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Spanish 4 h grammar book

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Spanish 4 h grammar book
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Spanish 4 h grammar book

  1. 1. Spanish 4H Grammar Book Alejandra Cooke Period 1
  2. 2. Table of Contents 3: El Presente 23: Negative Formal 4: Irregular Yo Forms Commands 5: Irregular Verbs 24: Informal Commands (present tense) 25: Nosotros Commands 6: Ser y Estar 27: Object Pronouns 8: Verbos Como Gustar 29: Prepositional 10: Nouns & Articles Pronouns 11: Adjetivos 30: Double Object 12: Preterite v. Pronouns Imperfect 31: Possessive Adjectives 15: Present Subjunctive 32: Possessive Pronouns 19: Subjunctive in Noun Clauses 33: Demonstrative 20: Subjunctive in Adjectives Adjective Clauses 34: Demonstrative 21: DOP & IOP with Pronouns commands 37: Reflexive Pronouns 22: Formal Commands 38: Por y Para 39: To Become
  3. 3. El Presente • present tense of regular verbs is formed by dropping the infinitive ending “-ar, -er, -ir” • used to express habitual actions or actions that will take place in the near future Stem-changing verbs >-ar/-er: e to ie and o to ue >-ir: e to i **no stem-changing in the nosotros and vosotros forms >JUGAR: u to ueconstruir, destruir, incluir, influir (add y before personal endings) Ejemplos 1) Yo como una hamburguesa para mi almuerzo. 2) Ella juega fútbol con su amigas. 3) Escribimos con un lapiz en mi cuaderno.
  4. 4. Irregular Yo Forms • -er/-ir have irregular yo forms in the present tense • -cer/-cir change to -zco in the yo form • -ger/-gir change to –jo • many verbs have irregular -go endings >caer, to fall: yo caigo >conducir, to drive: yo conduzco >dirigir, to direct/manage: yo dirijo >caber, to fit: yo quepo >saber, to know: yo sé >ver, to see: yo veo
  5. 5. Irregular Verbs, Present Tense >dar: doy, das, da, damos, dais, dan >decir >estar Ejemplos >ir 1) Yo hago mucha comida durante los vacaciones de diciembre. >ser 2) Yo pongo mis libros en mi escritorio. 3) Yo salgo mi casa para ir al aeropuerto. 4) Yo conduzco con mi madre para recibir mi >tener licencia. >venir
  6. 6. Ser y Estar “to be” not interchangeable SER ESTAR • nationality and place of • express things temporarily origin (qualities or conditions that • profession or occupation change with time) • characteristics of people, • location or spatial animals, and things relationships • generalizations • health • possession • emotional states • material of composition • certain weather expressions • time, date, or season • ongoing actions • where or when an event (progressive tenses) takes place • results of actions (past participles) • death: “muerto/a”
  7. 7. Ser y Estar contd. SER Ejemplos ESTAR Ejemplos 1) Soy de Woodstock, GA. 1) Estoy en Nueva York 2) Ella es colombiana. para esta semana. 3) Mi madre es una 2) Ellos están aburridos doctora. en la clase de 4) Los gemelos, Ana y Nico, son morenos con ojos ciencias. verdes. 3) Porque es octubre, 5) El libro Twilight es de estamos en el otoño. Selena. 4) Mi amiga Marisol está 6) El concierto de Jingle Ball es en diciembre. enferma con la gripe.
  8. 8. Verbos Como Gustar • gustar: “to please” • Aburrir: to bore >the thing/person • Caer bien/mal: to get along that pleases is the subject; • Disgustar: to upset gustar agrees in person and • Doler: to hurt number • Encantar: to enjoy >singular or plural • Faltar: to lack • when gustar is followed by • Fascinar: to fascinate one or more verbs in infinitive, singular form of • Hacer falta gustar is always used • Importar • used in conditional to • Interesar: to interest soften a request • Molestar: to bother • a+[prep. pronoun] or • Preocupar: to worry a+[noun] emphasizes who • Quedar: to leave; to fit is pleased (clothing) • Sorprender: to surprise
  9. 9. Verbos Como Gustar contd. 1) Me gusta la revista de InStyle. 2) Nos gustan las vacaciones en Florida. 3) Me fascina Central Park en Nueva York. 4) Te duelen mis piernas.
