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Assunta De Pau, Brady Koht, Joe Gallo NEED [Source 1,2,5,6,7,12,15] - Shoes are used daily by people around the world in order to protect their feet while taking part in activities. - By wearing shoes, diseases and infections can be prevented, such diseases present in Africa include, but are not limited to:Podoconiosis/Elephantiasis  -Countries in Africa affected: Ethiopia, Rwanda, Burundi, Cameroon, Tanzania, and Equatorial Guinea -People become infected when they work barefoot near a volcano (active or inactive) and walk in the volcanic soil. -Particles of silica enter the skin and enter the lymphatic vessels; the body reacts and clogs the wound, which causes elephantiasis (enlargement/swelling of legs, arms, or other body parts to elaphantoid size). -By wearing shoes, this disease can be prevented because their feet do not come in contact with the infected soil. Figure 1 Figure 2 http://tmcr.usuhs.mil/tmcr/chapter26/clinical19.htm http://tmcr.usuhs.mil/tmcr/chapter26/clinical19.htmSchistosomiasis/Bilharzia  -Areas in Africa affected: Freshwater in sub-Saharan and southern Africa, also regions in Mahgreb region of North Africa, and the Nile Valley in Egypt and Sudan - If small snails that contain the parasite are present in the water, the parasite leaves the snail and is transmitted into the water, and when a person washes, swims, or wades in this contaminated freshwater their skin is penetrated and they are infected. -If infected multiple times, these people may suffer damage to the liver, intestines, lungs, and bladder. -By wearing shoes this infection may be prevented because their feet are protected when wading through unsafe freshwater.
Assunta De Pau, Brady Koht, Joe Gallo figure 3 http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/schistosomiasis/ Tungiasis-Areas in Africa affected: tropical Africa, it is prevalent where people live in poverty-A sand flea will burrow into the foot or lower part of the leg because it cannot jump veryhigh.-A fibrous cyst will from and swelling will occur after the sand flea has entered the skin.-“It may progress to bacteremia, gangrene, tetanus and death.”-Prevention of this infection is possible by wearing shoes. figure 4 http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/DPDx/html/Frames/S-Z/Tungiasis/body_Tungiasis_page1.htm#Causal Agent - By developing a method to produce shoes, we can help to prevent these infections and diseases. - Using 100% recycled materials as the materials to make shoes will help reuse recyclable products and save money, while still providing a solution to the problem with shoes in Africa. - In 2006, “Each day in the US more than 60 million plastic water bottles [were] thrown away.” - “Approximately 242 million tires are discarded annually in the United States. Fewer than 7 percent are recycled, 11 percent are burned for fuel, and 5 percent are exported. The remaining 78 percent are sent to landfills, stockpiled, or illegally dumped.” - As can been seen, the amount of plastic bottles and tires that are thrown away is outrageous. These materials could be sent to Africa as a way to help prevent disease because we can create a set of instructions to develop shoes from these materials. - Finding a solution to this problem would benefit the US because the products used for the shoes would not remain in landfills, instead they would be used to protect people in Africa from various diseases. - This problem was chosen because we have the possibility of bettering multiple countries, and the possibility to save people’s lives.
