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Dr. Carlo Magno
• Group work: Write one sample item/task for
• Group 1: Knowledge
• Group 2: Process
• Group 3: Understanding
• Group 4: Performance/Product
Task # 2: Answer the following
• What is assessment for you?
• When do you conduct assessment?
• What do you use to assess academic
skills of students?
• Assessment competencies
• The need for Standards
– Day 1: KPU
– Day 2: Performance/Product
– Day 3: Standards-Based Assessment in English,
Math, and Science
Assessment Competencies for Teachers
• Constructed by the AFT, NCME, NEA:
• Teachers should be skilled in:
1. choosing assessment methods appropriate
for instructional decisions.
2. Administering, scoring, and interpreting the
results of both externally produced and
teacher produced assessment methods.
3. Using assessment results when making
decisions about individual students, planning
teaching, and developing curriculum and
American Federation of Teachers, National Council on Measurement and Evaluation, and
National Education Association in the United States of America.
Assessment Competencies for Teachers
4. Developing valid pupil grading procedures
that use pupil assessment.
5. Communicating assessment results to
students, parents, other lay audiences, and
6. Recognizing unethical, illegal, and otherwise
inappropriate assessment methods and uses
of assessment information.
Why do we need standards?
• To make sure that
• To produce quality
• To deliver quality
• Basis on what to assess
Mathematics Standards for Junior HS
– solve equations involving rational expressions
– Share prior knowledge about a text topic
– explain how the respiratory and circulatory
systems work together to transport nutrients,
gases, and other molecules to and from the
different parts of the body;
• real-life application
• enduring big ideas,
generalizations inherent to
• content of the
Determine whether: Knowledge, process,
1. Uses different strategies (looking for a pattern,
working backwards, etc.) to solve for the
unknown in simple equations involving one or
more operations on whole numbers and
fractions involving quadratic equation by
2. Solves word problems involving quadratic
3. Explain the different patterns of non-Mendelian
4. Describe the different types of volcanoes
5. Compose an informative essay
6. explain how earthquake waves provide
information about the interior of the earth
7. Uses models or illustrations, explain how
movements along faults generate earthquakes
8. Measures time using a 12-hour and a 24-hour
9. Utilize coping reading strategies to process
information in a text
10.Draw a circle and illustrate 5 different chords.
Determine whether: Knowledge,
Six Facets of Understanding
Explain - provide thorough and justifiable accounts of
phenomena, facts, and data
Interpret — tell meaningful stories, offer apt translations,
provide a revealing historical or personal dimension to ideas
and events; make subjects personal or accessible through
images, anecdotes, analogies, and models
Apply — effectively use and adapt what they know in diverse
Have perspective — see and hear points of view through
critical eyes and ears; see the big picture
Empathize — find value in what others might find odd, alien,
or implausible; perceive sensitively on the basis of prior
Have self-knowledge — perceive the personal style,
prejudices, projections, and habits of mind that both shape
and impede our own understanding; they are aware of what
they do not understand and why understanding is so hard
Which of the following statements of the relationship
between market price and normal price is true?
a. Over a short period of time, market price varies directly
with changes in normal price.
b. Over a long period of time, market price tends to equal
c. Market price is usually lower than normal price.
d. Over a long period of time, market price determines
• Explain how the elements specific to a genre
contribute to the theme of a particular literary
• Explain why the cell is considered the basic
structural and functional unit of all organisms
Translation from symbolic form to another form, or vice versa
Which of the graphs below best represent the supply situation
where a monopolist maintains a uniform price regardless of
the amounts which people buy?
A B C D
• Interpret simple maps of unfamiliar places,
signs and symbols
• Interpret pictographs
• Interpet tables
In the following items (4-8) you are to judge the effects of a particular policy on the
distribution of income. In each case assume that there are no other changes in
policy that would counteract the effect of the policy described in the item. Mark
A. If the policy described would tend to reduce the existing degree of inequality in
the distribution of income,
B. If the policy described would tend to increase the existing degree of inequality
in the distribution of income, or
C. If the policy described would have no effect, or an indeterminate effect, on the
distribution of income.
