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ESSAY CULTURE & HISTORY II

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ESSAY CULTURE & HISTORY II

  1. 1. 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Le Corbusier Le Corbusier, also known as Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture. Le Corb’ basically design his building based on his 5 points of architecture, which is piloti, a free facade, an open floor plan, ribbon windows, roof garden. Le Corbusier built 75 edifices in 12 countries and took on 42 major city-planning projects. He left behind 8000 drawings, more than 400 paintings and pictures, 44 sculptures and 27 tapestry cartoons. He also wrote 34 books, totalling some 7000 pages and hundreds of articles. He gave lectures and has left behind some 6500 private letters, in addition to his voluminous business correspondence. Curutchet House, 1949-1953, Maison Jaoul, 1951, Villa Savoye, 1928, Villa Stein de Monzie, 1926-1928 are some of his works which with Villa Savoye showing the most of his five points of architecture. Le Corbusier once said “Architecture is the masterly, correct and magnificent play of volumes brought together in light”. 1.2 Villa Stein de Monzie Villa Stein de Monzie was built between 1927 – 1928 at Garches, France. This villa consists of four floors. With 1150m2 in area and 4230 m3 in volume. This luxurious space was designed for Michael Stein, his wife, Sarah and Gabrielle de Monzie. It is the first full exemplification of Le Corbusier’s 5 principles which he had introduced. This villa is surrounded by gardens. (Le Corbusier, by Jean-Louis Cohen, publisher: Taschen)
  2. 2. 1.3 Tadao Ando Tadao Ando is an architect which learns and shaped the form of his building by learning from others by himself. He had various careers, including professional boxer, before he became a self- taught architect and opened his own practice in Osaka in 1969. In the 1970s and ’80s, he executed a series of mostly small- scale, often residential buildings in Japan such as the Azuma House in Osaka and the Koshino House in Ashiya. Tadao Ando first became interested in architecture when he had accidentally read and got inspired by Le Corbusier’s book. 1.4 Koshino House The building is build between the year 1980-1984 laying in Ashiya, Kobe, Japan. It is built in a residential area, suburban, in the hills of the city. It has an area 242 m2. The house is organized into two parallel bodies, joined by an underground passage. "The house, by Tadao Ando for the designer Koshin, is a veritable maze of lights and shadows. Like Barragan, the architect seeks to reconcile the tenets of international modernism with tradition and landscape, in this case, Japanese. So , The House Koshin is an example of contemporary architecture built in two parallel wings that barely interrupt the landscape. " .
  3. 3. 2.0 MASSING AND FORM Loh Khai Jhung 0318908
  4. 4. 2.0 Massing and Form 2.1 Introduction Villa Stein was one of Le Corbusier earlier works. Le Corbusier used piloti which is one of his 5 points of architecture into this building to allow the free façade to be possible. As for design concept, he started off with an ordinary shape, a cube, and then slowly transforms the solid feeling of the cube into a more pleasant and more persuasive form. Holding strongly to his concept, order, he uses an ordinary form for the architecture. By adding in order- representing elements like proportions, repetition and rhythm, it created a disciplined feeling on the façade of this building. The form of one building can be divided into many categories such as shape, size, colour, texture, position, orientation and visual inertia. (Ching, F., 1979) For shapes, this villa consists mainly of square and rectangle. The usage of these shape instil a turgid and strong feeling to the viewers from the exterior. (Ching, F., 1979) For sizes, this villa consists of 4 floors with each functional space with the similar function have similar volume of space. (Ching, F., 1979) For colours, Le Corbusier uses only white on the exterior walls with black metal bars. This is to suppress the over usage of colours which will steal the identity of the strong villa. (Ching, F., 1979) For texture, Le Corbusier introduced white plaster on the exterior to show the unity of the façade as to signify purity, innocence and light. (Ching, F., 1979) For position, this villa is located between faunas and above a green empty grass land. It’s not only fulfil the clients’ request to be more intimidate with the environment but also created a strong and turgid structure in the middle of mother nature which blended completely well with the surrounding yet bring a strong aesthetic feeling to the viewers. (Ching, F., 1979) For orientation, The 2 corner of the villa is facing directly to the East and West. Combining with the shapes and from of the structure, it provided maximum natural lighting from the sun. (Ching, F., 1979) For visual inertia, this villa’s fixed and ordinary form created a strong and stubborn characteristic which it holds hits ground strongly on that specific location. (Ching, F., 1979)
  5. 5. Figure 2.1 Villa Stein de Monzie Shapes and forms like circle, oval, cubical were inserted into this villa which can be seen from plans and elevations. From front elevation, an ordinary rectangle is obtained along with the repetition of the windows, the symmetry view and the a: b: a: b: a proportions of the placement those utilities From back elevation, the shape of the building is the same with the front but there is an extended staircase from the 1st floor into the garden on the ground floor breaking the symmetry and covering up the proportions of the villa. From ground floor plan, a piano-like shape was found being the surface of the walls, there’s also a spiral staircase which breaks the turgidity feeling of the rectangle shape of the plans. From 1st floor plan, a piano-like shape void is introduced to connect the space between 1st and the ground floor. A bow-shape wall was also used to separate the dining and the living area. From 2nd floor plan, a narrow corridor with both sides of the walls bended slightly outward the corridor to expand the feeling that the narrow pathway produce, balancing the odds. From 3rd floor plan, a nearly-perfect-oval was used as the solarium area on the terrace to break the fix from of 90 degrees shapes, providing a more unique characteristic to this villa.
  6. 6. Figure 2.2 Floor plans of Villa Stein In the following analysis, the characteristic of Villa Stein de Monzie is compared with Tadao Ando’s Koshino house. The work established the aesthetic Ando would continue throughout his career as an essentially Modernist, coming out of the tradition of Le Corbusier’s experiments. (Zukowsky, J., 2014) Tadao Ando is an architect which learns and shaped the form of his building by learning from others by himself. He had various careers, including professional boxer, before he became a self-taught architect and opened his own practice in Osaka in 1969. In the 1970s and ’80s, he executed a series of mostly small-scale, often residential buildings in Japan such as the Azuma House in Osaka and the Koshino House in Ashiya. In these early commissions, he used beautifully detailed reinforced concrete walls, a form that gave his buildings a massive, minimalist appearance and simple, contemplative interior spaces. Similar with Le Corbusier’s experiments with concrete, his work is also rooted in the spirituality of Japanese architectural space. Ando’s structures were often in harmony with their natural environments, taking advantage of natural light in a dramatically expressive way. (Zukowsky, J., 2014) Due to the similarities these two master architects hold and the fact that Tadao Ando really learn and extract a lot of ideas from Le Corbusier’s work, it is reasonable why by comparing these two architecture together can further emphasis each of their characteristics and advantages. Before going into the comparison, brief knowledge of Koshino house within the field of massing and form is needed. For shapes, this house consists of 2 rectangles and semi- sphere-like structure. The usage of these shape instil a turgid and strong through the large span on the site. (Ching, F., 1979)
  7. 7. For sizes, this house consists of 3 bodies and has altogether 2 floors. The structure is not large itself but the placement on the site used quite a large area. (Ching, F., 1979) For colours, the Koshino house was left with the natural colour of the cured concrete. The dullness and plainness of the concrete enhance the aesthetic feeling of the strong characteristic of concrete. (Ching, F., 1979) For texture, the house was left with the natural texture of concrete. This is to maintain the hardness of the concrete in the structure. (Ching, F., 1979) For position, The buildings are always situated in respect with the existing nature and composed around the natural elements in order to disturb the natural elements as little as possible. That’s why the Koshino house was built into the slope. (Ching, F., 1979) For orientation, it is north south orientated. By opening up to the south. The north side is more important than the south side, emphasising the importance of the studio in Koshino house. This is a typical Japanese concept. (Ching, F., 1979) For visual inertia, the house minimal ornamentation and plainness of the exterior created a strong and stubborn characteristic which it holds hits ground strongly on that specific location. The house was built into the slope to further enhance the stubbornness. (Ching, F., 1979)