Assunta De Pau, Brady Koht, Joe Gallo Other Viable Solutions [Sources 11 and 16] Several other people are trying to solve the same problem as us: get the people of Africa decent foot protectionOld Shoes Yes, Inc. is currently sending thousands of pairs of old, gently used shoes to the people of Africa to help prevent diseases By creating a shoe drive, they are able to send decent shoes to people who might not have ever owned a real pair of shoes in their lifetime This will allow impoverished areas of the world to be able to do what they http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_6 need to do everyday to survive and T2kVa7G_6g/Sh2vyH1WZpI/AAAAAAAABWc/MPsBo- TnjC8/s320/768679734_2d89782544.jpg&imgrefurl=http://obsrunth decrease the amount of pain they eoden.blogspot.com/2009/05/what-to-do-with-old-running- shoes.html&usg=__jm_QPBtQzHF8tDNxR7rHLXjaae0=&h=230& w=320&sz=29&hl=en&start=0&sig2=Jy3be2VDNH7V- might have from walking around p_r5GczyQ&zoom=1&tbnid=c9ldVWQe712kzM:&tbnh=135&tbn w=213&ei=il5LTc3xFIP7lwfolPHiDw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dge barefoot all day ntly%2Bused%2Bshoes%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Df irefox-a%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en- US:official%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D553%26tbs%3Disch:1&u m=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=700&oei=il5LTc3xFIP7lwfolPHiDw&e sq=1&page=1&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0&tx=146&ty=88 Shoes will not only decrease pain for these people but it will also protect their feet from dirt and oil that could cause disease http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://flavorwire.co m/wp- content/uploads/2009/03/dirt.jpg&imgrefurl=http://flavorwir e.com/15245/the-fine-line-between-a-pile-of-dirt-and-art- test-your- savvy&usg=__3bOSYp2GRA694oDTwfKkQKwNvp0=&h =544&w=499&sz=93&hl=en&start=0&sig2=1G_yYL4srHn 716LA6JWEZg&zoom=1&tbnid=JRw4gOnBAkX3GM:&tb nh=129&tbnw=118&ei=vV1LTcb_D4G8lQeolYT6Dw&pre v=/images%3Fq%3Ddirt%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26cli ent%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en- US:official%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D553%26tbs%3Dis ch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=679&oei=vV1LTcb_D4 http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.asnom.org/imag G8lQeolYT6Dw&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r: e/444_filarioses/eleph_pied.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.asnom.org/e n/444_filarioses.html&usg=__bfmycGFtCatNC3KJD85z7zYtQMc 9,s:0&tx=76&ty=78 =&h=261&w=350&sz=18&hl=en&start=0&sig2=CZ39o9nml8Kl5 xYEz2djPg&zoom=1&tbnid=laGUNQCe5MfkzM:&tbnh=125&tbn w=167&ei=Fl9LTeWOBIKBlAf- 1MntDw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Delephantiasis%2Bfoot%26um% 3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox- a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en- US:official%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D553%26tbs%3Disch:1&u m=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=443&oei=Fl9LTeWOBIKBlAf- 1MntDw&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:6,s:0&tx=88&t y=53
Assunta De Pau, Brady Koht, Joe GalloOther Recycled Materials A company in the UK, Worn Again, makes their shoes out of old clothes and other items such as discarded suit jackets (outer, lining and buttons), parachutes, prison blankets, ex- military long johns and towels, car seats, scrap leather and recycled rubber This also creates shoes of about 99% recycled materials, also making original shoes where http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.treehug no two pairs are the same ger.com/Levis-Reused-Jeans- Shoes.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.treehugger.com/files/2009 /06/old-jeans-get-the-boot-levis-make-re-used-jeans- shoes.php&usg=__dtibJ_XoHHImvBwaSINNK2qI6kw=&h =321&w=468&sz=40&hl=en&start=0&sig2=PhNLfyx7eKs bcU_06KEP8Q&zoom=1&tbnid=gdNEwms8EY2- oM:&tbnh=144&tbnw=199&ei=x2FLTbiHA8OqlAezlNX5 Dw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Djeans%2Bshoes%26um%3D1 %26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox- a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en- US:official%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D553%26tbs%3Dis ch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=411&vpy=204&dur=47 &hovh=186&hovw=271&tx=132&ty=60&oei=x2FLTbiHA 