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Kingdom animalia

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Kingdom animalia

  1. 1.  Animals are ingestive heterotrophs  That means they eat their food  They are multicellular  The Animal Kingdom is divided into many Phyla This chart is a phylogenetic tree of the Phyla in the Animal Kingdom It shows the evolutionary or DNA relationships We are only going to look at some of these phyla
  2. 2. The animals in this Phylum all have: 1. A strong exoskeleton made of Chitin This is an outside hard covering that acts as protection and is where muscles attach to cause movement This crab has a particularly strong exoskeleton. The claws are part of the exoskeleton and have strong muscles inside them
  3. 3. 2. many pairs of jointed legs or appendages (These can be modified for other functions) This Lobster is on its back: look at the paired legs which are made of segments joined together. The appendages at the back are used for swimming
  4. 4. 1. Class Insecta 2. Class Arachnida 3. Class Crustacea 4. Class Myriapoda
  5. 5. 3 pairs of jointed legs Two pairs of wings Spiracles for gaseous exchange Compound eyes Head thorax abdomen Three body segments Pair of segmented antennae
  6. 6. Piercing and sucking Biting and chewing sucking Secreting saliva and lapping up liquid
  7. 7. Can you see the Insect features on these insects? What features are common to all Arthropods? Most insects live on land. They have a water proof cuticle to prevent them drying out.
  8. 8. This group includes Spiders, Scorpions and Ticks
  9. 9. Arachnids have: Four pairs of jointed legs Pedipalps that are sensory organs Chelicerae or fangs that contain poison to kill prey All arachnids are carnivores abdomen Head and thorax form a cephalothorax
  10. 10. Spiders also have : Spinnerets that make silk for a web 8 eyes on the head Can you see the other features? Now label the diagram in your notes
  11. 11. Most crustaceans live in an aquatic environment (in water) So they have gills for gaseous exchange and are adapted for swimming
  12. 12. Crustaceans have: More than 4 pairs of jointed legs Two pairs of antennae Note how these have one pair facing forward and the other backwards
  13. 13. Notice how the appendages are adapted for different functions. The cephalothorax is covered in a carapace
  14. 14. Make a large labelled drawing of this Shrimp in your exercise book
  15. 15. This group includes centipedes and millipedes They all live on land, usually hiding in dark, damp places
  16. 16. They all have elongated bodies with many segments There is at least one pair of jointed legs on each segment And they have a pair of antennae on the head
  17. 17. Centipedes have one pair of legs per segment and flattened bodies. They are all carnivores. Millipedes are round with 2 pairs of legs on each segment. They are herbivores. Most feed on detritus or dead plant matter
  18. 18. This Phylum is also called the vertebrates The animals in this group have an internal skeleton with a backbone (vertebral column) that protects the spinal chord There are 5 classes. Can you name them?
  19. 19. Class Pisces (Fish) Class Amphibia Class Reptilia Class Aves (Birds) Class Mammalia
  20. 20. Fish are divided into Cartilaginous Fish (sharks and rays)  and Bony Fish
  21. 21. Cartilaginous fish have a skeleton of cartilage. Their gills are open and the mouth is underneath (ventral) If you rub a shark’s skin you will find it is made of rough scales Sharks are excellent predators. Note the teeth and stream-line body They also have excellent “smell”
  22. 22. Bony Fish have a skeleton made of bone The operculum covers the gills and helps move water over the gills for gaseous exchange They have a lateral line which detects pressure changes so is used to interpret speed and direction Fins are used to alter direction The skin is covered in scales
  23. 23. You should know the names of these fins
  24. 24. Roll is controlled by the median fins: dorsal and pelvic Yaw is controlled by the median fins – dorsal, pelvic and the caudal fin Pitch is controlled by the paired fins, particularly the pelvic fins The caudal fin brings about propulsion when it moves sideways
  25. 25. Frogs and toads Salamanders and newts
  26. 26. Amphibians must spend some of their life cycle in water Aquatic species have gills but those that move onto land have to have lungs and a mucus layer over the skin to prevent drying The limbs are adapted for walking or hopping on land or for swimming, and sometimes for both!
  27. 27. Note the features on this frog
  28. 28. Can you identify the stages in the life cycle of a frog? Note only the adult frog lives on land
  29. 29. turtles, terrapins, tortoises, lizards, snakes, crocodiles and alligators
  30. 30.  Most reptiles live on land and lay their eggs in dry soil  The eggs have a leathery waterproof shell – remember in amphibians the eggs were in a jelly-like substance in water.
  31. 31.  To prevent them drying out Reptiles have scales made of Keratin  They have good hearing and smell. The tongue can also be used to pick up molecules in the air and detect or smell them
  32. 32. Birds are homeothermic which means they keep their body temperature constant All the animals we have seen so far are poikilothermic, this means their body temperature is the same as the environment
  33. 33. To insulate the body birds are covered in feathers made of keratin Some feathers are soft and used for insulation but others are firm and used for flight The feet have no feathers but have scales like a reptile You should know the parts of a feather
  34. 34. All birds have beaks: note how different they are. Can you work out what these birds eat?
  35. 35. Colour is used for recognition and camouflage We will look at this in more detail in class
  36. 36. Birds lay their eggs in a nest and some have excellent parental care. Some young hatch with no feathers and need to be well looked after, others are more developed and can feed themselves
  37. 37. Be familiar with the main parts of a bird
  38. 38. We are mammals Mammals give birth to live young This means fertilisation and implantation are internal The placenta is an adaptation for internal development Nutrients go through this The umbilical cord carries the nutrients
  39. 39. The young suckle – that is they feed on milk made in the mother’s mammary glands until they are ready to eat on their own
  40. 40.  Mammals are homoeothermic and are insulated with hair over the body  Hair can form whiskers which are sensory features  Some aquatic mammals have lost their hair, others have extra hair with oil on it to make the water run off
  41. 41. Mammals are the only animals with external ears They can help determine where sound is coming from They can also show aggression or submission In elephants the ears are used to help cool the body
  42. 42. Mammals can live in: Water- dolphins have lost their hair but have all other mammal features Land – this Oryx needs very little water Air - can you see the ears and fur on this bat? The wings are webs between the “fingers”