  8. 8. 2.3 Comparison By comparing the massing and form of this villa with Tadao Ando’s Koshino House which he used some of Le Corbusier concept, we were able to separate this villa with the other building and learn how the mass and form of this villa make it so special. In massing, Tadao Ando used multiple structures in the Koshino House to represent largeness, turgidity and strong by enlarging the surface of the plan, creating a larger span, but on the other hand, Le Corbusier uses a different approach. He used only a single structure but in a solid cubical form with also represent turgidity and strong. For Le Corbusier’s villa, it is a simple form which is located on a plain field which did not blend well with the surrounding but something that pops out from the landscape. But for Tadao Ando’s Koshino House, the form of the structure is similar but the way he put it on the site which blended with the landscape brings a different feelings to the viewers. To sum it up, Le Corbusier’s villa sits on the site, but Tadao Ando’s house sits with the site. Moving into the transformative techniques each of them used. Le Corbusier used a variety of transformation techniques from additive, subtractive to dimensional transformation. Dimensional transformation is to use the plane of the cube as the walls of the villa. This is to maintain the identity of the cube using the plane even though the cube has been subtracted. Subtractive transformation is to cut out some parts of the cube to form a new form. Additive transformation is to add new spades or form into the cube which he added a staircase to connect the surrounding with the villa itself. Whereas Tadao Ando used minimal transformation but replace it with multiple structures which fulfil the uses of space. The transformation technique was also used to create more space in the villa by Le Corbusier but Tadao Ando used multiple structures instead but the way it sits on the slope also create the connection between the house and the surrounding. There were no specific entrance created by Tadao Ando but rather than door, he created large opening using subtractive transformation to showcase the entrance. Le Corbusier used the hanging canopy to emphases the entrance instead. As for the symmetrical element which both Villa Stein de Monzie and Koshino House possess, Le Corbusier balance the structure using proportion while Tadao Ando balance the structure using distribution. From the façade of Villa Stein de Monzie, the used of ribbon windows and the careful placement of the doors, windows, terraces and openings tidy up everything balancing the structure from its elevation view; Tadao Ando balance the structure
  9. 9. by distributing the larger rectangular shape structure to a side and the other smaller structures to the other side, balancing it from the main staircase in the middle of the whole plan. By utilizing the landscape, both Le Corbusier and Tadao Ando were able to emphases their point of view. As people approach the Villa Stein de Monzie, the façade became their first sight of the building; as people approach the Koshino House, the plan became their first sight of the building because they approach from the higher side of the hill. 2.4 Conclusion The order concept was largely used in Roman and Greek architectures as their architectures show the beauty of columns and proportions. To be frank, they invented the art and beauty of order. As the “order” concept can be obtain in most parts (plans, elevations, etc.) of architectures during that time, however in Le Corbusier’s Villa Stein de Monzie, this concept is only obvious in the elevations. He emphasized that this villa is an exercise which the exterior of the villa is secondary to the space and functional elements. A lot of Tadao Ando works have the characteristic similar to Le Corbusier’s because Tadao Ando admired and learn a lot from Le Corbusier. But despite this fact, there were also some characteristic of their works which separated them from each other. Both of them like to use simple forms but in different manners. Both of them did not ornament their façade to keep the initial identity of the form but yet the way they separate the spaces and connect it again with the surrounding is distinct. To sum it up, the form of Le Corbusier’s villa is more to sitting on the site, but Tadao Ando’s house is more to sitting with the site. References: - (Ching, F. (1979). Architecture, form, space & order. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.) - (Zukowsky, J. (2014). Andō Tadao. Encyclopædia Britannic)
  10. 10. 3.0 THE EXTERNAL FAÇADE Goh Yen Nee 0315551
  11. 11. 3.0 The External Facade 3.1 Introduction Source: http://imgbuddy.com/villa-stein-de-monzie.asp The building of Villa Stein De Monzie is located at the suburbs of Paris in France which is surrounded by the forests that have a lot of trees. This building is completely built in the year 1927 which the client is the family Stein that are always lived in the urban area of Paris. They wanted to have a more quiet and relaxing area that are move out from the busy life in urban area when they get older but still could able to get to the centre of Paris for daily goods. Basically, Le Corbusier built and designed this building based on his five points of concept in architecture which are the piloti, free facade, free plan, long horizontal of ribbon window and the roof garden. Source: https://mollyizattarchitecture.wordpress.com/2012/09/30/ad-classics-koshino-house- tadao-ando/ Next, the Koshino House have been selected to be the comparison analysis of building between the Villa Stein De Monzie. The Koshino House is designed by the famous Japanese architect, Tadao Ando and it is located in the Ashiya city that is between Kobe and Osaka. Tadao Ando built the Koshino House which is a holiday home for a fashion designer in the year 1980 with two parallel rectangular blocks at first. Another curved element is added to the building in the year 1983. Tadao Ando was getting interested in architecture when he had accidentally read and inspired by Le Corbusier’s book.
  12. 12. 3.3 Comparison between Two Façade Buildings Symmetry is occurred when the element is equally turned into two sides that same in size and shape after getting cut or fold. The overall of the building seems to be not a symmetrical during the first sight but actually the element of symmetry is placed randomly in different ways and various parts of the building that made the building is arranged accordingly that brings out the concept of proportions. Le Corbusier had used the five points in architecture and the concept of proportions for the building design of Villa Stein which also fulfil the requirements from the client. As you can see from the elevations of Villa Stein below, it accommodates the symmetrical parts in a vertical direction that occurred in every each part of the building. Most of the symmetrical elements can be seen through the front façade of Villa Stein. The long horizontal arrangement of windows are obviously in the symmetrical way which is same with the bottom window and the balcony that give a sense of order to the building. You could also find out the element of symmetry through the parts of surrounding building such as the garage on the left side and the windows on the right side below. Combination of many symmetrical element that are different in shape and size had made a totally one symmetrical façade in overall of the building. The other side of the building exterior also used to be have the elements of symmetry but it is less powerful and strong as the front facade of the building. On the other hand, Koshino House is used to be a symmetrical forms with two different size of rectangular concrete boxes that are arranged in a parallel way during the year 1980, However, it turned into an asymmetry element when there is a second renovation to the building which the circular segment is added into the building and thus becoming the third element of the building after three years later. Asymmetry is defined as the sides of the element are not equally in size and shape when they get cut or fold into half. The picture below shows the composition of several different buildings is connected and linked by the covered corridor that turned out the element of asymmetry based on the overall forms of the building. Front façade of Villa Stein highlights most symmetrical elements. Source: http://www.timmaier.com/files/architectuuranalyse.pdf
  13. 13. Additional of curved element to the building give an asymmetry façade. Source: http://www.smartdad.club/gallery/tadao-ando-koshino-house-plan.html The Stein couple had requested to have more light to the building of Villa Stein as they like to show their artworks that collected by themselves in an open space. Therefore, Le Corbusier had designed a very open and highly transparency building for them. You could directly find out that there is lots of windows in almost all the façade of the Villa Stein and this is not only occurred in this building but mostly of the architecture that is designed by Le Corbusier. This highlight the concepts that he used when design a building which are the light, space and order while this three elements are also included in the Villa Stein building. Through the back façade of the building, it emphasize the highest transparency to the house between the other façade as it contains many long rows of windows which is big in double size compared other windows that are arranged horizontally in the order way. This give a more open character and light to transmit into the house. Based on the five points in architecture, Le Corbusier had used the iron frame with small and long glass elements which represents the concept of ribbon window to give an enclosed character at the ground floor of the front façade building. Comparing with Koshino house, Tadao Ando is more concern on the concept of lighting and shadows that enter to the building with a strong concrete structure. However, the building is different with the Villa Stein that have a very high transparency facade as he designed the wall and ceilings of Koshino House with narrow slits. A limited of light that enters through narrow slits in walls and ceilings creates an emptiness of shadows and beautiful space in the house. Large and enclosed concrete structure with some large windows that facing to the courtyard from the living room creates a feelings of connection with the nature. Even though the strong concrete surface of the building could give an enclosure feelings to people, but Tadao Ando had designed that there will be enough amount of lights and winds passing through the building which reducing the feelings of enclosed that surrounded by the hard and solid wall. Pictures below show the shadows that create by limited of lights passing through from the long narrow slits in the corridor which highlight the concept of lighting to the building. Long and large row of windows at the back façade transmit lots of light.