  10. 10. Nouns & Articles • nouns in Spanish are either masculine or feminine (masculine usually ends in – o, feminine usually ends in –a) Definite Articles Indefinite Articles el un la una los unos las unas Feminine: -a, -dad/-tad/-tud, - Masculine: -o, -ma/-ta/-pa ción/-sión/-gión, -ez, -triz, -umbre, and nouns referring to women Examples: feminine--la fruta, la ciudad, la canción, la validez, la actriz, la costumbre, la madre; masculine--el programa, el día
  11. 11. Adjetivos • adjectives are used to describe nouns • they take the form of either masculine or feminine, depending on the gender of the word they are describing (la fresa roja, el libro aburrido) • either singular or plural, again depending on the noun it‟s describing (EX: el chico alto, los chicos altos) • adjectives that end in -e for the singular also end in –es for the plural
  12. 12. Preterite v. Imperfect PRETERITE IMPERFECT “Snapshot” of the past “Video” of the past without a specific beginning or stopping point >actions viewed as single events >habitual actions >actions repeated a specific >actions that “set the stage” for other number of times past actions >actions that occurred during a >time specific time period >date >part of a chain of events >weather >state the beginning/end of an >age action >mental states Preterite >describing characteristics of people, é í things, or conditions aste iste ó ió Imperfect amos imos aba ábamos ía íamos asteis isteis abas abais ías íais aron ieron aba aban ía ían
  13. 13. Preterite v. Imperfect contd. PRETERITE IMPERFECT Trigger Words: ayer, Trigger Words: a veces, anoche, el otro día, cada día, cada entonces, esta semana/mes/año, muchas mañana/tarde, la semana veces, nunca, mientras, siempre, todos los días pasada, el año pasado >would, used to, were/was… Example Juan habló con la Example estudiante. Las chicas hablaban en Juan spoke with the inglés. student. The girls used to speak in English.
  14. 14. Preterite v. Imperfect contd. • -gar changes g to gu • -car changes c to qu • -zar changes z to c • verbs that end in -aer, -eer, -oír, -oer, & uir change ió to yó & ieron to yeron
  15. 15. Present Subjunctive Subjunctive Main clause -ar: e, es, e, Irregulars Mood + emos, en dar (dé) *attitudes connector estar (esté) *uncertainty + -er/-ir: a, as, a, ir (vaya) *hypothetical subordinate amos, an saber (sepa) clause haber (haya) ser (sea) Tenga Wishing/Wanting **Subjunctive is SUBJECTIVE Venga Emotion *iffy Doubt *indicative Dé/Diga Disbelief I vaya Impersonal Sea Expressions Haga/Haya Negation Esté God/Grief Sepa
  16. 16. Present Subjunctive contd. Impersonal Expressions *Es bueno que *Es mejor que *Es malo que *Es necesario que *Es importante que *Es urgente que
  17. 17. Present Subjunctive contd. Expressions of Emotion *alegrarse (de): to be happy *esperar: to hope, to wish *sentir (e-ie): to be sorry, to regret *sorprender: to surprise *temer: to be afraid, to fear *Es triste: It‟s sad *Ojalá (que): I hope (that), I wish (that)
  18. 18. Present Subjunctive contd. Expressions of Doubt, Disbelief, & Denial *dudar: to doubt *negar (e-ie): to deny *Es imposible: It‟s impossible *Es improbable: It‟s improbable *No es cierto: It‟s not true, It‟s not certain *No es seguro: It‟s not certain *No es verdad: It‟s not true
  19. 19. Subjunctive in Noun Clauses • noun clause: dependent clauses that serve as a direct object or complement of a verb • the subjunctive mood is used with noun clauses when: *subj. of the verb is different than that of the dependent clause *the verb is influence/willing (want, prefer, desire), emotion (fear, happy), doubt/negation (uncertain, deny), and impersonal expression (es posible, es importante) EX: Dudo que vaya al Inglaterra en el verano. Creo que tengamos una prueba en ciencias.
