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Ancient Egypt Civilization

Ancient Egypt Civilization; pharaohs, mummies, the Nile, etc.

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Ancient Egypt Civilization

  1. 1. Egypt World History Chapter 4 3100 B.C. – 671 B.C.
  2. 2. The Dating Game <ul><li>What does B.C. mean? </li></ul><ul><li>It stands for Before Christ, and it means the number of years before the birth of Jesus Christ . That was 2000 years ago, so the date 552 B.C. means 2552 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people use B.C.E. instead. That stands for Before the Common Era, and is used in order to avoid Christian references. History for Kids feels that since this is a Christian dating system, it's a little silly to try to hide that. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>What does A.D. mean? </li></ul><ul><li>A.D. stands for Anno Domini, which is Latin for &quot;year of our Lord,&quot; and it means the number of years since the birth of Jesus Christ . That was 2000 years ago, so the date 500 A.D. means 1500 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people use C.E. instead. That stands for Common Era, and is used in order to avoid Christian references. History for Kids feels that since this is a Christian dating system, it's a little silly to try to hide that. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Where is Egypt? </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>What do you know about ancient Egyptian people? </li></ul>
  6. 8. What can we infer about ancient Egyptians from these pictures?
  7. 9. Section 1 The Nile <ul><li>Area where Egyptians settled </li></ul><ul><li>Civilization lasted about 2000 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lasting impression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flows north 4,145 miles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>central Africa to Mediterranean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>last 600 miles in Egypt </li></ul></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Advantages of the Nile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flooded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how is this an advantage? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>leftovers make good soil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What did the people do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>flax, wheat, barley, grapes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inventive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>shadoof </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 12. Section 2 The Old Kingdom <ul><li>The Beginning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper Egypt-Led by King Narmer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Egypt- invaded by King Narmer (3100 bc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>King married lower Egyptian princess </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>two kingdoms unite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>called “wearer of both crowns” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lasted about 500 years </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. How They Lived <ul><li>The City </li></ul><ul><ul><li>center of religion and government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kings, government officials, Priests, Artisans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Estates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich Egyptians lived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>commoners lived in villages on estates </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. The People <ul><li>Rich Egyptian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>homes made of wood/brick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>along the Nile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>servants, artisans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Average Egyptian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>villages on estates of rich </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>homes made of reeds or sunbaked mud. (built high to avoid the yearly flood) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also built monuments, roads etc. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 15. The Pharaoh <ul><li>Strong ruler = strength and unity of country </li></ul><ul><li>King ---- Pharaoh (great house) </li></ul><ul><li>Believed to be </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ruler </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>priest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>god </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ruled on earth (not heaven) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. What came with being a Pharaoh! <ul><li>owned all the land Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>gave gifts of land to the rich </li></ul><ul><li>built dams and irrigation canals for crop production </li></ul><ul><li>storage granaries for food preservation </li></ul><ul><li>chose all government officials </li></ul><ul><li>word of Pharaoh was law </li></ul><ul><li>traded with other countries </li></ul>
  14. 17. Rituals of Pharaoh <ul><li>people relied completely on Pharaoh </li></ul><ul><li>started the planting season by opening the water dikes </li></ul><ul><li>driving of the sacred bull </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rich soil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>first to cut the grain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rich harvest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Egyptians bowed before him, smelling earth </li></ul>
  15. 18. Pyramids <ul><li>way of showing respect to the Pharaoh </li></ul><ul><li>called houses of eternity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tombs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>west bank of Nile because sun went down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>buried with their personal belongings for happiness </li></ul></ul>