  14. 14. Source: http://www.timmaier.com/files/architectuuranalyse.pdf Narrow vertical slits that apply at the concrete wall of Koshino House. Source: www.sfu.ca/~ckl27/Portfolio/Design/Slides/KoshinoSlides.pdf koshino house.pdf The main component that used on the both buildings are also different but both form a feeling of harmonious to the building based on the material that used. The key element that used by Le Corbusier in design which create a strong character to the Villa Stein facade is the white plaster. The white plaster is typically well known to be used by the master of modern architecture, Le Corbusier. Therefore mostly all of his designs in architecture are found in using the white plaster as the key material to his buildings. By using the material of white plaster to the main structure of the house, it strongly gives a feeling of one unity and become an only one hard solid element even though there are a lot of various type of elements that used in every each part of the facade. On the other hand, Tadao Ando had used the concrete as the main material to the Koshino house. The concrete walls of Koshino House are constructed as a block-like grid and each of the block is having holes for the passage of light into the building. The using of concrete to the façade produces an illusion of beautiful and smooth textile surface rather than giving the feeling of just a heavy and hard structure.
  15. 15. White plaster is used as the main structure for Villa Stein .Source: http://www.timmaier.com/files/architectuuranalyse.pdf Concrete façade of Koshino House. Source: http://adobeairstream.com/art/fifa-in-montreal-framing-design-in-films-on-art/ Through the analysis that made between this two buildings, both also have some similarities that occurred in the building. Both masters of modern architecture also emphasize the concept of lighting to the buildings but in the different way. Le Corbusier applies a higher transparency with lots of windows to transmit more light into the villa based on the requirement from the client. Tadao Ando had designed a narrow of vertical and horizontal slits to the wall of the Koshino House that brings the amount of light passed through the slits and it produces a beautiful scenery of shadows in the spaces. Besides, both of the architects are also aware on the principle of nature and bring them to be part of the integral into the design of architecture. They have a great respect to the nature and thus their buildings are situated with the existing nature. They also use natural elements to the building so they could protect the nature from getting destroy as little as possible in order. Villa Stein is situated at the suburb area that surrounded with a lot of trees that give a feeling of blending with the nature. Le Corbusier had included one of the five points which is the roof garden into the Villa Stein. He had also brought the nature inside the villa at the first floor terrace. Based on the Japanese traditional architecture, Tadao Ando always design and built his buildings by using natural
  16. 16. materials as the main component to the buildings. Like, Koshino House is built by using concrete which emphasize a natural appearance that remains the original colour and creates a smooth surface. The building is blend with nature as it partially placed into the sloping ground of a national park carefully so that it would not disturb the existing trees on the site. Villa Stein De Monzie is in contact with nature as it placed in the middle of forests with many trees surrounded. Source: http://www.viewpictures.co.uk/Details.aspx?ID=133331&TypeID=1 Picture shows that Koshino House is blend with existing nature Source: http://www.archdaily.com/tag/tadao-ando/
  17. 17. 3.4 Conclusion To overall the analysis on both façade of the buildings, different perceptions have different opinions to the building. Le Corbusier is the master of modern architecture that design the flat façade of the Villa Stein based on the concept of proportion and the five points that made it arranged accordingly and in order. However, Tadao Ando had created a clear and simple appearance with a unity feeling to the Koshino House that focus on the lighting and shadows elements even though it looks more rigid compared to Villa Stein. Not only that, he encourage in using some very basic and massive material that are environmental friendly to the nature like concrete which use mainly for the structure of the Koshino House. References: -http://www.timmaier.com/files/architectuuranalyse.pdf -http://imgbuddy.com/villa-stein-de-monzie.asp -http://www.viewpictures.co.uk/Details.aspx?ID=133331&TypeID=1 -www.sfu.ca/~ckl27/Portfolio/Design/Slides/KoshinoSlides.pdf koshino house.pdf -Tan G-Ming, M. (2010, July 1). Sweetlittlething~. Retrieved June 8, 2015, from http://mariehadalittlelamelamb.blogspot.com/2010/07/perception-in- architecture-analysis-of.html -AD Classics: Koshino House / Tadao Ando. (2012, September 29). Retrieved June 8, 2015, from https://mollyizattarchitecture.wordpress.com/2012/09/30/ad- classics-koshino-house-tadao-ando -Allen, K. (2014, September). Spotlight: Tadao Ando. Retrieved from ArchDaily : http://www.archdaily.com/tag/tadao-ando/ -Ando, T. (2002). The Spirit of Modernism. (R. Ivy, Interviewer) 2015 Dodge Data & Analytics. Retrieved March 23, 2015, from http://architect.architecture.sk/tadao-ando-architect/tadao-ando- architect.php
  18. 18. 4.0 Component and Elements Alexander Chung 1003A78541
  19. 19. 4.0 COMPONENTS AND ELEMENT 4.1 Introduction This essay aims to compare the two building from different architects. The reason of compare the two architects is because Tadao Ando was inspired by Le Corbusier to interpret it in his own fashion. According Villa Stein early proposal, it proposes the main site forces and theme of the emerging design. Le Corbusier was given the opportunity from the client to build a number of modest and not-so-modest houses, putting his design theories into practice. At Garches, he designed the Villa Stein. The primary living floor is at the piano-nobile level, and the floor turns into a rich porch. The regularly spaced structural piers permit freely curving interior partition, while continuous bands of horizontal windows extend across both the north and south facades. The end height are to a great extent clear for him, it was viewed as a model for rather contract rural parts, where the neighboring houses would make gathering dividers. The major building proportions were based on Palladio and determined by the Golden Section, the “regulating traces” being included in the published elevation drawings. Arrangements of the Villa Stein demonstrate the aftereffects of the domino framework in a rural estate. The dividers don't fundamentally adjust to the segment bayous, and the edge divider can be infiltrated anytime. Villa Stein de Monzie by Le Corbusier 1927 Garches/ Vaucresson near Paris France.
  20. 20. The Koshino House is situated in Ashiya city, between Kobe and Osaka, at the foot of the Rokko Mountains. This is second realization of Tadao Ando; it was completed in two phrases (1980- 1981 and 1983-1984). It was originally the house consisted of two parallel rectangular volumes, built in 1980. The volume with the entrance contains a living room, a kitchen and two guestrooms. The other lower volume, slightly lower on the hill contains a series of room, where the last two are Tatami rooms. Three years later, a curved volume component was added at the upper side of the house. It has master bedroom. The three spaces are connected with a corridor that is situated under the ground and not visible from the outside. This house is combination of all fragments of Tadao Ando’s Architectonical vocabulary, mainly the light.