8OqlAezlNX5Dw&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=9&ved=1t:429,r: 1,s:0 It is also possible to make sandals and the soles for shoes out of the rubber from old car http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://blog.makezine.com/DSC066 tires 04.jpg&imgrefurl=http://blog.makezine.com/archive/2006/03/shoes_made_ from_recycled.html&usg=__7SZrMyJ4bVR7PT7M2xG_b8V6ITk=&h=37 Shoes are being made of very 5&w=500&sz=52&hl=en&start=2&sig2=EstyzlHRX90SVyS_udq6HQ&z oom=1&tbnid=YEVtkP5EqFZaxM:&tbnh=98&tbnw=130&ei=WmJLTee0 condensed paper, scraps from LMWAlAe64bzSDw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Drecycled%2Btire%2Bshoes %26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox- shoe companies (also creating a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en- US:official%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D553%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&it bs=1 one-of-a-kind shoes), and water bottles chewed up and using the fibers put together to create a strong bond Shoes could also be made from the denim of old jeans http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.highsnobiet y.com/uploads/RTEmagicC_lakai_recycled_1.jpg.jpg&imgrefur l=http://www.highsnobiety.com/news/2008/01/28/lakai- recycled-program/&usg=__iho- NiqU7Yt98tk1TB96VM1jdig=&h=304&w=540&sz=37&hl=en &start=0&sig2=op9fL_auCffUP7CbR4Q4vA&zoom=1&tbnid= Sm_shboFfIlhZM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=172&ei=K2NLTc_HOMW blge78_jWDw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dlakai%2Brecycled%26 um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox- a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en- US:official%26biw%3D1024%26bih%3D553%26tbs%3Disch:1 &um=1&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=105&vpy=89&dur=943&hovh= 168&hovw=299&tx=130&ty=77&oei=K2NLTc_HOMWblge7 8_jWDw&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0
Assunta De Pau, Brady Koht, Joe Gallo Calculations [Source 13] In order to crush the bottle, a normal person would just step on it, flattening it underneath their foot and allowing it to form to their foot. An average male foot is about a size 9 or 10, which is about 10 inches long. An average female foot is about a size 7 or 8, which is about 9 inches long. Both feet may be able to slide into a 1 Liter bottle but they would be too small and they might need to use a 2 Liter bottle for adults. Children will use bottles that increase in size as they grow older, starting with a 16.9 ounce water bottle. If the adhesive connecting the bottle to the wrapper gives out, then a grocery bag could be attached to the bottle by cutting holes in the side of the shoes in place as a secondary strap. The bag will be able to stretch more and last longer after the primary wrapper breaks. Bottles that we have easy access to have the following volumes: 7.7 fl oz, 16.9 fl oz, 1 liter, and 2 liter. The plastic bottles are about 1-2 millimeters thick. Geographic Region [Sources 3, 4, 10] -Poverty is defined as the lack of basic human needs. In the Continent of Africa Cozay.com “Poverty is going empty with no hope for the future. Poverty never takes a holiday," Said by a Poor African. -In Africa a child dies every three seconds from AIDS, most often before their fifth birthday. -On Average about six million children die from malnutrition. -About 50% of Africans suffer from cholera and infant diarrhea because of unclean water. Approximately sixty-five percent of the world HIV population is in Sub-Saharan Africa.-Two million children under the age of 14 have HIV and Aids.
Assunta De Pau, Brady Koht, Joe Gallo http://cozay.com/ -The Slum houses made with mud have no basic sanitation needs and help influence the spreading of diseases on the ground. -Children are used for war and are more than half of the casualties. -184 million suffer from mal nutrition. -One in two people in Africa lives on less than one dollar per day. http://cozay.com / Material Properties [Sources 8, 9, 14] Plastic -Plastic is a material made out of a large range of synthetic or semi-synthetic material. -Plastic is a polymer. A polymer is a large molecule composed of repeating patterns. This large molecule has covalent bonds. -Plastic in Greek means being able to be shaped or molded. Like many plastic bottles today. -Because plastics are malleable they can be made into a variety of shapes.
