milk (or significantly less milk) than other forms of chocolate
such as white chocolate of milk chocolate (fitday.com). In general, the darker the chocolate, the
more cocoa it contains and the healthier it is. Dark chocolate should contain more than 60
percent cocoa, according to University of Michigan Integrative Medicine; the higher the
percentage, the better (Robin).
Cocoa's Beneficial Ingredients
Cocoa contains antioxidants; substances that help prevent cellular damage that can lead to
chronic disease. The particular antioxidants in cocoa include flavonoids such as procyanidins and
epicatechins. Flavonoids can reduce the risk of heart disease by increasing vascular tone and
improving arterial blood flow, and by acting as anticoagulants, which prevent blood clot
formation. Milk chocolate contains more fat and sugar and less cocoa, which reduces its health
benefits. Dark chocolate containing 70 percent cocoa or higher has the most benefits, Clemson
Cooperative Extension reports. In milk chocolate, the milk binds to antioxidants and reduces
their availability, the University of Michigan explains (Robin).
9. Insulin Sensitivity
Cells need insulin to help them remove glucose from the bloodstream to use for energy.
When cells lose their sensitivity to insulin, the pancreas releases larger amounts of insulin in an
effort to get cells to respond. Eventually, the pancreas stops producing insulin as the beta cells
that produce it burn out from overuse. At this point, your blood sugar rises and you develop
diabetes. Dark chocolate can improve insulin sensitivity and decrease the risk of impaired
glucose tolerance and diabetes, according to an Italian study published in the September 2008
issue of "The Journal of Nutrition." These effects occur because flavanols in dark chocolate
increase the bioavailability of nitric oxide in cells that line blood vessels. Nitric oxide facilitates
blood flow to tissues that respond to insulin and remove glucose from the bloodstream (Robin).
The main fats in cocoa are oleic acid, a monounsaturated fat that can help reduce
cholesterol levels, according to the University of Michigan Integrative Medicine. The other fat,
stearic acid, is a saturated fat. But stearic acid doesn't raise cholesterol levels the way most
saturated fats can. A University of Nebraska study published in the May 2000 issue of "The
Journal of Nutrition" found that stearic acid reduced cholesterol absorption and increased
excretion of cholesterol in the stool in hamsters. Absorption rate for those fed stearic acid
dropped to 21 percent, compared to an absorption rate of 50 to 55 percent for those fed other fats
Blood Pressure Benefits
Components in dark chocolate can help relax blood vessels, which can lower elevated
blood pressure. An Australian review of 15 studies published in the June 2010 issue of "BMC
Medicine" found that the flavanols in dark chocolate reduced blood pressure more effectively
than a placebo. The results were modest but still significant, since lowering systolic blood
pressure by as little as 5 mmHg can reduce your risk of developing heart disease by 20 percent
over five years, researchers reported (Robin).
Dark chocolate does have a dark side; it's high in calories, which can lead to weight gain.
Being overweight or obese carries the same risks that dark chocolate can reduce -- high blood
pressure and cholesterol levels, increased blood glucose levels and a higher risk of heart disease.
When you add the calories in dark chocolate to your diet, you must take something else out --
preferably another type of candy or dessert -- to compensate for the increased calorie intake
According to Thompson, C. from her magazine article reviewed by Kathleen Zelman
entitled “Honeydew: 7 Fun Facts”, indicates that honeydew is the American name for the white
Antibes, a variety of melon that was cultivated in southern France and Algeria centuries ago.
Honeydew and other melons are part of the cucurbitaceae (gourd) family, which is divided into
fruits (melons) and vegetables (squashes, pumpkins, and cucumbers). A wedge of honeydew
provides more than half the recommended daily allowance for vitamin C and has about 64
calories and 14 grams of natural fruit sugar. A similar serving of cantaloupe has about the same
number of calories and grams of sugar, plus 120% of the RDA for vitamin A and 108% of the
RDA for vitamin C. When selecting honeydew, look for one with a waxy, not fuzzy, rind. The
melon should feel heavy for its size, and the surface should bounce back when pressed. Melons
are typically used raw, usually diced up in salads or cut in wedges. They are also popular
ingredients for chilled soups. Though typically the flesh of a honeydew melon is green, it can
sometimes be orange. This specific type of honeydew is often referred to as the “temptation
Citric acid is a weak acid that has a chemical formula of C6H8O7. It is a crystalline white
powder that is soluble in water that has a combination of sour and bitter taste. Citric acid can be
found or naturally occurring in citrus fruits like orange, lemons, etc. Citric acid has a molar mass
11. of 192.12 g/mol, melting point of 153 ̊C, and boiling point of 175 ̊C. Citric acid is mostly used as
food preservative, acidity regulator, Food additives, emulsifier and stabilizers in beverages.
Advantages of Drinking Juice
According to Health Drink Benefits (n.d), Lakadbulan or commonly known as Sambong
is one of the most common used herbal drink in the Philippines. Most cases of kidney stones are
being aided by this herbal plant. Lakadbulan can cure some ailments like stomach pain,
hypertension and rheumatism, fever, cough, and cold.