  21. 21. 4.3 Analysis and Comparison In the Villa Stein design process, he formulated his famous “Five Points Toward a New Architecture” that are parts of component in this building; which became a canonical work of modern architecture. They are: 1. The supports, also called as pillotis, are precisely calculated, spaced regularly, and used to elevate the first floor off the damp ground 2. The flat roof or roof garden is used for domestic purposes such as gardening play, and relaxation thereby recovering all the built-upon ground for outdoor activities. 3. The interior walls, independent of the support system, can be arranged in a free plan. 4. The horizontal windows, made possible by the support system, assure even illumination from wall to wall and admit eight times as much light as a vertically placed window of equal area. 5. The facade also independent of the structural support, it can be freely designed using the unobstructed surface of the exterior, which can be left entirely open to face a terrace or glazed extensively for maximum light and ventilation. Initially situated at the edge of a major dry close Etang de Saint-Cucufa, a timberland loaded with trees, and indigenous habitat. Encased by different structures on the other three sides. The house is the first full embodiment of these standards. As requested by point 1, the structure of the Villa Stein contains three solid floor chunks; a framework of sections backings them. The sections structure coves, with 3.50 meters or 11'5" interims in a bearing and rotating interims of 5 and 2.5 meters (8'3" and 16'6") in the other. The supporting structure is therefore separated from every single other part of the building, consequently expanding the configuration alternatives. This arrangement of section upheld structures likewise permit the cellar to be abstained from, or the building is to be raised over the ground as in a large portion of Le Corbusier's ensuing venture later on.
  22. 22. In contrast, Koshino house undergo the design process where the implementation of the project adopted a rather special procedure. For external fragmentation and indoor unit, it emphasize on 3 volumes, 3 heights, and 3 collections. Implanted home non- parallel to the boundaries of the land. The diagonal layout effective in increasing the linear frame, and thus avoids building an additional floor. It manifests itself primarily in the plan by the non alignment three volumes and different vacuum values that separate View of the exterior, mainly the entrance, The Koshino House three blocks appears completely dissociated, independent. The unity of the building, expressed usual facade, is found here in plan and buried. It therefore includes the house as inside. The natural terrain hides the spaces linking these three divisions. Whereas the liaison hidden by the natural terrain areas. For Villa Stein, in light of Le Corbusier point 2, the idea of having the south half if the highest section in the Villa Stein is a rooftop porch ensured at either end by screen dividers. Its most sculptural component is a circular tower, additionally called as solarium, was initially proposed to hide as water tank. It is open by a winding staircase from room; it served as a post or watchtower from which to appreciate the visual nature of Paris out yonder. The top floor is committed in totality to adequate patios. A rectangular window opens toward the front of the house yet more windows spread generally into the greenhouse.
  23. 23. Contrast with Villa stein, Tadao Ando utilized steel rail as a part of such a route as to propose a convention dry greenhouse, generally as the faintly lit hallways inside, evoked the conventional dim insides, topped the level rooftop. License regular light through restricted openings in the roof. Taking after the slanting of the ground, he guides its long more open south veneer. It additionally constrains visual of the field towards the cove: and the house turns its country byways, making between the volumes of shut spaces themselves close, for example, the internal course. In Villa Stein, the steel staircases, together with the railings around the opening over the third floor patio, make a quick relationship with a watercraft deck. It reflects Le Corbusier's 5 focuses propose what has turn into a most noteworthy development of advanced building design, the open arrangement. Unhindered by bearing dividers, the space between the floor and roof pieces allows any course of action of subdividing parts. White mortar is most predominant material utilized on the divider. By utilizing it the house alludes as one solidarity and one strong component. In Koshino house, it is not symmetrical, with the parts not masterminded correspondingly indistinguishable on both sides of the focal pivot. It makes a feeling of balance by the game plan of two arrangements of types of diverse size and shape. The staircase in the center goes about as the line of symmetry and both sides have lopsided parity.
  24. 24. In Villa Stein, most of the partitions for these spaces fill within the orthogonal grid of the columns, which they often incorporate. The curved walls introduced on all floors echo the pure, taut forms in Le Corbusier’s paintings of the period. The orientation of space above mentioned can’t be achieve without the column interval with their emphasis on the central bay suggest a Palladian rhythm. The reappearance of the same 2:1:2:1:2 ratio or A: B: A: B: A on the exterior is somehow of a surprise, since in his last two points Le Corbusier had proclaimed in the independence of the façade, where the structural supports removed to the interior, the design of facades is limited only by the requirements of the rooms. This compact regular framework reduces the energy level and degree of fragmentation of the other scheme and successive design. Both main facades of the Villa Stein are elaborate compositions. They contain the long ribbon windows Le Corbusier had declared to be the most efficient source of daylight for any room. Ribbon windows are running on the outer wall. Long strip windows need an equivalent continuous space. Harmonize the continuum of windows and space. Divided into 2 different zones, contrast with the form of the horizontal continuous windows in both the rear and entrance facade. Arranged symmetries and volumetric emphasizes guide the guest towards the primary passage, which is ensured by gigantic yard. The rotation of straightforward and strong groups gives the façade vertical beat. The veneers are given further request by what Le Corbusier called the directing lines that focus their general association. For instance, the stair leading from the second floor terrace to the garden parallels the imaginary diagonal that intersects the rectangle of the façade; and because the vertical line of the central bay interrupts the stair before it reaches ground level, Le Corbusier in his preliminary drawing provided a grass mound as footing that replaced by conventional landing in the future. The larger area forms a square that, repeated identically on the front, shows a symmetrical arrangement of the hall window and the garage door on either side of the service entrance. White plaster is
  25. 25. most dominant material used on the façade and wall. By using it the house refers as one unity and one solid element. Innovative and complete denial of constructive structure in the image presented by the façade, and the renunciation of constructive order associated with modern. Horizontal strip windows celebrate assertive independent. In Koshino House, the structures are separated in a more private and a more open part. The further you investigate into the building the more security it gives. The division is in connection to the matrix of the development. A passageway that is arranged under the ground and not obvious from the outside unites the three volumes to one another. The hallway flanks a yard and has an atelier that is totally underground. A bend is included the future to counter the rectilinear plan. This crescent shape atelier is adjacent to the living room. It creates a strong contrast to the rigid composition of the two existing bodies; and completes the entire composition. Combine with Vertical slot windows in the flanking concrete walls. Widely used to make large glass windows throughout the house, to permit light and the use of zenithal light in the living room, and offer view to the garden. The exteriors react quietly to changes in light, which indicates dynamic methodology; henceforth it responds contrastingly accordingly with geometry. It underscores profundity and strength of the dividers and communicating light and wind cuts cut off from the outside. Negligible trimming utilizing light and makes concentrate on article. Square like framework, every piece having six-uncovered opening produced using formwork. Brilliant covering makes homogeneous surfaces. The structure is apparent from inside and outside, there is no dubbing. Tadao Ando has preferred to coat
  26. 26. insulation through the roof and the floor under the lower floors. The temperature inside the frame is a minimum comfort. The concrete is as a flat wall holes punctuated by a frame. The concrete slabs module is set to the size of a tatami (0.90X1.80m). The concrete has a significant amount of reinforcement (seismic regulation) and several (indoor lighting) at the end of construction, concrete is sanded and dusted, a water-repellent coating maintenance every 2 years. For constructive system in Koshino House, in the building that contains the bedrooms, the floor tiles are all in the same direction on the walls. Concrete sails ensure the stability of the box; it is braced by a longitudinally bearing wall 20cm thick. In the other building and in the workshop, one notices the presence of rolled beams. This allows the skylights. Thus they support the roof the spin beam located at the entrance of the kitchen door on the upper level floor and allows the opening between living room and kitchen. From the street, the Villa Stein now appears as a cube, because the rest of the façade is hidden behind the gate lodge and trees. This concept is Cubism, to express the contemporary “geometric spirit”. As one approaches the house, the dominant axis appears to shift, its to wards the center, emphasized by the penthouse balcony opening, then toward the main entrance under its canopy. As for the topography, through the years the area surrounding Villa Stein got more crowded with other residential houses and villas. Natural character of the area remained because of the green and trees in the neighborhood area. Koshino House concentrate on the nature is essential piece of Architecture, as it permits an incomplete internment of three volumes to the field. The geology methodology is from above and gives the guest an aggregate perspective of the arrangement of the house. As per the width of the field, whence the shape or bend level, was the answer for stay away from a precarious slant of the plot. Between the structures there are squares that unite the structures with nature. In this squares the nature is dependably a conceptual structure of an immaculate perfect, so the mindfulness turn out to be more concentrated.