  16. 20. Religious Beliefs <ul><li>Believed in many gods </li></ul><ul><li>Hapi – river god </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water and good soil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Re - sun god </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crops to grow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osiris – harvest & eternal life </li></ul><ul><li>Isis – Wife of Osiris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they ruled the underworld </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. Way down yonder … <ul><li>souls went to the underworld </li></ul><ul><li>weighed on a scale </li></ul><ul><li>spells, good life, scales balanced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>granted life after death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Book of the Dead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spell book </li></ul></ul>
  18. 22. The Mummy…Whaaaaaa <ul><li>NO STINKY PHAROAHS ALLOWED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>embalming to preserve the bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>believed the soul could not live without the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>covered body with a chemical called natron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dried up all the bodies water causing it to shrink </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wrapped in linen after dried up </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to Make A Mummy! </li></ul></ul>
  19. 23. The Middle Kingdom <ul><li>2300 B.C. Jealousy strikes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government wants to run the show </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200 years of confusion for Egyptians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharaohs regain control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not as powerful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no longer buried in pyramids/cliffs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Egyptians began to look beyond their borders for trade </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 24. End of the Middle Kingdom <ul><li>Invaded by Hyksos in 1786 B.C. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>horse drawn chariots </li></ul><ul><li>weapons of bronze & iron </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians fought on foot </li></ul><ul><li>weapons of copper and stone </li></ul><ul><li>they lost </li></ul>
  21. 25. Fall of the Hyksos <ul><li>rules for about 150 years </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians hated them </li></ul><ul><li>Prince Ahmose (Ah moo sa) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>led uprising using their weapons </li></ul></ul>
  22. 26. The New Kingdom <ul><li>Prince Ahmose started pharaoh line again </li></ul><ul><li>Egypt prospered </li></ul><ul><li>Began taking their armies outside boundaries of the Nile </li></ul><ul><li>Conquering neighboring lands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egyptian Empire </li></ul></ul>
  23. 27. Religion of the New Kingdom <ul><li>New kingdom, new god </li></ul><ul><li>Amon, god of Thebes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thebes becomes new capitol of Egypt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine Amon with Re to make Amon-Re </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>most powerful god of all </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 28. Pharaohs of the New Kingdom <ul><li>Hatshepsut </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Woman pharaoh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not interested in war and expanding into other countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trade and building of new temples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ivory, ebony, monkeys, dogs, leopard skin, incense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Pharaoh Queen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Thutmose III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stepson of Hatshepsut </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>invaded Syria, Palestine </li></ul></ul>
  25. 29. Temples of Amon-Re <ul><li>built by enslaved people </li></ul><ul><li>also industrial centers </li></ul><ul><li>artisans worked there </li></ul><ul><li>boys trained to be scribes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>religious works,spells,charms,prayers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>record keepers </li></ul></ul>
  26. 30. Egyptian Writing Hieroglyphics <ul><li>pictures stand for words or sounds </li></ul><ul><li>painted or carved them on their monuments </li></ul><ul><li>The Translator </li></ul>
  27. 31. Decline of Egypt <ul><li>priests began to take control away from pharaoh </li></ul><ul><li>1370 B.C. Amenhotep IV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tried to regain full control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>closed all Amon-Re temples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>created a new religion and god- Aton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changed his name to Akhenaton (spirit of Aton) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not many followed </li></ul></ul>
  28. 32. Tutankhamen aka “King Tut” <ul><li>took over after the death of his father-in-law Amenhotep died. </li></ul><ul><li>He was nine years old; and married! </li></ul><ul><li>Reverted back to Amon-Re </li></ul><ul><li>Died at 18 </li></ul>
  29. 33. Factors that brought an end to Egypt <ul><li>constant struggle for power between the priests and pharaohs </li></ul><ul><li>pharaohs desire to conquer neighboring countries </li></ul><ul><li>using money to import iron for weapons that other countries already had </li></ul><ul><li>671 B.C. Assyrians take them over </li></ul>
  30. 34. Egyptian Contributions <ul><li>Papyrus paper – made from flattened reeds </li></ul><ul><li>ink – to write on the papyrus </li></ul><ul><li>mathematical system based on 10 (metric) </li></ul><ul><li>survey methods </li></ul><ul><li>made a calendar based on the flooding of the Nile </li></ul><ul><li>specialists in medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>splints, bandages, stitches, setting bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stomach ache-castor oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hair loss- dog toes, dates and donkey hoof </li></ul></ul>
  31. 37. <ul><li>http://www.goegypt.org/images/program_pics/giza_sphinx.jpg </li></ul>