Juices have many benefits. According to mercola.com (2011), a site about the benefits
that people might get in drinking juice, one of the benefits is that juice can help us absorb the
nutrients from the vegetables. Most people have impaired digestion because of unhealthy
lifestyle. Juicing will help to "pre-digest" them for you, so you will receive most of the nutrition,
rather than having it go down the toilet
benefit according to Dabur, juices especially those made from fruits and vegetables are fat free
which can be consumed by people who are conscious about their body. Juices from fruits and
vegetables also provide more energy for the body compared to other drinks with artificial
flavors. It is rich in potassium and low in sodium which makes it good for the heart. Nicklas et
al (2008) investigated the effect of unsweetened fruit juice consumption (up to 12 ounces daily)
by children aged 2 to 11 years. Results showed significantly higher intakes of nutrients including
vitamin C, folate, potassium, magnesium with lower intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids and
added sugar, in the group consuming fruit juice.
12. CHAPTER III
3.1. Raw Materials
The raw materials that will be used in this experiment which includes lakadbulan leaves,
cocoa powder, apple, calamansi, melon, and sugar will be purchased in public markets or grocery
Item Specification Sources (will be bought at:)
Lakadbulan leaves Fresh Pasig Public Market
Cocoa Powder Powder Pasig Public Market
Apple Fresh Caloocan Public Market
Kalamansi Fresh Talipapa n Sta. Mesa
Melon Fresh Pasig Public Market
Sugar Powder Supermarket
Citric Acid Powder Happy House Food Corp.
Table 1: List of raw materials used
3.2. Utensils and Equipment
All equipment and utensils will be thoroughly cleaned sterilized to avoid/minimize cross
contamination at these non-food contact surfaces to the food samples under study.
Analytical Balance 1 unit
Dietetic scale 1 unit
Refractometer 1 unit
Thermometer 1 pc.
Table 2: Equipment used
13. Item Quantity
Stock Pot 1 pc
Wooden spoon 3 pcs
Knife 2 pcs
Chopping Board 2 pcs
Strainer 1 pc
Mixing Bowl 1 set
Table 3: Utensils used
3.3. Process Flow
Preparation of Raw Materials
Lakadbulan Calamansi Apple Dark Chocolate
Washing Washing Washing
Boiling Extracting Removal of
Mixing of other ingredients
Figure 1: Process flow for Lakadbulan Juice
14. 3.4. Process Explanation
Washing of the leaves and other ingredients (apple, melon, and calamansi) in running
water is important to remove the dirt and other foreign materials present on the leaves. It is
important because leaves are imperious to insects.
Lakadbulan leaves will be boiled 90 degrees Celcius for 5 minutes to extract enough
components of the leaves.
Weighing or measuring the ingredients to proper amount to ensure that the formulation is
Extracting or Blending
The apple will be extracted using a blender. Melon can also be extracted using the same
equipment, but if blender is not available, squeezer can be used. Calamansi will be extracted by
using squeezing by hands.
Apple and melon will be sliced into small pieces by using a clean knife.
The extract from the different ingredients will be strained using a clean strainer to ensure
that the extract will be free from solid materials coming from the fruits.
After the other processes, sugar and stabilizer (citric acid) will be added to the juice.
Citric acid will help the ingredients to bind and to become homogenous.
The juice will be poured inside the hot bottles to avoid any possible contamination and
The bottled product will be stored at proper temperature. Cold or refrigerated temperature
will be ideal for the Lakadbulan juice.
Alba, Jerlyn et. al. “Development and Utilization of Neem Extract in Combination with
Calamansi Juice.” Diss. Polytechnic University of the Philippines.2009.
Boyer, J., and Liu, H.L. “Health Benefits of Apples: Epidemiological Evidence” Nutr J. 2004; 3:
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“Benefits of Fruit and Vegetable Juices.” Dubur.com. n.d. Web. 7 December
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December 2014. <http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2011/11/13/benefits-of-
Cabudsan, Meria Jnana O. et. al. “Development of Kasubha-Ginger Tea with Added Variety of
Flavors.” Diss. Polytechnic University of the Philippines. 2008.
Calamansi. Retrieved from http://balinkbayan.gov.ph/products/135-calamansi.html.
Eitel, Joseph. “Use of Citric Acid.” Livestrong.com. 2013. Web. 7 December 2014.
“Health Benefits of Sambong – An Alternative Remedy.” Drink Benefits. n.d. W eb. 7
December 2014. <http://www.drinkbenefits.com/health-benefits-of-sambong-an-
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Juice Consumption and Weight in Children and Adolescents. Journal of Lifestyle Medicine.
May/June 2008. Web. 7 December 7, 2014. <http://ajl.sagepub.com/content/2/4/315>.
Potonia, Julienne Mae. Calamansi (Citrofortunella Microcarpa) Fruit Extract as Perfume.
Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/Prettyen/research-paper-calamansi-
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Thompson, C. “Honeydew: 7 Fun Facts.” WebMD. [Online] Available at:
http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/features/honeydew-7-healthy-facts. Web. 7 Dec.