  27. 27. 4.4 Conclusion In summarise, the perceptions of different generation have different opinions to the building as Le Corbusier later work has transform into orgnaic architecture. The five points that applied in this building are compliment with the cubism, which complete the component. However, Tadao Ando direct the light in all its projects. In the house Koshino, the light pace and split the space in two sequences. At the first level reigns the light, in the second darkness. This distribution corresponds separation of day / night. Tadao Ando focus not only the form, but he also treat light and shadow as an important role. They determine the appearance that can take the concrete. Four types of openings are remarkable: Serial opening, opening the ground floor bay windows and high opening skylights References: - http://zacharytoddbarr.prosite.com/55393/489747/w-o-r-k/le- corbusier-villa-stein - http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/villa_stein.html - A World History of Architecture By Marian Moffett, Michael W. Fazio, Lawrence Wodehouse - https://books.google.com.my/books?id=IFMohetegAcC&pg=PT51 8&lpg=PT518&dq=villa+stein+le+corbusier+plan&source=bl&ots= adG7gheESc&sig=Q4PMt- AzvfwlyhyCwzs8jhMjDp8&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ukJvVZKfGsu9ugTg5o GADA&ved=0CFEQ6AEwCw#v=onepage&q=villa%20stein%20le %20corbusier%20plan&f=false - http://ccb722.wix.com/colemanblanchard#!villa-stein-de-monzie- analysis/c1oe7 - https://books.google.com.my/books?id=XWfAacUb3gAC&pg=PA6 4&lpg=PA64&dq=villa+stein+le+corbusier+analysis&source=bl&ot s=avPI9SL7UD&sig=5aW- k991zejuBwS9Sg2alUfDkGU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=7FBvVbzWINPHu ATPxoCACQ&ved=0CCgQ6AEwAjgU#v=onepage&q=villa%20stei n&f=false - Raumplan Versus Plan Libre: Adolf Loos [and] Le Corbusier By Max Risselada, Adolf Loos, Le Corbusier, Johan van de Beek - https://books.google.com.my/books?id=eEG8AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA1 5&lpg=PA15&dq=villa+stein+construction+details&source=bl&ots= 3fcgULg76q&sig=PS_fJR5McNap4vvbud1Aa- 5LERQ&hl=en&sa=X&ei=WFNvVbfmHI_g8AX43oCIDA&sqi=2&re dir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=villa%20stein%20construction%20detail s&f=false - Frank Lloyd Wright and Le Corbusier: The Romantic Legacy By Richard A. Etlin
  28. 28. 5.0 SPATIAL ORGANIZATION Siew John Loong 0315871
  29. 29. 5.0 Spatial Organization 5.1 Introduction Spatial organization is the arrangement of space in a building. Different space has different kind of functions and they are built according to the user’ The building, Villa Stein de Monzie was built in 1927 at Garches, France. The building is located at 17 Rue de professeur Victor Pauchet. The architect of the building is Le Corbusier who designed spacious homes in middle class neighborhoods on the outskirts of Paris. He is a famous, as well as well-known throughout the world. Le Corbusier who is with the five concepts emphasizes on that his building design is based on piloti, a free façade, an open floor plan, ribbon windows and roof garden. Compared to the Villa Stein de Monzie, the Koshino House was designed by the famous architect, Tadao Ando. It is located at the foot of Rokko Mountains, in Ashiva City, east of Kobe. The building undergoes two phases to be completed which are from 1980-1981 and 1983-1984. It was originally made up of two parallel rectangular concrete boxes. In building design, Le Corbusier does not search for stylistic features but for principles of spatial organization, as well as rational structure while Tadao Ando looks for brutal architecture and he is inspired by Le Corbusier. The Koshino House Villa Stein de Monzie
  30. 30. 5.2 Spatial Organizations For outer spaces, both of the buildings are built and surrounded by trees. They seem to be connected to the nature. The architects want the people to experience the interior building spaces, as well as getting touch with the exterior spaces, which is the nature. There are four floors in Villa Stein de Monzie, which are the ground floor, first floor, second floor and third floor. In the ground floor, there are few spaces provided which are the garage, servant room and the entrance. From the entrance, the first floor will lead the people to the stairs (to the first floor). Le Corbusier designs the house by putting curve wall in the first floor. By using the curve wall, it helps to lead the people, especially the customers to the stairs which will then lead them to the second floor. It is amazing to see that Le Corbusier has used the big empty space to lead the people from one place to another, instead of using it as a functional place like living room. The space is totally empty because Le Corbusier wants to create a comfortable and wide place to welcome the customers once they reach the entrance. People tend to feel comfortable in a wide area rather than a narrow area as everything seems sound and clear there. It tends to provide a public area for the arriving customers. At the same time, the servant rooms are placed in the first floor and they are separated from others. This has created a hierarchy from low to top which can be shown in the building. There are two floors in The Koshino House which are the ground floor and the first floor. In the ground floor, there are atelier, living room and the bedrooms. The space design is raw and without any ornamentation. At the same time, the atelier is designed with the curve-shaped which provides a wide and comfortable space for drawing. The living room is located in the first floor instead of the second floor while the volume closer to six identical rooms, is aligned like Le Corbusier's monastic cells at Sainte-Marie-de-la- Tourette. The house is structured as a Japanese garden and it is designed to boost awareness of nature. Besides, the light can penetrate the space through opening and windows which also create some kind of 'natural light effect' in the building. At the ground floor, we can see some similarities and differences between the two buildings. From the floor plan, there is a row of bedrooms in the Villa Stein de Monzie and the Koshino House. Those rooms are arranged in a row in order to make it convenient for the people to make their ways to it. There is some slightly different between spaces. There are only bedrooms and garage in the group floor of Villa Stein de Monzie while there are atelier, living
  31. 31. rooms and bedrooms in the Koshino House. This is because Le Corbusier wants to separate the servant rooms from others and he purposely make a big space for guide the people to the stairs which leads to the second floors through the curve walls. Ground floor plan Villa Stein de Monzie The Koshino House Now we will move to the first floor of the building. In this floor, the spaces are divided into living room, dining room and the kitchen. Le Corbusier has designed this house as a public floor as well. It tends to provide a social place for the customers. The people can have their chit-chatting and business talk in the living room without disturbing others. The space is wide and big enough to accumulate a large number of people in there to have their activities. Meanwhile, there are kitchen and dining room been separated from the living room. The kitchen is fully separated from the living room to avoid oil and gas from entering and disturbing the people while
  32. 32. the dining room is separated partially from the living room by a curve wall to allow movement between the two spaces easily. The people can have their meal and head to the living room for chatting. Le Corbusier uses the space to make it convenience to the people when having their activities. The best thing is the circulation of the people will not affect others from having meal in the dining room. From the staircase, people will just walk through a small corridor to the next staircase (to the second floor). Again, the people are leaded by a curvy book shelf along the corridor to the next staircase so that the people will not get confused about where they head to. Everything is in order, just like the concept of Le Corbusier. For The Koshino House, there are study room, bedroom and terrace. The study room and bedroom are separated by a small corridor. It allows easy movement from study room to bedroom and vice-versa. The terrace acts as an open space for the people to have a view from the inside to the outside. Also, the open space allows more light to penetrate into the building and also air circulation. At this point, the living room is placed in the first floor of Villa Stein while it is placed in the ground floor in the Koshino House. This is because for Villa Stein, Le Corbusier wants to separate the servant rooms from the living room and so, the people can have more privacy when having their activities here compared to the Koshino House. At the same time, both of the buildings do share some common which is light penetration. Villa Stein de Monzie has lots of windows that allow light to penetrate while the Koshino House uses open space. First floor plan Villa Stein de Monzie
  33. 33. The Koshino House Next, we will head to the second floor of the building. The spaces are divided into bedrooms and washrooms. There are three bedrooms and two washrooms in this floor. Le Corbusier designs this floor as a private room as only the customers live in these spaces. The number of bedrooms indicates that there might be more than one family to live in the building as the rooms are all big and wide which again, provides a comfortable and relaxing environment for the customers. The washrooms are separated from the bedrooms to provide a more private area for the customers and they can enjoy themselves without been disturbed by others. The bedrooms are separated from servant room to allow full privacy for the customers and this creates a building hierarchy. When the customers reach the floor, there are only two directions from the staircase. So, it is easy for the customers to identify their own rooms without getting confused or getting lost. There is a void space that connects to the first floor to allow air movement from floor to floor and the customers will feel cool, as well as relaxing in this floor. At the same time, Le Corbusier is using his order concept which separates each spaces distinctively. Although it is in a very order arrangement, it cannot be defined as Le Corbusier’s “ABABA" because the arrangement is not constant. For the space between the void and bedroom, the 'ABABA' concept cannot be used because they can hardly be separated. For the Koshino House, the space in Koshino House is clearly divided but there is no specific space arrangement compared to the Villa Stein de Monzie.