__ 4. Increasingly progressive income taxes.
__ 5. Confiscation of rent on unimproved
__ 6. Introduction of a national sales tax
__ 7. Increasing the personal exemptions from income taxes
__ 8. Distributing a subsidy to sharecroppers on southern farms
• If you are a priest what will be your stand on
the RH Bill?
• What would be the explanation in the creation
of the universe in a scientific framework?
• In a communist point of view how should
schooling be implemented?
• In a liberal perspective, are adults allowed
After reading the passage answer the following questions…
2. How did Carol feel on this walk?
3. Carol envied the people around her because they
a. were sad and lonely
b. love the city life
c. were laughing and joking
d. don’t like the city
• Your new maid from the mountain destroyed
your very expensive Narra door and she used
it as firewood and cooked rice in your newly
landscaped garden. How should you react?
• Ability to Recognize the Relevance of
• Ability to Recognize Warranted and
• Bem (1975) has argued that androgynous people are
“better off” than their sex-typed counterparts
because they are not constrained by rigid sex-role
concepts and are freer to respond to a wider variety
of situations. Seeking to test this hypothesis, Bem
exposed masculine, feminine, and androgynous men
and women to situations that called for independence
(a masculine attribute) or nurturance (a feminine
attribute). The test for masculine independence
assessed the subject’s willingness to resist social
pressure by refusing to agree with peers who gave
bogus judgments when rating cartoons for funniness
(for example, several peers might say that a very
funny cartoon was hilarious). Nurturance or feminine
expressiveness, was measured by observing the
behavior of the subject when left alone for ten
minutes with a 5-month old baby. The result
confirmed Bem’s hypothesis. Both the masculine sex-
typed and the androgynous subjects were more
independent(less conforming) on the ‘independence”
test than feminine sex-typed individuals.
Furthermore, both the feminine and the androgynous
subjects were more “nurturant” than the masculine
sex-typed individuals when interacting with the baby.
Thus, the androgynous subjects were quite flexible,
they performed as masculine subjects did on the
35. What is the independent variable in the
a. Situations calling for independence and
b. Situation to make the sex type react
c. Situations to make the androgynous be
d. Situations like sex type, androgynous and
sex role concepts
36. What are the levels of the IV?
a. masculine attribute and feminine attribute
b. rating cartoons and taking care of a baby
c. independence and nurturance
d. flexibility and rigidity
Instruction. Study the following illustrations and answer the following
101. Which group received the treatment?
a. group A b. group B
b. c. none of the above
102. Why did group B remain stable across the
a. there is an Extraneous Variable
b. There was no treatment
c. ceiling effect occured
103. What is the problem during the pretest phase of
a. the two groups are nonequivalent
b. the groups are competing with each other
c. the treatment took place immediately
Examples of Process Competencies
• Employ appropriate listening strategies suited to
type of text
• Employ analytical listening to make
• Use illustration strategies to solve the math
• Use trial and error to factor the squares
• Reread the sentence with difficult words to better
understand the paragraph
• Plan the steps in the project before showing the
final poster in class.
• Cognitive operations
• Cognitive and Metacognitive skills
• Learning strategies
Two components of Metacognition
• Knowledge of cognition
• reflective aspect of metacognition
• Individuals’ awareness of their own knowledge, learning
preferences, styles, strengths, and limitations,
• Awareness of how to use this knowledge that can
determine how well they can perform different tasks (de
Carvalho, Magno, Lajom, Bunagan, & Regodon, 2005).
• Regulation of cognition
• Control aspect of learning
• Procedural aspect of knowledge
• Allows effective linking of actions needed to complete a
given task (Carvalho & Yuzawa, 2001).
Components of Metacogniton
Knowledge of Cognition
• (1) Declarative knowledge – knowledge
about one’s skills, intellectual resources,
and abilities as a learner.