  20. 20. Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses • adjective clause: an entire clause that describes a noun or pronoun • the subjunctive mood is used with adjective clauses when the antecedent is indefinite, unknown, nonexistent, or negated EX: Necesito un libro que me explique esto. Busco una doctora que sepa español.
  21. 21. DOP & IOP with Commands AFFIRMATIVE NOSOTROS Tú: drop the ‘s’ Ud./Uds.: put it in ‘yo’ form, change Irregulars: di, haz, ve, pon, sal, sé, to opposite vowel ten, ven Irregulars: TVDISHES Tú: put it in „yo‟ form and change Ud./Uds.: same as above to the opposite vowel, add „s‟ Irregulars: TVDISHES Irregulars: TVDISHES NEGATIVE NOSOTROS *DOP + IOP + „se‟ can attach to affirmative *DOP + IOP + „se‟ must go before the negative command
  22. 22. Formal Commands • use when addressing someone you don‟t know well or someone you show respect to • all usted and ustedes commands are formed the same as the present subjunctive 1. start with the yo form of the present tense **irregularity carries 2. drop the –o ending over from the yo form to command form 3. add the following endings: >tenga, tengan *-ar: -e (usted), -en (ustedes) >traiga, traigan >venga, vengan *-er/-ir: -a (usted), -an (ustedes) **stem-changing verbs *hable, hablen *Affirmative & transition the same as *coma, coman Negative irregulars *escriba, escriban commands use >cuente, cuenten the same verb >vuelva, vuelvan forms* >pida, pidan
  23. 23. Negative Formal Commands • add “no” in front of the formal command EX: No saquen sus libros. No ponga su mochila aquí. No lleguen tarde.
  24. 24. Informal Commands • use when addressing family or friends • affirmative tú commands are formed the same as the present tense usted form *hablar –ar + a= habla *comer –er + e= come *escribir –ir + e= escribe *EX: Compra la camisa. *pronoun attached to the end of aff. Commands *IRREGULARS: decir-di, salir-sal, hacer-haz, ser-sé, ver-ve, tener-ten, poner-pon, venir-ven • negative informal commands use the tú form of the present subjunctive (EX: no hables, no escribas) *pronoun precedes the verb
  25. 25. Nosotros Commands • used when the speaker suggests an action to be done by a group, including the speaker • two ways to form these commands: ir form and subjunctive form *IR: use present nosotros form of ir EX: Vamos a nadar. Vamos al restaurante. *pronoun attached to the end *SUBJUNCTIVE: use nosotros in the present subjunctive form EX: Tomemos un taxi. Comamos aquí. *pronouns nos & se-drop the final –s of the verb and add to the end
  26. 26. Nosotros Commands contd. Negative • place “no” in front of the present subjunctive of nosotros EX: No nademos. No salgamos. *reflexive, direct object, & indirect object pronouns precede negative pronouns EX: No los comamos. Reflexive: Peinémonos el cabello. Cepillémonos los dientes. DO: Comámoslas. Pongámoslo. IOP: Contestémosles. **when attaching reflexive pronouns to the end of a nosotros command, drop the final s of the command form before the reflexive pronoun**
  27. 27. Object Pronouns *direct object pronouns receive the action of the verb **indirect object pronouns identify to whom or for whom an action is done *direct/indirect object pronouns precede the conjugated verb *obj. pronouns may be attached to the infinitive, gerund, affirmative command, or placed before the conjugated verb
  28. 28. Object Pronouns contd. **Le and Les change to se when they are used with lo, la, los, or las *when obj. pronouns are attached to infinitives, participles, or commands, a written accent is often required to maintain proper word stress
  29. 29. Prepositional Pronouns Mí: me, myself Él: him, it Nosotros/as: us, Ellos: them ourselves Ti: you, yourself Ella: her, it Vosotros/as: Ellas: them you, yourselves Ud.: you, yourself Sí: himself, Uds.: you, Sí: themselves herself, itself yourselves *prepositional pronouns function as the objects of prepositions >except for mí, ti, & sí, they are identical to their corresponding subj. pronouns *pronoun sí is used to refer back to the same third-person subject (mismo/a(s) added for clarification) *when mí, ti, & sí are used with con, they become conmigo, contigo, & consigo *these are used with tú and yo instead of ti and mí: entre, excepto, incluso, menos, salvo, según