  34. 34. Second floor plan Finally, we head to the final floor which is the third floor. There are solarium, guest rooms and staff rooms in this floor. It is an open space area of the building. Le Corbusier uses one of his concepts, which is the 'open space' to design this floor because he wants the people to enjoy and feel the mother nature, instead of just resting inside the building all day as the building was built surrounded by the forest. The floor is considered as an exposed private area as only guest can enter this area. The staff who stays in staff rooms can serve the customers immediately. That is why Le Corbusier designs one staff room in between the guest rooms. From the staircase, the guest can just walk through the door beside the solarium and enter the wide open space. It can be considered as the coolest area of the building as the floor is wide and exposed. It enables the air to flow through the space. Meanwhile, there is void space in the floor to allow air movement as well. The people here can enjoy the greenery around the building, as well as resting themselves in the building. Third floor plan For The Koshino House, it has terraces (open space) that allows light penetration to take place. Tadao Ando emphasizes solidity which enhance the depth of the thick solid wall which can be found
  35. 35. in the ground floor and first floor. The wall appears to be solid but it permits light to penetrate through the space. It also allows the user have a glimpse of the surrounding with the presence of light. At the same time, there are less ornamentation to be seen in the interior space. It looks plain from the inside because Tadao Ando wants to give minimal ornamentation to the building. Creating sense of progressive approach Light Creating focus on subject Light reacts differently in response with geometry
  36. 36. 5.3 Conclusion The conclusion is spatial organization is very important for a building as it can affect the activities and functional of the spaces. Without a good spatial organization, a building will be like an empty hollow shell .Le Corbusier has designed a house by the concepts of his which are the 'order' and 'open space’. The building is designed in a way that allows people to get in touch with the nature, as well as resting peacefully in the building. The well- designed architecture of Villa Stein de Monzie has become so famous and well-known because of its special structure and spatial organization. The building is designed in order and the spaces are separated systematically for the users. For the Koshino House, Tadao Ando has designed in a way that emphasize on light reaction and also without ornamentation. Both of the buildings have their similarities and differences, but still, their passions in architecture have made a huge changes in architecture history. Everything happens for a reason References -Key Houses of the Twentieth Century. (n.d.). Retrieved June 8, 2015, from https://books.google.com.my/books?id=GdIbk8X4HTEC&pg=RA1- PR1&lpg=RA1-PR1&dq=villa stein de monzie&source=bl&ots=- Yny56RC6A&sig=fIPHnjbEiizo6x3_5HkLOJPJEIE&hl=en&sa=X&ei =uz11VfrsJofW8gXDpYCYAw&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=villa stein de monzie&f=false -AD Classics: Koshino House / Tadao Ando. (2011, September 25). Retrieved June 8, 2015, from http://www.archdaily.com/161522/ad- classics-koshino-house-tadao-ando/
  37. 37. 6.0 STRUCTURE, MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION Chong Chui Wern 0321359
  38. 38. 6.0 Structure, Materials and Construction 6.1 Introduction Tadao Ando was studying architecture by going to see actual buildings, and reading books about them, he had no formal education in Architecture. His first interest in architecture was nourished in Tadao’s 15 by buying a book of Le Corbusier sketches. In general, Tadao Ando had been following Le Corbusier;s architecture for years. With that said, we could safely assume that their architecture styles would have a number of similarities. However, that is not true if we are looking have a few things in common, there was more difference compared to the similarities. As of what I can see, both of them do emphasize quite a lot on the light and space. I believe the elements which will affect both light and space in a building the most is the structure, construction and the materials itself. Although they do have a few things in common, there are also many things which are different from one another. So, by using Villa Stein de Monzie to represent a building of Le Corbusier and the Koshino house to represent a building of Tadao Ando, an analysis is done to show the similarities and difference between the executing methods of the individual architects towards their significant buildings. Villa Stein de Monzie Source: architectureandmorality.blogspot.com Koshino House Source: http://www.3dvalley.com/gallery/rukout/ext09_sample_Koshino_House
  39. 39. 6.2 Structure and Construction Starting with the structure and construction, both of the building has similar geometrical shape, a rectangular shape from the outside. However, aside from that, the structure and construction are very different. Just the fact that Le Corbusier likes the building the stand out from the greenery and Tadao Ando prefers his to stay low and blend with the site already shows very conflicting construction preference, Le Corbusier is well-known for his 5 points of modern architecture, and among them is the usage of piloti. He is the first architect to use columns to support the structure of a building. The pilotis allow the walls to be a non-load bearing wall, therefore allowing free plan to this spaces, which is also another point in his famous 5 points of modern architecture. For this building, the outer walls are built as such reason being that it tends to help the stability of the construction together with the concrete floor. Le Corbusier used three types of different columns within this building. The square columns, the round columns, and the egg-shaped columns, their purpose differs with the types. The square ones are used in the construction where they are placed between the smaller, non- load bearing inner walls. The round and egg-shaped columns are used in the spaces or whenever there’s a column inside the room. The concept of free space creates big open spaces which gives the house a light and transparent feeling. Red parts shows the constructive walls. The pilotis also allowed ribbon windows (another one of his 5 points) to be made as the outer walls does not have to bear the load of the whole structure which allows more light ventilation to happen.
  40. 40. From this section is is visible that the sides of façade are non- contructive walls. Hence it does not need to take the load of the structure, allowing it to have more openings. With the Koshino house, Tadao Ando used the load bearing walls to construct the entire structure. With that said, the walls are not able to move hence not allowing free plan to the building. The walls bring out a private feeling when being in the space. This gives the building a sense of solidity and rigidity in comparison to Villa Stein’s free plan. The solid walls are also used to more clearly define and emphasize the spaces within the building. Using load bearing walls, less open spaces on the walls are able to be used. As not much light is able to enter the building, the lights are aimed to focus just to certain spots in the building. The light ventilation in the Koshino House is considerably minimal and it’s only made to emphasize on certain parts which may contain certain function, or where light is necessary. From the section, it is clear that the walls has to support the structure by itself and it is has not a single columns in the space. As a whole, Le Corbusier’s 5 points of modern architecture has allowed him to free himself from load-bearing wall hence creating a more open space. Tadao Ando, however, decided to go with load- bearing walls, which gives it a more enclosed feelings.
