Questionnaire on effectiveness of performance appraisal
1. Questionnaireon effectiveness of performance appraisal
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I. Contents of getting questionnaire on effectiveness of performance appraisal
Performance appraisal system is one of the most popular tools used in contemporary reform
programmes by governments to enhance efficient and effective performance in the public sector.
However, appraising employee performance is considered a controversial management practice
anywhere it is being practiced because the successful implementation of effective performance
appraisal system faces numerous challenges and obstacles. It is however inspiring to note that,
the human resource system can become more effective by having a valid and accurate appraisal
system used for rating performances of employees.
In spite of the numerous efforts to improve the performance management system, it is evident
that, the system lacks impetus to improve the performance of the Ghana Civil Service.
Considering the crucial role Performance Appraisal play in employee performance strategy, this
study sought to discover the extent to which Civil Servants consider the existing performance
appraisal system as effective and efficient. The study was also to discover the various challenges
confronting the effective implementation and utilization of performance appraisal in the Civil
Service in order to provide recommendations for the better.
The study adopted a case study design from the Office of the Head of the Civil Service (OHCS)
and the Ministry of Education (MOE). It however, solicited the views of other Civil Servants
from various Ministries, Departments, and Agencies (MDAs) through the Civil service Training
2. Centre (CSTC). The study also used a descriptive survey because it involved collection of data,
which informed the answers to the problem stated.
The population for the study was the staff of the above-mentioned institutions that have gone
through the appraisal exercise for at least once. The sample size for the study was 200 employees
(60 from the OHCS, 80 from the MOE, and 60 from other MDAs through the CSTC ). Out of the
200 questionnaires that were distributed, 173 responded. The study relied on both primary and
secondary sources of data and the researcher collected the data for the study, through the
administering of questionnaires to the respondents in both senior and junior staff categories.
Interpretation of quantitative data was done mostly by the use of tables/ figures and the data
gathered from the in-depth interviews were analysed in a narrative form using the research
questions raised for the study in relation to the main sections of the interview guide and the
questionnaire. Data were analysed with the use of the Microsoft excel programme.
The findings of the research have revealed that the current performance appraisal system in the
Civil Service does not fulfill the aspirations of the employees, because it is characterized by
certain flaws, which need to be addressed. Employees believe that the current PAS cannot help
achieve organizational strategic goals and objectives; there is a negative general perception about
the PAS; performance monitoring and feedback is poor; results from the appraisals are not
judiciously used; performance is not linked to rewards and sanctions and finally, employees are
hugely dissatisfied with the current PAS. Consequently, employees cannot be sufficiently
motivated to put in their best. All these factors have worked against the effective implementation
of the performance appraisal system in the Ghana Civil Service.
Based on the findings, it was recommended that clear-cut performance appraisal objectives
should be set out and made known to all concerned. Objectives should be developed jointly
between the supervisor and the employee. Appropriate stakeholders need to set up a monitoring
system to ensure that due process is followed by both appraisers and appraisees. Communication
between supervisors and subordinates need to be improved drastically. Additionally,
performance measures of individual organizations should be directly related to the overall
mission and strategic goals of the entire Civil Service, particularly in terms of goals and
objectives. Also, it is very crucial that appraisal reports are used judiciously. More also,
appraisers and appraisees must be adequately trained on effective implementation of the PAS. It
is important that various MDAs under the umbrella of the Civil Service develop different sets of
performance appraisal systems that will cover specific task and job-holders since their job
descriptions differ. Finally, review and appeal procedures should be adhered to in order to
promote fairness and satisfaction by participants for higher motivation that may lead to higher
performance and productivity in the Ghana Civil Service and government business as a whole.
3. III. Performance appraisal methods
The ranking system requires the rater to rank his
subordinates on overall performance. This consists in
simply putting a man in a rank order. Under this method,
the ranking of an employee in a work group is done
against that of another employee. The relative position of
each employee is tested in terms of his numerical rank. It
may also be done by ranking a person on his job
performance against another member of the competitive
Advantages of Ranking Method
i. Employees are ranked according to their performance
ii. It is easier to rank the best and the worst employee.
Limitations of Ranking Method
i. The “whole man” is compared with another “whole man”
in this method. In practice, it is very difficult to compare
individuals possessing various individual traits.
ii. This method speaks only of the position where an
employee stands in his group. It does not test anything
about how much better or how much worse an employee
is when compared to another employee.
iii. When a large number of employees are working, ranking
of individuals become a difficult issue.
iv. There is no systematic procedure for ranking individuals
in the organization. The ranking system does not eliminate
the possibility of snap judgements.
2. Rating Scale
Rating scales consists of several numerical scales
representing job related performance criterions such as
dependability, initiative, output, attendance, attitude etc.
Each scales ranges from excellent to poor. The total
numerical scores are computed and final conclusions are
derived. Advantages – Adaptability, easy to use, low cost,
every type of job can be evaluated, large number of
employees covered, no formal training required.
Disadvantages – Rater’s biases
4. 3. Checklist method
Under this method, checklist of statements of traits of
employee in the form of Yes or No based questions is
prepared. Here the rater only does the reporting or
checking and HR department does the actual evaluation.
Advantages – economy, ease of administration, limited
training required, standardization. Disadvantages – Raters
biases, use of improper weighs by HR, does not allow
rater to give relative ratings
4. Critical Incidents Method
The approach is focused on certain critical behaviors of
employee that makes all the difference in the
performance. Supervisors as and when they occur record
such incidents. Advantages – Evaluations are based on
actual job behaviors, ratings are supported by
descriptions, feedback is easy, reduces recency biases,
chances of subordinate improvement are high.
Disadvantages – Negative incidents can be prioritized,
forgetting incidents, overly close supervision; feedback
may be too much and may appear to be punishment.
5. Essay Method
5. In this method the rater writes down the employee
description in detail within a number of broad categories
like, overall impression of performance, promoteability
of employee, existing capabilities and qualifications of
performing jobs, strengths and weaknesses and training
needs of the employee. Advantage – It is extremely
useful in filing information gaps about the employees
that often occur in a better-structured checklist.
Disadvantages – It its highly dependent upon the writing
skills of rater and most of them are not good writers.
They may get confused success depends on the memory
power of raters.
6. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales
statements of effective and ineffective behaviors
determine the points. They are said to be
behaviorally anchored. The rater is supposed to
say, which behavior describes the employee
performance. Advantages – helps overcome rating
errors. Disadvantages – Suffers from distortions
inherent in most rating techniques.
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