  30. 30. Double Object Pronouns *indirect object pronouns precede the direct object pronoun when they are used together in a sentence
  31. 31. Possessive Adjectives 5 Possessive Adjectives: mi (my), tu (your informal), su (his, her, their, your formal), nuestro (our), & vuestro (your familiar or plural) *mi, tu, and su have both singular and plural forms: mi, mis, tu, tus, su, sus • agree with the nouns they modify • mi, tu, and su do not have feminine or masculine forms (stay the same regardless of gender) • nuestro and vuestro: nuestro, nuestra, nuestros, nuestras & vuestro, vuestra, vuestros, vuestras EX: mi libro, tus libros, su revista, nuestros carros, vuestro cuaderno
  32. 32. Possessive Pronouns • mine: el mío, la mía, los míos, las mías • yours (familiars): el tuyo, la tuya, los tuyos, las tuyas • yours (formal), his, hers: el suyo, la suya, los suyos, las suyas • ours: el nuestro, la nuestra, los nuestros, las nuestras • yours (familiar): el vuestro, la vuestra, los vuestros, las vuestras • yours (formal), theirs: el suyo, la suya, los suyos, las suyas EX: Mi libro es grande pero el tuyo es pequeño. Su carro es negro pero el mío es rojo.
  33. 33. Demonstrative Adjectives Este Ese Aquel este ese aquel estos esos aquellos esta esa aquella estas esas aquellas Neuter Forms (refer to abstract ideas) *esto: this matter, this thing *eso: that matter, that thing *aquello: that matter/thing over there
  34. 34. Demonstrative Pronouns • replace a noun in a phrase instead of modifying it like an adjective would 1) replace noun(s) close to the speaker (this one) EX: Yo quiero ésta aquí. Singular Plural éste (this one here) éstos (this one here) ésta (this one here) éstas (this one here)
  35. 35. Demonstrative Pronouns contd. 2) replace noun(s) that are not close to the speaker (that one) EX: Ésas son las más bonitas. Singular Plural ése (that one there) ésos (those there) ésa (that one there) ésas (those there)
  36. 36. Demonstrative Pronouns contd. 3) replace noun(s) far from the speaker and listener (that over there) EX: Aquél allá es peligroso. Singular Plural aquél (that over there) aquéllos (those over there) aquélla (that over there) aquéllas (those over there)
  37. 37. Reflexive Pronouns • reflexive pronouns work with reflexive verbs to show that a person is performing the action to him/herself (personal care & daily routines) • used to indicate an emotional response EX: Me ducho cada mañana. I shower (myself) every morning. • placed immediately before simple conjugated verbs & negative commands; attached to affirmative commands Reflexive Verb Examples Singular Plural cepillarse (to brush) 1st person me (to, for, from, or nos (to, for, from, or off myself) off ourselves) ducharse (to shower) 2nd person te (to, for, from, or os (to, for, from, or secarse (to dry off) off yourself) off yourselves) 3rd person se (to, for, from, or se (to, for, from, or off himself, herself, off themselves, itself, yourself) yourselves)
  38. 38. Por y Para POR PARA *express gratitude or apology: Gracias por la ayuda *destination: Ella salió para *“through”, “along”, “by”, “in Madrid the area of”: Andamos por el *use or purpose: El vaso es parque para agua *exchange, including sales *“in order to”, “for the purpose *“on behalf of”, “in favor of” of” *express length of time: Estudié por dos horas *recipient: Este regalo es para *“during” ti *communication, *deadline or specific time transportation: Viajo por tren y hablo por teléfono *express cause or reason *idiomatic expression: por ahora, por aquí, por ejemplo, por favor, por fin, por último
  39. 39. To Become • Hacerse: reflexive verb; to become, to pretend; conjugated the same as hacer (add the proper reflexive pronoun-EX: me hago) • Ponerse: me pongo, se ponen, reflexive form of poner • Volverse: me vuelvo, te vuelves • Llegar a ser: Spanish phrasal verb that means “to become”

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