  41. 41. 6.3 Materials Moving on to the materials of the buildings, both of the buildings has 3 materials in common, which are glass, steel and concrete. Glass is used to allow light penetration. The usage of light is significant in both the buildings therefore glass does take up a significant part of the building. Steel is used in both buildings however only a very small part of the Koshino House. Concrete is used in Villa Stein and almost the entire building of the Koshino House because it’s a very strong material which holds up the structure. For Villa Stein, the key materials used are white plaster, glass and dark steel bars. Aside from that, there are also tiles and concrete present. One of the element that gives the villa such strong character and also contributing to the unity of the villa is the materials choices and usage. The overall structure, such as the floor using concrete as it is a stronger material to hold up the house. Also, every wall in the house uses white plaster, except the toilet. The toilet uses tiles to fill the walls as it is stronger water resistant, therefore more durable in the presence of water. Source : http://divisare.com/projects/199431-Le-Corbusier-Villa-Stein The key material of Villa Stein is the white plaster in the facades and balconies. Le Corbusier is known for using plaster and it can be found in nearly all of his designs and buildings. By using white plaster, the house will seem unity and as one solid element even though different elements and parts of the house. White plaster gives the interior a very light and open feeling. It makes the interior also flat and very smooth. This follows the function and needs of the Stein couple who are artists themselves and would like to showcase and display their art. Dark Steel White Plaster Glass
  42. 42. Facade mostly consist of white plaster Source : http://pixshark.com/villa-stein.htm Red represents white plaster (interior) The next material widely present in the villa is glass. The glass contributes to the transparency of the house through the windows. There are 3 different dimensions of windows in the building which is made and adjusted to the function, privacy and importance of the spaces. The more private parts of the house have windows sized only small thin line. There’s repeating rectangular windows on the first and second floor which are a lot bigger and more transparent, as these rooms needs more lights due of their functions. The last group are the huge windows in the sides where these windows are huge glass elements, which brings in to the villa even more lights and also to bring the nature and surroundings to the inside of the villa. The glass varies in sizes according to the function of space. The one shaded in red represents glass.
  43. 43. Furthermore, Le Corbusier used quite a bit of dark steel bars in this building. Dark steel bars in the window give these parts an enclosed and private feeling. This way light can enter these rooms without losing their difference in function, importance and privacy. Besides the bars in the windows, the dark steel can be found in the guard-rails at the doors on every floor of the building. The balconies give the house a more open character from the inside but it does not work as a balcony at all. The hand-rails and other steel elements are all made out of the dark steel which brings the house together with the glass and white plaster. Steel bars as handles of stairs Source: www.ncmodernist.org The red represents the steel present in the building.
  44. 44. For the Koshino house, the materials used are glass, wood, a small portion of steel and mainly concrete. Close up of Koshino House source: http://imgkid.com/tadao-ando-koshino-house-plan.shtml Glass is used to give a good view of the garden from the inside, and also to allow the natural light from outside to be shinning in to the spaces. Wooden floors are used in the Koshino house. As this space reveals a courtyard that drapes over and contours to the natural topography, wooden floors allows the building to feel closer and in fact, more connected to the nature outside. The living room is lit by two large rectangular windows with supporting steel frames of different sizes. This is actually to mix around the western and the Japanese styles of architecture. The other windows in the buildings are also supported by steel frames. Last but not least, concrete. Tadao Ando used Concrete to build the walls to set limits and boundary of the space. All the walls are made of concrete are completely free of ornamentation and are in their natural form. The pre-cast concrete’s surfaces are very well made and are “smooth-as-silk”. Ando’s concrete is both structure and surface, so it never has to be camouflaged or plastered over. Narrow apertures have been punched through the facades, they are shaped adjacent to the exterior staircase and it manipulates complex crossings of natural light and shadow into the interior spaces. The patterns provided by the natural lights the only amount of ornament to the simple rooms. Other slots are also cut from various walls of the two structures to produce the same effect of complexity throughout the entire house. Another reason why it is used is due to industrialization and technological resources, which allow the concrete blocks to be easily assessable. Concrete Glass Steel Wood
  45. 45. Concrete Structure of Koshino House Source: http://www.archdaily.com/161522/ad-classics-koshino-house-tadao-ando/ Overall, the key materials for the building, which is white plaster for Villa Stein and concrete for the Koshino House are both very different materials and they bring out different kinds of aesthetics and feelings of privacy when a person is in the building. Even with similar materials, the quantity used varies, which gives the building a very different feeling. 6.4 Conclusion From the analysis, Le Cobusier’s Villa Stein emphasizes more onto the wide and spacious feeling from the inside of the building. This is attained by using 3 out of 5 of his points of modern architecture, which is piloties, free plan and ribbon windows. With careful selection of the sizes of the glass and the selection of white plaster as the key material, the building has a very light and open feeling to it. However for Tadao Ando’s Koshino House, it emphasized more onto the rigid and enclosed feeling from the inside. That was able to be achieved solely with just the thick, solid concrete load-bearing walls. The choice of using concrete did give a very private feeling as well and the glass opening are much less compared to Villa Stein. At the end, their choices of construction methods and structure, as well as their choice of materials are able to pull out their intended feelings very well. References: -http://www.insideoutside.in/inside-outside/issue- magazine/1437/concrete-intentions-tadao- ando#sthash.ep71oWni.dpuf -http://www.timmaier.com/files/architectuuranalyse.pdf -http://www.archdaily.com/161522/ad-classics-koshino-house- tadao-ando/ - http://en.wikiarquitectura.com/index.php/Koshino_House
  46. 46. 7.0 SITE CONTEXT AND CIRCULATION Lee Yen Chei 0320568
  47. 47. 7.0 Site Context and Circulation 7.1 Introduction “I traced the drawings of his early period so many times, that all pages turned black,” says Tadao Ando: “in my mind I quite often wonder how Le Corbusier would have thought about this project or that.“ Le Corbusier is the master of modernism in architecture. Tadao Ando's work is characteristically simple, and we can find similar forms in the first half of 20th century. "I am interested in a dialogue with the architecture of the past", Tadao Ando says, "but it must be filtered through my own vision and my own experience. I am indebted to Le Corbusier and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, but the same way, I take what they did and interpret it in my own fashion." As what Tadao said, his design will somehow will show some similarities which he got influenced by Le Corbusier’s work. The project that we will look into is the analysis on the site context and also the circulation of Villa Stein de Monzie which designed by Le Corbusier, and Tadao Ando’s work for Koshino House. Villa Stein De Monzie Source: www.ncmodernist.org Villa Stein de Monzie is built in 1927, designed by Le Corbusier, a Swiss-born French architect, who was recognized worldwide for his modern architecture. This villa was designed for a couple, Michael Stein and his wife, Sara, and their friend, Gabrielle Monzie, a faithful supporter of Le Corbusier, and her adopted daughter. And the villas was named after them. Michael and Sara Stein were well known connoisseurs and collectors of modern painting and sculptures. They decide to live together due to the common interest towards art collection.
  48. 48. Koshino House source: www.cgarchitect.com While Koshino house was built in 1976, designed by Tadao Ando, a famous Japanese architect is basically two rectangular concrete boxes are joined together and making a courtyard in between. The house is built for the designer Koshin, is a veritable maze of lights and shadows. It is an example of contemporary architecture built in two parallel wings that barely interrupt the landscape, as Ando built his design according to the location of trees on the site.