• (2) Procedural knowledge – knowledge
about how to implement learning
• (3) Conditional knowledge – knowledge
about when and why to use learning
Examples of knowledge of cognition in
• Declarative Knowledge
– Knowing what is needed to be solved
– Understanding ones intellectual strengths and
weaknesses in solving math problems
• Procedural knowledge
– Awareness of what strategies to use when solving
– Have a specific purpose of each strategy to use
• Conditional knowledge
– Solve better if the case is relevant
– Use different learning strategies depending
on the type of problem
Components of Metacogniton
Regulation of cognition
1) Planning – planning, goal setting, and allocating
resources prior to learning.
(2) Information Management Strategies – skills and
strategy sequences used on- line to process
information more effectively (organizing,
elaborating, summarizing, selective focusing).
(3) Monitoring – Assessing one’s learning or strategy
(4) Debugging Strategies – strategies used to correct
comprehension and performance errors
(5) Evaluation of learning – analysis of performance
and strategy effectiveness after learning episodes.
Examples of regulation of cognition
• Pacing oneself when solving in order to have enough time
• Thinking about what really needs to be solved before beginning
• Information Management Strategies
• Focusing attention to important information
• Slowing down when important information is encountered
• Considering alternatives to a problem before solving
• Pause regularly to check for comprehension
• Debugging Strategies
• Ask help form others when one doesn’t understand
• Stop and go over of it is not clear
• Evaluation of learning
• Recheck after solving
• Find easier ways to do things
Shifts in assessment
• Testing Alternative assessment
• Paper and pencil Performance assessment
• Multiple choice Supply
• Single correct answer Many correct answer
• Summative Formative
• Outcome only Process and Outcome
• Skill focused Task-based
• Isolated facts Application of knowledge
• Decontextualized task Contextualized task
• Group work
• Each group will accomplish the following task:
• 1 Knowledge item – multiple choice
• 2 Process items – multiple choice
• 1 Explain item – multiple choice
• 1 Apply item – multiple choice
• 1 Interpret item – multiple choice
Alternative forms of assessment
• Performance based assessment
• Authentic assessment
• Portfolio assessment
• Direct assessment
• Performance testing
• Changes are taking
place in assessment
• Assessment should measure what is really
important in the curriculum.
• Assessment should look more like
instructional activities than like tests.
• Educational assessment should approximate
the learning tasks of interest, so that, when
students practice for the assessment, some
useful learning takes place.
What is Performance Assessment?
• Testing that requires a student to create an
answer or a product that demonstrates
his/her knowledge or skills (Rudner & Boston,
Features of performance assessment
• Intended to assess what it is that students know and can do
with the emphasis on doing.
• Have a high degree of realism about them.
• Involve: (a) activities for which there is no correct answer, (b)
assessing groups rather than individuals, (c) testing that would
continue over an extended period of time, (d) self-evaluation
• Likely use open-ended tasks aimed at assessing higher level
Push on performance assessment
• Bring testing methods more in line with
• Assessment should approximate closely what
it is students should know and be able to do.
Emphasis of performance assessment
• Should assess higher level cognitive skills
rather than narrow and lower level discreet
• Direct measures of skills of interest.
Characteristics of performance-based
• Students perform, create, construct, produce, or do something.
• Deep understanding and/or reasoning skills are needed and
• Involves sustained work, often days and weeks.
• Calls on students to explain, justify, and defend.
• Performance is directly observable.
• Involves engaging in ideas of importance and substance.
• Relies on trained assessor’s judgments for scoring
• Multiple criteria and standards are prespecified and public
• There is no single correct answer.
• If authentic, the performance is grounded in real world contexts
Variation of authenticity
Relatively authentic Somewhat authentic Authentic
Indicate which parts of a
garden design are
Design a garden Create a garden
Write a paper on zoning Write a proposal to
change fictitious zoning
Write a proposal to
present to city council to
change zoning laws
Explain what would you
teach to students
Show how to perform
basketball skills in
Play a basketball game.
Constructing Performance Based tasks
1. Identify the performance task in which students
will be engaged
2. Develop descriptions of the task and the context
in which the performance is to be conducted.
3. Write the specific question, prompt, or problem
that the student will receive.
• Structure: Individual or group?
• Content: Specific or integrated?
• Complexity: Restricted or extended?
