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Spanish 4 h grammar book

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Spanish 4 h grammar book

  1. 1. Spanish 4H Grammar Book Alejandra Cooke Period 1
  2. 2. Table of Contents 3: El Presente 4: Irregular Yo Forms 5: Irregular Verbs (present tense) 6: Ser y Estar 7: Verbos Como Gustar 8: Nouns & Articles 9: Preterite v. Imperfect
  3. 3. El Presente • present tense of regular verbs is formed by dropping the infinitive ending “-ar, -er, -ir” • used to express habitual actions or actions that will take place in the near future Stem-changing verbs >-ar/-er: e to ie and o to ue >-ir: e to i **no stem-changing in the nosotros and vosotros forms >JUGAR: u to ueconstruir, destruir, incluir, influir (add y before personal endings)
  4. 4. Irregular Yo Forms • -er/-ir have irregular yo forms in the present tense • -cer/-cir change to -zco in the yo form • -ger/-gir change to –jo • many verbs have irregular -go endings >caer, to fall: yo caigo >conducir, to drive: yo conduzco >dirigir, to direct/manage: yo dirijo >caber, to fit: yo quepo >saber, to know: yo sé >ver, to see: yo veo
  5. 5. Irregular Verbs, Present Tense >dar: doy, das, da, damos, dais, dan >decir >estar >ir >ser >tener >venir
  6. 6. Ser y Estar “to be” not interchangeable SER ESTAR • nationality and place of • express things temporarily origin (qualities or conditions that • profession or occupation change with time) • characteristics of people, • location or spatial animals, and things relationships • generalizations • health • possession • emotional states • material of composition • certain weather expressions • time, date, or season • ongoing actions • where or when an event (progressive tenses) takes place • results of actions (past participles) • death: “muerto/a”
  7. 7. Verbos Como Gustar • gustar: “to please” • Aburrir: to bore >the thing/person • Caer bien/mal: to get along that pleases is the subject; • Disgustar: to upset gustar agrees in person and • Doler: to hurt number • Encantar: to enjoy >singular or plural • Faltar: to lack • when gustar is followed by • Fascinar: to fascinate one or more verbs in infinitive, singular form of • Hacer falta gustar is always used • Importar • used in conditional to • Interesar: to interest soften a request • Molestar: to bother • a+[prep. pronoun] or • Preocupar: to worry a+[noun] emphasizes who • Quedar: to leave; to fit is pleased (clothing) • Sorprender: to surprise
  8. 8. Nouns & Articles • nouns in Spanish are either masculine or feminine (masculine usually ends in – o, feminine usually ends in –a) Definite Articles Indefinite Articles el un la una los unos las unas Feminine: -a, -dad/-tad/-tud, - Masculine: -o, -ma/-ta/-pa ción/-sión/-gión, -ez, -triz, -umbre, and nouns referring to women Examples: feminine--la fruta, la ciudad, la canción, la validez, la actriz, la costumbre, la madre; masculine--el programa, el día
  9. 9. Preterite v. Imperfect PRETERITE IMPERFECT “Snapshot” of the past “Video” of the past without a specific beginning or stopping point >actions viewed as single events >habitual actions >actions repeated a specific >actions that “set the stage” for other number of times past actions >actions that occurred during a >time specific time period >date >part of a chain of events >weather >state the beginning/end of an >age action >mental states Preterite >describing characteristics of people, é í things, or conditions aste iste ó ió Imperfect amos imos aba ábamos ía íamos asteis isteis abas abais ías íais aron ieron aba aban ía ían
  10. 10. Preterite v. Imperfect contd. PRETERITE IMPERFECT Trigger Words: ayer, Trigger Words: a veces, anoche, el otro día, cada día, cada entonces, esta semana/mes/año, muchas mañana/tarde, la semana veces, nunca, mientras, siempre, todos los días pasada, el año pasado >would, used to, were/was… Example Juan habló con la Example estudiante. Las chicas hablaban en Juan spoke with the inglés. student. The girls used to speak in English.
  11. 11. Preterite v. Imperfect contd. • -gar changes g to gu • -car changes c to qu • -zar changes z to c • verbs that end in -aer, -eer, -oír, -oer, & uir change ió to yó & ieron to yeron

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