  49. 49. 7.3 Site Context There is similarities between the Villa Stein De Monzie and Koshino House. Both houses built in the sense of embracing the nature and blend to the surrounding site. Villa Stein surrounded by the dark trees source: www.flickr.com Villa Stein is located in the suburbs of Paris in France, which is Garches. The family Stein always lived in the centre of Paris. When they got older they wanted to move out of the city centre for a more tranquil and relaxing environment but wanted still be able to get to the centre of Paris without having to travel a lot to go shopping, for work or for their art collection. The house is set far back on its site, and approached via a long, straight driveway that ends at the door of an ample garage, the house`s pristine white walls and crisp ribbon windows give it the appearance of a modern- day Palladian villa set in a landscape of dark trees. Top View of Koshino House source: trendland.com
  50. 50. While for Koshino House, the house is located in Ashiya, a small town between Osaka and Kobe two major urban centers in Japan, at the foot of the Rokko mountains.The site composed of irregularly shaped slopes. The Koshino House is embedded in the ground, as it immerses with the Landscape. When viewing from top, you can see how the three volumes are placed to each other within the forest site. Ando calls the act of designing a site “site-craft”; he blends together the site and the building, incorporates the landscape into the building, and makes use of every bit of the site. Diagram shows Koshino House is embedded in the ground source: www.archdaily.com 7.4 Circulation 7.4.1 Human Circulation Villa Stein-de Monzie consists of three floors. Before entering the villa, you can see that there are two entrances on its front façade. The front entrance for guests and private use is emphasized by a big element above the door. There is a separate entrance for servants on the left next to the garage for private use, emphasized by the small fake balcony above. A lone lawn leading to entrance source: www.nytimes.com
  51. 51. In my opinion, I think why there are two entrances provided to the villa is because the maids were expected to work invisibly and sweep and dust when the family was asleep, or work in a room when the family was not scheduled to use it. In fact, many of the lower servants never encountered the family during their years of service. So in generally, Le Corbusier imply a contrast difference on the pathway circulation between the owner and guest with the servant use. The concept behind is come from the hierarchy in the social status during that period of time in Paris. The clients don’t want to have a clash of spaces use with the servants. Besides, Le Corbusier also put effort on the connection of the flow. Implication of curved wall also used as a guide for the circulation. Diagrams show the routing pathway for different floors (Ground floor, First floor, Second Floor, and the third floor)
  52. 52. However, koshino house doesn’t have a clear division on the circulation pathways. Tadao Ando made the entry of this house, semi batch, is level. Entrance of Koshino house source: www.archdaily.com From here go down in the living room with double height. In one wing parallel to the building, connected through a corridor of almost underground, a number of halls and rooms for children, since that can be accessed by a long hallway. The spaces of the house are intricate. For the interior, the viewer encounters many scenes while in motion. The movement throughout the structure shows the complete evolution of the scene. It has a clear and direct movement. The three volumes are connected to each other by a corridor that is situated under the ground and not visible from the outside. Wide set of exterior stairs source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/49942362@N03/ The approach is from above and gives the visitor a total view of the plan of the house. There is a wide set of stairs follows the sloping land into the enclosed exterior space. Tadao Ando used a very intimate enclosed pathway throughout the whole house. It is different from the Villa Stein which the circulation is accessed by a vertical long staircase.
  53. 53. The diagram shows the circulation pathway on plan 7.4.2 Light Circulation Le Corbusier is well- known as the master of light. There was one famous quote from Le Corbusier: “Our eyes are made to see forms in light; light and shade reveal these forms” Tadao Ando's work is also known for the creative use of natural light. While once this has said by him: "Light is the origin of all being. Striking the surface of things, light grants them an outline; gathering shadows behind things, it gives them depth. Things are articulated around borders of light and darkness, and obtain their individual form, discovering interrelationships, and become infinitely linked.” Both of them like to imply the natural use of light inside the building. Both of them strongly focus on the concept of light into their work. Front view of Vila Stein source: www.flickr.com For Villa Stein, Le Corbusier applied one of the five points of architecture principles which introduced by himself, the ribbon window. He applied ornamentation-free facade and horizontal windows in strips for maximum natural light. From the front facade, you can see the long row of windows frames with the same size and width.
  54. 54. At the ground floor, you will find the windows with the iron frame and the small long glass elements which give a closed and intimate character at the ground floor. Especially at the back of the Villa appears the house to be very transparent with the big double size windows. You also find the big transparent terraces at the back side of the house which gives the house an open character. For the left and right side of the house are very big windows present. Furthermore, the dark steel bars in the window are quite transparent too and hence helps penetration of light enter to the rooms. Back View of Villa Stein source: www.retrotogo.com The diagrams show the position of the windows on the elevations Because of the size of the Villa, the house needs a lot of windows to bring light into the spaces and rooms. This follows the function and needs of the Stein couple. This is perfect for the couple to hold up exhibitions of art and having guests over to discuss and show the art. Front Elevation Back Elevation Left Elevation Right Elevation Ribbon windows
  55. 55. For the use of light on Koshino house, Tadao Ando is more emphasizing on solidity. The penetration of the light enhancing the depth of the thick solid wall. Appears to be solid but permits light to penetrate through the space and allows user to get a glimpse of the surrounding. This is also why Tadao Ando giving minimal ornamentation to the interior space using the element of nature. In a result, the light that penetrates through the slit creates a sense of progressive approach. Light creates approach in Koshino House ( source: http://www.archdaily.com/) Light enters through a sky-light between the wall and the roof, illuminating a curved wall. And large window has been opened in the living room wall. The light reacts differently in response with geometry, it creates a focus on the subject such as the furniture. He allows residents to experience nature without the distractions of the city. I think Ando’s intention in creating this design was to return to a traditional Japanese life-style of “contact with light, air, rain, and other natural elements” within the confines of a small physical space. Light penetrates and creates focus on furniture ( source: http://www.archdaily.com/)
  56. 56. 7.3.3 Air Circulation For the air circulation, both Le Corbusier and Tadao Ando are very concern about the air ventilation inside their buildings. In Villa Stein, Le Corbusier designed a lot of windows and also provide an open terrace on the top floor. This is to ensure there is a good ventilation throughout the whole building. While for Koshino House, Tadao Ando did apply large windows opened in the living room wall. Besides, there are also many openings on the wall for air ventilation. Furthermore, there are slits designed on the ceiling wall too as a function for sunlight penetration yet air ventilation throughout the space. Some openings of Koshino House (source: imgkid.com) 7.4 Conclusion Through the analysis, I feel that Le Corbusier is more focus on the circulation of the client on how to guide the users to the villa from the road, then the long lawn pathway which leads the users to enter the building from outside. Besides, he also designed two distinct pathways to separate the servants from his clients. The guidance of the circulation is led by the designed curved walls to the staircase, and the staircase connected the users from one floor to the other floor. The design of Le Corbusier can be considered as a solid guidance which users may look to the side when front view is being blocked or shifted. However, Tadao Ando is more focus on the concept of light. He uses the natural light in different aspects inside the building. He even uses light to create a guide for the users. The opening slits that he designed on the ceiling wall allowed the sunlight to penetrate through. The effect of the light and the shadow from the concrete wall create a progressive approach along the pathway. In conclusion, both architects concern on the intimate visualisation from the concept of light and also how to place a building in a natural site without interrupting the beauty of the nature. They also create a sense of bringing the nature into the building itself.
  57. 57. References: -http://www.timmaier.com/files/architectuuranalyse.pdf -http://www.archdaily.com/161522/ad-classics-koshino-house- tadao-ando/ -https://lanhwang.wordpress.com/2011/02/25/koshino_house/ -http://architectboy.com/koshino-house-tadao-ando/ -http://www.pritzkerprize.com/1995/essay -http://architect.architecture.sk/tadao-ando-architect/tadao-ando- architect.php -http://issuu.com/ben.strak/docs/villas_of_le_corbusier http://www.moma.org/momaorg/shared/pdfs/docs/press_archives/4 559/releases/MOMA_1970_July-December_0079.pdf?2010 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Corbusier's_Five_Points_of_Architec ture
  58. 58. 8.0 Conclusion A lot of Tadao Ando works have the characteristic similar to Le Corbusier’s as Tadao Ando admired and learn a lot from Le Corbusier. But despite this fact, there were also some characteristic of their works which separated them from each other. The both façade of the buildings, different perceptions have different opinions to the building. The perceptions of different generation have different opinions to the building as Le Corbusier later work has transform into orgnaic architecture. The spatial organization is very important for a building as it can affect the activities and functional of the spaces, and both the architects designed it differently. Their choices of construction methods and structure, as well as their choice of materials are able to pull out their intended feelings very well into their respective buildings. Lastly, both architects concerns on the intimate visualisation from the concept of light and also how to place a building in a natural site without interrupting the beauty of the nature. They also create a sense of bringing the nature into the building itself. In the end, to sum it all up, both of the buildings, Villa Stein de Monzie and the Koshino house has their similarities and differences. However, their passions in architecture have made a huge change in architecture history.

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