1. Discourse Analysis
Maulana Arif B (17202244043)
Reta Irvanda Syahrani I’Har (17202244038)
Clara Sekar Pinayungan M.F (17202244034)
Rifka Hayu Indraswari (17202244039)
2. What is discourse analysis?
The word “discourse” is
usually defined as
“language beyond the
sentence” and so the
analysis of discourse is
with the study of
language in texts and
Discourse analysis is
one of the disciplines
that deals with the
study of language use
and it therefore in part
The linguistic is an analysis of literary language, known as stylistic .This is somewhat misleading
term the word “styles” was once applied to different varieties of language,such as the language of
religion or of legal documents.
1.Discourse is language in context refer to language in action, while a text is written record of inte
raction (communicative event).
2.Discourse bring together language, the individual producing the language and context within w
hich language used.
4. The context and example
My natal was in a small town, very close to Riyadh capital of Saudi Ar
abia. The distant between my town and Riyadh 7 miles
exactly. The name of this Almasani
that means in English Factories. It takes this name from the
In my childhood I remmeber the people live. It was very simple.
Most the people was farmer.
This example may serve to illustrate a simple point about the
way we react to language
This example may serve to illustrate a simple point about the way we react
to language that contains ungrammatical forms.
• Cohession is a grammatical and lexical relationship between
the element of the text such as word, phrases, clauses,
pronouns, and conjunction (called cohesive device).
• Cohession also known as internal coherence.
6. Example :
My father once bought a Lincoln convertible. He did it by
saving every penny he could. That car would be worth a
fortune nowadays. However, he sold it to help pay for my
college education. Sometimes I think I’d rather have the
convertible. (George Yule, The Study of Language)
father-he-he-he and a lincoln convertible- that car-it-the
convertible (Cohesive ties in reference)
bought-saving-penny-worth-fortune-sold-pay [money] and
once, nowadays, sometimes [time] (Cohesive ties in
7. Example unappropriate using
My father bought a lincoln convertible. The car driven by
the police was red. That color doesn’t suit her. She consist
of three letters. However a letter isn’t as fast as a
There are many cohesive device but it
make the text hard to interpret.
8. Devices that can be used to make cohesive :
Co-reference (it, she, her, he, him, this, that, there, and so on)
Conjunction (for, but, until, since, before, after, now, and so on)
Collocation (lexical cohession)
Coherence is a condition when “everything fitting together
well” not something that exist in word or structure but
something that exist in people. (George Yule, The Study of
Language)(George Yule, The Study of Language)Example :
Her : That’s the telephone
Him : I’m in the bath
Her : Ok
(George Yule, The Study of Language)
10. Cohession and coherence
Cohession focused in grammatical and coherence fouced in
Cohession help to create coherence but coherence not
always need cohesive
11. Information structure
Information structure is the way we pack our
information into reader or hearer.
1. Principle of end-focus (give the familiar information
first before giving the new information or the focus of
2. Principle of end-weight (make the informative part or
focus of the sentece also longer and complex)
12. Speech event
Speech event can be defined by a unified set of
components through out same purpose, same topic, and
same participants. Example: debate, interview, daily
Factors that effect speech variation: the role of
speakers and hearer, age, status, and many more.
13. Conversational Analysis
In simple terms, English Conversation can be described as an activity in
which, for the most part, two or more people take turns at speaking.
typically, only one person speaks at a time and there tends to be an
avoidance of silence between speaking turns. (This is not true in all
situations or societies.) If more than one participant tries to talk at the
sae time, one of them usually stops, as the following example, where A
stops until B has finished.
A: Didn't you [ know wh-
B: [ but he must've been there by two]
There are different expectations of conversational style and
different strategies of participation in conversation. Some of
these strategies seem to be the source of what is
sometimes describe by participants as “rudeness” (if one
speaker cuts in on another speaker) or “shyness” (if one
speaker keeps waiting for an opportunity to take a turn and
none seems to occur)
15. Co-operative principle
the cooperative principle is a principle of conversation that
was proposed by Grice 1975,stating that participantsexpect
that each will make a “conversational contribution such as
is required , at the stage at which it occurs, by the ccepted
purpose or direction of the talk excahange
16. The cooperative principle, along with the cnversational
maxims, partly accounts for conversational implicatures.
participants assume that a speaker is being cooperative,
and thus they make conversational implicatures about wht
ex : when a speaker makes apparently uninformative
remark such as “War is war,” the addressee assumes that
the speaker is being cooperative and looks for the
implicature the speaker is making.
is a mitigating word, sound, or contstruction used to lessen
the impact of an utterance due to constraints on the
interaction between the sspeaker an addressee, such as
politeness, softening the blow, avoiding the appeareance of
bragging and others. typically, they areadjectives or
adverbs, but can also consist of clauses such as one use of
tag question. it could be regarded as a form of euphrmism.
18. ex : There might just be a few insignificant problems we
need to address. (adj)
The party was somewhat spoiled by the return of the
• When we try to analyze how hedges work, we
usually talk about speakers implying
something that is not said. With the
cooperative principle and the maxims as
guides, we can start to work out how people
actually decide that someone is "implying"
something in conversation.
20. • example » Angel: Are coming to the party
tonight? Reta: I've got an exam tomorrow.
• Reta's statement is not an answer to Angel's
question. Reta doesn't say Yes or No. Yet Angel
will immediately interpret the statement as
meaning "no" or "probably not".
22. • Most people who are asked to read this
sentences report that they think Stephen is
probably a schoolboy. Since this piece of
information is not directly state in the text, it
must be an inference. Other inferences, for
different readers, are that Stephen is walking
or that he is on a bus. .
23. • These inferences are clearly derived from our
conventional knowledge, in our culture, about
"going to school", and no reader has ever
suggested that Stephen is swimming or on a
boat, though both are physically possible, if
24. SCHEMAS AND SCRIPT
• A schema is a general term for a conventional
knowledge structure that exist in memory.
• A script is essentially a dynamic schema.
25. • Trying not to be out of the office for long, Suzy
went into the nearest place, sat down, and
ordered an avocado sandwich. It was quite
crowded but the service was fast, so she left a
good tip. Back in the office, things were not
26. • On the basis of our restaurant script, we
would be able to say a number of things about
the scene and events briefly described in this
short text. For example, although the text
doesn't have this information, we can assume
that Suzy opened the door, she ate the
sandwich, she paid, and so on.