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Toulouse yves

  1. 1. Artwork copyright 2006 Don Dixon/cosmographica.com<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. Quelques grandes étapes de l'évolution de la Terre solide<br />Nicolas Coltice<br />
  4. 4. P. Rey (Sydney)<br />B. Marty (Nancy)<br />N. Flament<br />R. Yokochi (Chicago)<br />
  5. 5. D’une Terre Archéenne à une Terre moderne<br />
  6. 6. Interactions Continents – Terre fluide<br />Archéen : Magmatisme vs. hydrothermalisme<br /><ul><li> épanchements magmatiques
  7. 7. roches complètement lessivées et transformées par des interactions de surface</li></ul>Aujourd'hui : Tectonique vs. climat<br /><ul><li> reliefs, chaînes de montagnes modernes
  8. 8. altération érosion liées aux précipitations</li></li></ul><li>Une Terre archéennesous les eaux<br />Archean (~3.5 Ga) pillow lava (P. Rey)‏<br />From Kump and Barley (2007)‏<br /> Flood volcanism on submerged continental platforms is:<br /><ul><li>common in the Precambrian
  9. 9. rare to absent throughout the Phanerozoic</li></ul> These lavas have interacted with differentiated material<br /> (N. Arndt, 1999)‏<br />
  10. 10. En accord avec le message du Sr<br />Change in the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of seawater from ~2.8 Ga<br />Shields and Veizer (2002)<br />
  11. 11. Une Terre archéenne sans trace de granites en surface<br />Shales are a proxy for the composition of Earth's emerged surface:<br /><ul><li>Mafic sources:
  12. 12. no Eu anomaly
  13. 13. Low LREE/HREE
  14. 14. High [Sc]
  15. 15. Felsic sources:
  16. 16. Eu anomaly
  17. 17. High LREE/HREE
  18. 18. Enriched in Th, U</li></ul>From Taylor and McLennan (1985)‏<br />Pas de granite en surface? Pas d’érosion ?<br />
  19. 19. Des causes thermiques ?<br />
  20. 20. Les continents archéenschaudssont plats<br />
  21. 21. Les “pentes” se développent après l'Archéen<br />Rey et Coltice, 2008<br />
  22. 22. Conséquencessurl’hypsométrie<br /><ul><li>Niveaumarinarchéen plus élevé</li></li></ul><li>Modéliser la surface continentaleemergée<br />Bathymetry:<br />Half-space cooling model<br />Comparison between two <br />recent thermal evolution <br />models:<br /><ul><li>Korenaga (2006)‏
  23. 23. Labrosse and </li></ul>Jaupart (2007)‏<br />Isostasy:<br />Volume conservation:<br />Flament et al., 2008<br />
  24. 24. Prédiction pour l’Archéenprécoce<br />Mantle 200 °C hotter ; continental area 20 % ; Archaean hypsometry<br />
  25. 25. Prédiction pour l’Archéentardif<br />Mantle 150 °C hotter ; continental area 80 % ; Archaean hypsometry<br />
  26. 26. Prédiction pour le protérozoïque<br />Mantle 100 °C hotter ; continental area 100 % ; present-day hypsometry<br />
  27. 27. Aujourd’hui<br />
  28. 28. Conséquences sur l’évolution de la chimie de l’océan<br />Modélisation géochimique :<br /><ul><li> Échanges océans-croûte-manteau
  29. 29. Courbe de croissance crustale
  30. 30. Évoltion du relief</li></ul>  Flux de matière = Reliefa<br />
  31. 31. Perspectives<br />Estimer l’effet des évolutions proposées sur la chimie de l’océan (pH, nutriments…)<br />Estimer l’effet des évolutions proposées sur le climat archéen<br />
  32. 32. D’une Terre hadéenne à une Terre archéenne<br />Artwork copyright 2006 Don Dixon/cosmographica.com<br />
  33. 33. 129I<br />244Pu + 238U<br />Les isotopes du Xénon comme traceurs<br /> (Kunz, Staudacher, Allègre 1998)<br />Half-lives :<br />129I  16 Ma<br />244Pu  82 Ma<br /> 238U  4450 Ma<br />
  34. 34. Present-day mantle mantle <br />Closed-system<br />mantle<br />6800<br />2-22<br />Contraintes sur le timing du dégazage<br />30<br />0.25-1.5<br />1<br />1<br />136Xe<br />136Xe<br />129Xe<br />136Xe<br />136Xe<br />129Xe<br />244Pu<br />129I<br />244Pu<br />129I<br />238U<br />238U<br />
  35. 35. Comment dégazer le Xe du manteau ?<br />Accretion (choc)<br />Océan de magma (fusion)<br />Refroidissement de la Terre (convection)<br />Complet et instantanné<br />Partiel et sur la durée (~ 4.4By)<br />
  36. 36. Coupler l’histoire thermique à celle du dégazage<br />Pour calculer D(t) il nous faut T(t) et S(t)<br />
  37. 37. Pas d’hypothèse sur la physique du refroidissement<br />
  38. 38. Prescrire une « surface » de fusion<br />
  39. 39. Les histoires magmatiques qui expliquent les isotopes du Xe<br />Coltice et al., 2009<br />
  40. 40. Les histoires thermiques qui expliquent les isotopes du Xe<br />Estimer un flux de CO2 dégagé<br />Coltice et al., 2009<br />

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