Complexity of task
• Restricted-type task
– Narrowly defined and require brief responses
– Task is structured and specific
• Construct a bar graph from data provided
• Demonstrate a shorter conversation in French about what is on a
• Read an article from the newspaper and answer questions
• Flip a coin ten times. Predict what the next ten flips of the coin will
be, and explain why.
• Listen to the evening news on television and explain if you believe
the stories are biased.
• Construct a circle, square, and triangle from provided materials
that have the same circumference.
• Extended-type task
– Complex, elaborate, and time-consuming.
– Often include collaborative work with small group of
– Requires the use of a variety of information
• Design a playhouse and estimate cost of materials and labor
• Plan a trip to another country: Include the budget and itinerary,
and justify why you want to visit certain places
• Conduct a historical reenactment (e. g. impeachment trial of
• Diagnose and repair a car problem
• Design an advertising campaign for a new or existing product
Identifying Performance Task
• Prepare a task description
• Listing of specifications to ensure that essential if
criteria are met
• Includes the ff.:
– Content and skill targets to be assessed
– Description of student activities
• Group or individual
• Help allowed
– Resources needed
– Teacher role
– Administrative process
– Scoring procedures
Performance-based Task Question
• Task prompts and questions will be based on
the task descriptions.
• Clearly identifies the outcomes, outlines what
the students are encourage dot do, explains
criteria for judgment.
• What you look for in student responses to
evaluate their progress toward meeting the
• Dimensions of traits in performance that are used
to illustrate understanding, reasoning, and
• Start with identifying the most important
dimensions of the performance
• What distinguishes an adequate to an inadequate
demonstration of the target?
Example of Criteria
• Learning target:
– Students will be able to write a persuasive paper to
encourage the reader to accept a specific course of
action or point of view.
– Appropriateness of language for the audience
– Plausibility and relevance of supporting arguments.
– Level of detail presented
– Evidence of creative, innovative thinking
– Clarity of expression
– Organization of ideas
• Indicate the degree to which a particular
dimension is present.
• Three kinds: Numerical, qualitative, combined
• Numerical Scale
– Numbers of a continuum to indicate different level
of proficiency in terms of frequency or quality
No Understanding 1 2 3 4 5 Complete
No organization 1 2 3 4 5 Clear organization
Emergent reader 1 2 3 4 5 Fluent reader
• Qualitative scale
– Uses verbal descriptions to indicate student
– Provides a way to check the whether each
dimension was evidenced.
• Type A: Indicate different gradations of the dimension
• Type B: Checklist
• Example of Type A:
– Minimal, partial, complete
– Never, seldom, occasionally, frequently, always
– Consistent, sporadically, rarely
– None, some, complete
– Novice, intermediate, advance, superior
– Inadequate, needs improvement, good excellent
– Excellent, proficient, needs improvement
– Absent, developing, adequate, fully developed
– Limited, partial, thorough
– Emerging, developing, achieving
– Not there yet, shows growth, proficient
– Excellent, good, fair, poor
• Holistic scale
– The category of the scale contains several criteria, yielding
a single score that gives an overall impression or rating
level 4: Sophisticated understanding of text indicated
with constructed meaning
level 3: Solid understanding of text indicated with some
level 2: Partial understanding of text indicated with
tenuous constructed meaning
level 1: superficial understanding of text with little or
no constructed meaning
• Analytic Scale
– One in which each criterion receives a separate
Relevance of detail
Variety in words and
• When scoring criteria are combined with a
rating scale, a complete scoring guideline is
produced or rubric.
• A scoring guide that uses criteria to differentiate
between levels of student proficiency.
Guidelines in creating a rubric
1. Be sure the criteria focus on important aspects of the
2. Match the type of rating with the purpose of the
3. The descriptions of the criteria should be directly
4. The criteria should be written so that students,
parents, and others understand them.
5. The characteristics and traits used in the scale should
be clearly and specifically defined.
6. Take appropriate steps to minimize scoring frame
• Create a performance based task.
• Indicate the following:
– Nature of the final product
– What students are suppose to do
– Criteria for the marking