Assunta De Pau, Brady Koht, Joe Gallo http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic Synthetic Rubber -Synthetic Rubber is man-made rubber. -Like plastic rubber is also a polymer, which means a very big molecule made up of repeating patterns and covalent bonds. -Rubber is very elastic, meaning it can be stretched and pulled with no harm done to the material. This is what makes it a good material for a shoe. As it constricts and contracts with the movement of your foot. http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.motherearthnews.com/uploadedImages/artic les/issues/2007-08-01/Tire.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.motherearthnews.com/Green- Transportation/2007-08-01/Tire-Pressure-Gas- Mileage.aspx&usg=__24Sl6eksOCf1cbrLeNMqfNW3dvY=&h=358&w=300&sz=16&hl=en&st art=0&zoom=1&tbnid=2RJRqGrnZ_mEpM:&tbnh=133&tbnw=109&ei=PnFMTbfVH4H_8Aa5 3filDg&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dtire%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dfirefox- a%26sa%3DN%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en- US:official%26biw%3D822%26bih%3D817%26tbs%3Disch:1&um=1&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=1 68&oei=PnFMTbfVH4H_8Aa53filDg&esq=1&page=1&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0&tx=56&t y=65 Bibliography1. "The Biocycle Guide to Maximum Recycling." The Biocycle Guide to Maximum Recycling. Ed. The Staff of Biocycle, Journal of Waste Recycling. Emmaus, PA: JG, 1993. 212-15. Print.2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "CDC - Schistosomiasis." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2 Nov. 2010. Web. 03 Feb. 2011. <http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/schistosomiasis/>.3. "Extreme Poverty in Africa." Cozay.com. Cozay Group, 2006. Web. 03 Feb. 2011. <http://cozay.com/>.
Assunta De Pau, Brady Koht, Joe Gallo4. Food for Africa. "Facts on Poverty in Africa." Malnutrition in Africa -save Starving Children with Your Donation. WSI. Web. 03 Feb. 2011. <http://www.food4africa.org/index.asp?pgid=42>.5. Franklin, Pat. "News - Waste Management World - Down the Drain." Container Recycling Institute. 2003. Web. 03 Feb. 2011. <http://www.container- recycling.org/media/newsarticles/plastic/2006/5-WMW-DownDrain.htm>.6. Gale Group, Inc. "Podoconiosis - Definition of Podoconiosis in the Medical Dictionary - by the Free Online Medical Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia." Medical Dictionary. 2008. Web. 03 Feb. 2011. <http://medical- dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Podoconiosis>.7. Palmer and Reeder. "Tropical Medicine Central Resource." Tropical Medicine Central Resource - from USUHS. Web. 03 Feb. 2011. <http://tmcr.usuhs.mil/tmcr/chapter26/clinical19.htm>.8. "Plastic." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 3 Feb. 2011. Web. 04 Feb. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plastic>.9. "Polymer." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 4 Feb. 2011. Web. 04 Feb. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymer>.10. "Poverty in Africa." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 25 Jan. 2011. Web. 03 Feb. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poverty_in_Africa>.11. "Recycled Footwear - LoveToKnow Green Living." Major Environmental Issues | Going Green. Web. 03 Feb. 2011. <http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Recycled_Footwear>.12. Shoes4Schools. "Why It Is Extremely Important to Get Shoes To Africa… « Shoes4schools’s Blog." Shoes4Schools’s Blog. Web. 03 Feb. 2011. <http://shoes4schools.wordpress.com/2008/12/28/why-it-is-extremely-important-to-get- shoes-to-africa/>.13. "Shoes.com Fit Assistant - Shoe Sizing Chart for Men, Women and Kids." Shop Womens Shoes, Mens Shoes and Kids Shoes | Shoes.com. Web. 04 Feb. 2011.
Assunta De Pau, Brady Koht, Joe Gallo <http://www.shoes.com/content.aspx?contentid=FITASSIST&OriginalSearchTerm=size chart>.14. "Synthetic Rubber." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 3 Feb. 2011. Web. 04 Feb. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synthetic_rubber>.15. Wikipedia. "Shoe." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 1 Feb. 2011. Web. 02 Feb. 2011. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shoes>.16. "YES, Inc. - Shoes for Africa." YES Inc | Shoes for Africa | Humanitarian Relief Organization. Web. 03 Feb. 2011. <http://www.yesshoesinc.org/shoes_africa.htm>.