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Teaching theories

  1. 1. By JEEN PETER Master of Education (2010 – 2011) School of Education Pondicherry University
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ A theory of teaching is a set of interrelated constructs, definitions, propositions which present a systematic view of teaching by specifying relations among variables with the purpose of explaining and predicting ”. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Formal Theory of teaching Descriptive theory of teaching Normative theory of teaching <ul><li>Meutic Theory of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Theory of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Moulding theory of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>The mutual enquiry theory </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Prescriptive theory of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive theory of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Theory of teacher behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Theory of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>General theory of teaching </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The theory which is based upon certain logic, certain metaphysical, epistemological assumptions and propositions is known as formal theory of teaching. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Meutic Theory of Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>This theory conceives that teaching process helps to recollect or unfold that knowledge with questioning techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>The socratic’s method is an essential for this theory. </li></ul><ul><li>The heredity plays an important role in teaching process. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The communication Theory of Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>This theory of teaching based upon assumptions that the teacher possesses all knowledge and information which student does not possess. </li></ul><ul><li>the teacher presents, explains, demonstrates and performs in the classroom . </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The moulding theory of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>John Dewey is the advocate of this moulding theory of teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>It has the focus on shape, form and mould of the students behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>human personality is formed, shaped and moulded by their environment . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The mutual inquiry theory </li></ul><ul><li>This theory assumes that each individual has the capacity to discover new knowledge with mutual inquiry. </li></ul><ul><li>True knowledge is inquiry. </li></ul><ul><li>This theory of teaching is clearly applicable to research and art. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Descriptive theory of teaching is based upon certain propositions and certain observations . </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Theories of Instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Gagne’s hierarchical theory of Instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Atkinson’s Decision Theoretic Analysis for optimizing learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Bruner’s Cognitive Developmental Theory of Instruction. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Gagne’s hierarchical theory of Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Learning event Corresponding instructional events </li></ul><ul><li>Reception Gaining attention </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy Information learners of the objective </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval Stimulation recall or prior learning </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Perception Presenting the stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic encoding Providing learning guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Responding Eliciting performance </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement Providing feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval Assessing performance </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization Enhancing retention and transfer </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Atkinson’s Decision-theoretic Analysis for Optimizing Learning . </li></ul><ul><li>Atkinson Proposed four characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Model of the learning process should be involved </li></ul><ul><li>It should involve specified instructional actions </li></ul><ul><li>The instructional objectives should be specified in behavioral terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Each instructional objective can be measured by Burner advocates that a theory of instruction is designing measurement scale or questions. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Bruner’s Cognitive Developmental Theory of Instruction . </li></ul><ul><li>Bruner has specified four features </li></ul><ul><li>Predisposition to learn - A theory of instruction must be concerned with the experiences and context that will tend to make the child willing and able to learn when he enters the school </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of knowledge - A theory of instruction should specify the ways in which body of knowledge should be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of instruction – A theory of instruction should specify the most effective sequences to present the material </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement – A theory of instruction should specify the nature and pacing of rewards, moving from extrinsic rewards of intrinsic one. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>E. Stones and Morries have attempted to explain the nature of teaching with the help of three types of related variables: </li></ul><ul><li>The first phase includes the teacher in the analysis of the teaching problems and teaching tests before teaching takes place. </li></ul><ul><li>In the second Phase decision are made about the interrelationship of the variables deemed appropriate to teaching objectives </li></ul><ul><li>The third phase concerns with evaluating the effectiveness and workability of phase two </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>The cognitive theory of teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Types of teacher’s activity –Adviser, counselor, motivator, demonstrator, curriculum planner and evaluator. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of educational objectives –Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of learning theories – philosophical theories of learning Psychological theories of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Types of components of learning - drive, cue, response and reward . </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>D.G. Ryan has tried to explain the concept of teacher-behaviour and formulated a theory of teacher-behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Teacher behavior consists of those acts that the teacher performs typically in the classroom in order to induce-learning”. </li></ul><ul><li>- M. Meux and B.O. Smith </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>It is based upon two postulates. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher behaviour is social in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher behaviour is relative </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>This theory considers teaching a sort contractual relationship between the teacher and the pupils. </li></ul><ul><li>That relationship consists of certain activities to be performed by the teacher such as : analyzing teaching task, determining learning goals, identifying entering behavior and selecting teaching strate gy </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>S.C.T. Clarke has formulated a general theory of teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>It assumes that teaching is process which is designed and performed to produce change in behavior of students . </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Teaching theory is prescriptive. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers and pupils are the major variables of teaching theory. </li></ul><ul><li>It is narrow and specific. </li></ul><ul><li>It is based upon learning theory, learning conditions and learning components. </li></ul><ul><li>While learning theory are formulated by conducting experiments on animals teaching theory is developed by dealing with human subjects in normal situations. I </li></ul><ul><li>It is concerned with effective learning and development of pupils. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>The teacher gains attention by showing variety of triangles </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>To recognize an equilateral triangle </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>Definition of triangle </li></ul><ul><li>A three sided polygon </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>Definition of an equilateral triangle </li></ul><ul><li>A polygon with all sides equal </li></ul>
  25. 27. A B C 5 cm 5 cm 5 cm Step 1. Draw a line AB of 5cm Step 2: With B as centre and radius 5 cm draw an arc Step 3: with A as centre and radius 5cm draw another arc to cut the previous arc and mark it C Step 4: Join BC and CA This is an equilateral triangle where all sides are equal
  26. 28. <ul><li>Here the teacher asks the students to create 5 different examples of equilateral triangle </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>Here the teacher checks all examples as correct or incorrect </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>In this level the teacher provides scores and remediation. </li></ul>
  29. 31. <ul><li>Now the teacher shows the pictures of different triangles and asks students to identify equilateral triangle </li></ul>
  30. 32. 1 2 3 4 5
  31. 33. <ul><li>Sharma. R.K. “ Technological foundation of education ”, Theories of teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>Mangal. S.K. “ Advanced Educational Psychology ”, Nature and theories of learning. PHI learning Private Limited. Pg.235 – 236 . </li></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>